|When two men in business always agree, one of them is unnecessary. - Anonymous|
No. 107, 8 June 1994
RUSSIA US PLANE FORCED TO LAND IN RUSSIA. An American L-100 cargo aircraft (the civilian equivalent of the C-130 military transport) chartered by the US State Department was forced to land near Sochi by Russian fighters after it reportedly violated Russian air space, according to Western press reports. The aircraft was later allowed to continue on its flight to Tbilisi, to which it was reportedly carrying embassy supplies and diplomatic pouches containing classified materials. Confusion initially surrounded the incident as US officials at first denied that the flight was sponsored by the US government, and then acknowledged it. The Russian Foreign Ministry gave a note to US Ambassador Thomas Pickering stating that the aircraft did not have clearance to fly over Russia (a charge rejected by the flight crew) and called for "disciplinary measures" to be taken against the crew. The note also called for measures to be taken to prevent similar "dangerous incidents" in the future, according to ITAR-TASS. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. DEFENSE BUDGET BATTLES CONTINUE. The battle over the Russian defense budget continued to rage on several fronts on 7 June according to ITAR-TASS and Interfax reports. The Federation Council, representing regional interests, issued a statement noting that up to 8 million jobs depended on the defense budget, and urged the Duma to support the Council's call for an 18 trillion ruble increase. In the Duma, however, the Committtee on Budget and Taxation called for only a 3.5 trillion ruble increase. The Duma's committee on defense (which is sympathetic to the russian military's call for more money) held hearings the same day in which defense ministry officials described the military as chronically underfunded and unable to meet its debts to servicemen or the defense industry. In contrast, Ministry of Finance officials told the same committee that they might even favor cutbacks in some areas, such as salary and even housing programs. Finally, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev weighed in with an interview in Trud, rebutting claims that military reform has stalled, and stating that the military was on a "starvation diet." John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. BONN: CONCERN OVER INTENTIONS OF RUSSIAN MILITARY. Quoting unnamed government sources in Bonn, Reuters on 7 June reported that German officials are concerned that senior Russian military officers may be trying to exert influence over states formerly part of the USSR and that Russian intervention in regional conflicts could set an undesirable precedent for Russia to play a special role in the collapsed empire. "Russia must be prevented from operating without an international mandate," one source was quoted as saying, "there are ambitions in military circles to use the CIS for [Russia's] own ends." The same sources suggested that Western states were themselves divided over whether to intervene with peacekeepers in CIS conflicts, but they emphasized that "all Russian military measures for keeping or imposing peace should be carried out with utmost transparency . . . with the help of UN or CSCE observers. They rejected Russian proposals to subordinate NATO to the CSCE and to turn the CIS into a UN regional organization. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. HIDDEN DEFENSE EXPENDITURES? Rossiiskaya gazeta of 7 June carries a commentary alleging that much of the current debate over Russia's proposed level of defense spending is misleading because the state budget carries numerous other defense-related expenditures that are not being counted as such. Charging that Russia remains on a "war-time budget," the article alleges that, with the inclusion of expenditures for Internal Affairs Ministry, Border, and other special forces, as well as other hidden expenses, actual defense spending in the budget amounts to some 80 trillion rubles. Current debate in the parliament has involved raising the proposed budget from 37 trillion rubles to up to 55 trillion rubles. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA MOSCOW CRITICIZES ANGLO-AZERBAIJANI CASPIAN AGREEMENT. The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has lodged a protest with the British Embassy in Moscow over the signing of a British-Azerbaijani memorandum on cooperation in prospecting for oil and gas in "the so-called Azerbaijani sector of the Caspian Sea", according to ITAR-TASS of 7 June quoting Izvestiya. Speaking at a press briefing in Moscow, Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin stated that Moscow does not recognize unilateral actions by Caspian littoral states outside the framework of an appropriate agreement, given the possible dangers to the Caspian eco-system; he hoped that such an agreement outlining the mechanisms for cooperation could be concluded soon, Interfax reported. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CONFUSION OVER THE PEACEKEEPERS FOR ABKHAZIA . . . A top-ranking Russian military official told Interfax on 7 June that claims that Russian peacekeeping troops were already being deployed in Abkhazia were untrue, and that Russian President Boris Yeltsin had given no instructions to the Defense Ministry to proceed with the deployment--a formulation that ignores the fact that the Russian parliament must (theoretically) give its consent also. A spokesman for the Abkhaz Supreme Soviet told ITAR-TASS on 7 June that there were no UN or CIS peacekeeping troops in Abkhazia. The head of the Georgian Interior Ministry troops told Interfax that the first stage of the disengagement of forces in the Abkhaz conflict zone could begin "within five days" and that contingents from almost all CIS states will take part; it has already been decided where the Russian contingent is to be deployed. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . AND FOR NAGORNO-KARABAKH. The Grachev plan for a Karabakh ceasefire which envisaged deployment of an overwhelmingly Russian monitoring force has been amended, and Russian troops will now constitute only one third of the CIS contingent, Interfax reported on 7 June quoting unnamed sources close to the Azerbaijani leadership. The Russian troops will remain in Azerbaijan for no longer than six months. This agreement was reportedly reached during talks on 4 June in Baku between Azerbaijani Foreign Minister Hasan Hasanov and Russian special mediator for Karabakh, Vladimir Kazimirov. Britain has also offered to provide a contingent of troops to participate in the ceasefire monitoring under the auspices of the CSCE, according to ITAR-TASS of 7 June quoting the British Ambassador in Baku, Thomas Young. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV TO TRANSCAUCASUS. On 8 June Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev began a four-day visit to the Transcaucasus republics where he is expected to discuss the establishment of Russian military bases in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. According to Interfax, Defense Ministry spokesperson Elena Agapova said that Russia planned to establish three such bases in Georgia, two in Armenia, and an early warning radar facility in Azerbaijan. (ITAR-TASS mentioned only one base in Armenia) It is believed that the new bases will be established on the basis of existing Russian facilities. Grachev, who will meet with the leaders of each of the Transcaucasus republics, is also scheduled to visit Abkhazia and Adzharia, according to ITAR-TASS. Talks during his trip will also deal with Russian peacekeeping activities in Nagorno Karabakh and Abkhazia. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA PRESSING TRANSCAUCASUS REPUBLICS FOR CFE CHANGES. Reuters reported from Brussels on 7 June that Moscow is pressuring Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan to renegotiate a CFE-related (Conventional Forces in Europe) sharing-out agreement in a way that would permit Russia to base more military hardware in the Caucasus region without violating the CFE Treaty. Russia, which has unsuccessfully tried to win NATO approval for a raising of Russian sub-limits in the region, apparently wants to increase its proportion of forces in the region at the expense of the three Transcaucasus republics. NATO sources were quoted as saying that Azerbaijan had rejected the Russian request, that Armenia's position was unclear, and that Georgia might have little choice but to agree. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN OFFICIAL ON TAJIK SITUATION. Russia's Deputy Defense Minister Georgii Kondratev on 6 June blamed hard-line foes of the Tajik government for the killings of Russian officers, and asserted that the opposition is preparing for major military strikes along the Afghan-Tajik border, as well as within Tajikistan. Interfax also quoted him as saying that Russia's 201st motorized infantry division (concentrated in and around Dushanbe) and the Russian border guards in Tajikistan are capable of stopping opposition military activity, both within Tajikistan and along its borders. The re-marks are likely to fuel Tajik opposition complaints that Russia's role is not that of a neutral arbitrator, but that of protector of the pro-Communist government. The same day, Tajikistan's deputy security minister told Interfax that military patrols which began after the recent killings had significantly improved the security situation in Dushanbe. Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS "DNIESTER REPUBLIC" FOR A GREATER RUSSIA. Interviewed in the Moscow nationalist weekly Patriot, no. 20/1994, "Dniester Republic" Supreme Soviet Chairman Grigorii Marakutsa said that Transdniester was "an inalienable part of the Russian state's southern region, [which] also includes Crimea, Odessa Oblast, and a number of other [Ukrainian] oblasts, [and is] known as Novorossia." Terming it "ancestral Russian land," Marakutsa further claimed that "the great majority of the Dniester people gravitate toward Russia . . . The Dniester republic's sovereignty is obviously not an obstacle to its accession to Greater Russia . . . We are realists and understand that the matter is not to be settled today." [Russians form 25.5% of Transdniester's population and are mostly nonnative there.] Tiraspol's would-be foreign minister, Valerii Litskay, told Basapress on 4 June that the "Dniester" authorities maintain "working-level contacts with Crimea's leaders." Tiraspol apparently feels encouraged by developments in nearby Crimea to reaffirm its sympathy for the "Novorossia" idea which envisages carving a Russia-oriented state out of southern and eastern Ukraine and Transdniester. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE BLACK SEA FLEET NEGOTIATIONS. On 7 June ITAR-TASS reported that a Russian delegation is scheduled to arrive in Kiev on 8 June to continue Black Sea Fleet negotiations. The delegation is to be led by the top fleet negotiator, Yurii Dubinin, and will include the commander of the Russian navy, Admiral Feliks Gromov. Agreement on the division of the fleet itself was reached in April, but the issue of naval bases remains to be resolved. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE KARADZIC ACCEPTS TEMPORARY CEASEFIRE. On 7 and 8 May international media reported that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has accepted proposals for a four-month ceasefire. Karadzic, who is currently at Geneva talks attended also by Bosnian Muslim and Croat leaders, had earlier insisted on a permanent ceasfire. Meanwhile, Bosnian Muslim and Croat leaders continue to express reservations about the four-month ceasefire, suggesting that such a relatively lengthy period of time would offer Bosnian Serb forces the opportunity to consolidate their hold over the roughly 70% of Bosnia and Herzegovina they now control. Talks are scheduled to resume 8 June, and within days may be moved to a location in Bosnia. In other news, agencies report renewed fighting throughout northern Bosnia and other locations. On 7 June Reuters reported exchange of fire between Serb and Muslim troops near Gorazde. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. KUCAN IN ZAGREB. On 7 June HINA reported that Slovenian President Milan Kucan had arrived in Zagreb for meetings with his Croatian counterpart, Franjo Tudjman. It was the first meeting between the two leaders in about twenty months, and Kucan described the dialog as "open" and "tough." Uppermost on the agenda was discussion concerning what is seen by Kucan and Tudjman as the threat of Italian irredentism with regard to the Istrian peninsula, shared by Slovenia and Croatia. Following their meeting, Tudjman indicated that he and Kucan had not found solutions to the territorial and economic disputes between Slovenia and Croatia, but that some common ground had been forged towards a common position on what is viewed as a potential threat from Italian foreign policy. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. ZAGREB, KNIN AGREE TO TALKS. On 7 June DPA reported that Croatia and leaders from the breakaway Republic of Serbian Krajina have agreed to hold a round of talks in the Serb-controlled town of Plitvice, on 16 and 17 June, aimed at improving bilateral economic relations. Earlier, in March of 1994, Croatian authorities and rebel Serbs in the RSK had agreed to a ceasefire deal, which has held. Following talks on economic relations, representatives from Zagreb and the RSK capital, Knin, may move to the next level of negotiations which are expected to center on Krajina's political status. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. MIHAJLOVIC DEFENDS SUPPORT FOR SPS. On 8 June Borba interviewed the leader of New Democracy, Dusan Mihajlovic. New Democracy, which campaigned in the Serbian parliamentary elections of December 1993 along with Vuk Draskovic and the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DEPOS), holds six seats in the Serbian legislature and broke from DEPOS to support the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS), which holds 123 seats in the 250-seat legislature. In defending the decision to support an SPS government, Mihajlovic stressed that a party's effectiveness improves immeasurably when it moves out of opposition. Showing no remorse about leaving Draskovic's coalition, Mihajloivc observed that "Time will show the magnitude of the mistakes and lost chances that Draskovic and [opposition Democratic Party leader Zoran] Djindjic had." Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH ECONOMIC DATA. The Czech government's report on economic developments in the first quarter of 1994 indicates that at the end of March the country had the budget surplus of some 4 billion koruny. Consumer prices rose by 2.4% in the first three months and the unemployment rate stood at 3.5% in March and at 3.3% in April. The country's GDP rose by .5%-2.0% during the first three months in comparison with the same period of 1993; direct foreign investment reached $200 million. The country had a trade deficit of 2.1 billion koruny at the end of March, despite the fact that export to developed countries rose by 9% in comparison with the first three months of 1993. The overall deficit was due mainly to a sharp decrease of exports to Slovakia. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PARLIAMENT ON ELECTIONS, TELEVISION. In its session on 7 June the Slovak parliament approved an amendment to the law on parliamentary elections, TASR reports. Slovak citizens older than 18 have the right to vote if they are present in any election district during the election period. According to the previous law, only citizens with permanent residence in Slovakia could vote. The amendment also deals with election procedures, requiring all voters to verify their state citizenship with their ID cards or passports before they can vote. Voters will receive their ballots at the site of elections, and mayors of all towns and villages are required to deliver information concerning lists of candidates to voters at least three days before the elections. Of 122 deputies present, 69 approved the law, 51 voted against and 2 abstained. Elections will be held on 30 September and 1 October. Concerning Slovak television, the parliament rejected for the second time a private candidate to take over the second Slovak station, STV 2. The Board for Television and Radio Broadcasting proposed ESPE as the candidate for the license earlier this year, after the parliament rejected its first choice, CTV. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAKS HAVE MIXED ATTITUDES TOWARDS NATO. According to an opinion poll conducted by the Slovak Statistical Office from 2 to 10 May, 49% of respondents agreed that Slovakia's membership in NATO will be necessary, TASR reported on 7 June. Of these, 15% regarded Slovakia's application to join NATO as absolutely necessary, and 34% said it was likely to be necessary. On the reverse side, 18% said that membership in NATO would be unnecessary, and 11% said it would be absolutely unnecessary. (Men tended to be more negative towards NATO than were women.) Another 22% were undecided. Concerning the influence of incorporation into NATO on Slovakia's defense ability, 37% said they expected it to improve, with more support coming from respondents with higher education levels. Meanwhile, 28% said they did not expect any change, 4% said they expected a deterioration, and approximately one third of respondents were undecided. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. COALITION TALKS BEGIN IN HUNGARY. The Hungarian Socialist Party, the former reform communists, and the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats concluded their first round of talks on 7 June, MTI reports. The talks focused on the structure of the new government and will deal with personnel questions only after agreement had been reached on institutional matters. The two parties entrusted 10 committees with working out the details of the coalition agreement. The committees deal with, among others, economic, agricultural, cultural, media, minority, and environmental issues. AFD chairman Ivan Peto called the talks "extremely encouraging and effective," while HSP chairman Gyula Horn stressed the talks had been "constructive and open." Horn expressed the hope that the coalition agreement would be signed by 24 June so that the two parties' congresses could approve it before the new parliament convenes on 28 June. The next round of talks is expected to take place on 9 June. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH POLICE TO GET NEW POWERS. The government approved a package of draft legislation on 7 June that would significantly expand the powers of the police in the battle with organized crime and corruption, PAP reports. President Lech Walesa attended the cabinet session, apparently to underline his constitutional prerogative to supervise domestic security. The new measures would expand the list of crimes for which the police may request permission to monitor telephone conversations and correspondence. At present, wiretapping is allowed only in cases of murder and crimes covered by international agreements, such as terrorism or kidnapping. The government also proposed legalizing "sting" operations, with the proviso that police functionaries may not take the initiative themselves, for example by offering a bribe or the sale of narcotics. Internal Affairs Minister Andrzej Milczanowski stressed that the use of the new measures would be carefully controlled; electronic eavesdropping would still require the approval of the chief prosecutor (ex officio the justice minister). Milczanowski said that the government had not proposed creating the institution of "state's witness" because of objections from the justice ministry. He added that the government will ask the Sejm to authorize the internal affairs minister to provide the courts with files on secret police informers in murder or manslaughter cases. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND'S DEFENSE REFORM DELAYED. The National Defense Committee (KOK) convened 7 June but was apparently unable to reach agreement on constitutional authority over the chief of the General Staff, PAP reports. President Lech Walesa wants the office subordinated directly to him, while the government would like it to come under the defense minister's supervision. The cabinet was set to approve a military reform package including the government's formula on 24 May. On Walesa's insistence, however, it put off any final action to allow KOK to discuss the matter. Defense Minister Piotr Kolodziejczyk's only comment after the KOK session was, "The execution has been postponed." Walesa's national security adviser Jerzy Milewski said that KOK "may" meet to continue discussion on 20 June. The members of KOK are: the president; the prime minister; the Sejm and Senate speakers; the ministers of finance, defense, foreign affairs, and internal affairs; the General Staff chief; and two officials from the president's office. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH COURT UPHOLDS "CHRISTIAN VALUES." Poland's Constitutional Tribunal ruled on 7 June that the clause in the law on public broadcasting requiring radio and TV programming to "respect viewers' religious feelings" and "respect Christian values" does not violate constitutional guarantees of freedom of religion and speech. The provision was questioned by 89 left-wing deputies who argued that world view questions should not be the subject of legal prescriptions. In its ruling, the tribunal stressed that the clause should not be understood as a directive to propagate Christian values. It criticized the wording of the law as ambiguous but argued that it was constitutional. The law was adopted in December 1992. The "Christian values" clause was included at the urging of deputies from the Christian National Union, which is no longer represented in the parliament. PAP reports that the Sejm leadership had difficulty in finding a deputy who would agree to appear before the tribunal to defend the contested clause. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. LABOR CAMP TRIAL RESUMES IN BULGARIA. After a one-year delay due to the death of a key defendant, ex-Deputy Interior Minister Mircho Spasov, the trial against three former guards at Bulgarian labor camps operating between 1959 and 1962 resumed on 7 June. Agencies report that Prosecutor General Ivan Tatarchev personally attended the session of the military court to read out the accusations that Nikolay Gazdov, Yuliyana Razhgeva and Petar Gogov--former chief of the notorious Lovech camp--had killed 14 inmates for having committed minor offenses such as telling anti-Communist jokes. Tatarchev asked the court to convict the three to 20 years imprisonment and rejected the argument of the defense that the statute of limitations had run out, noting that the crimes were kept secret until 1990. In line with previous rulings, the court postponed a final decision on the statute of limitations and said it would first establish if the accused had committed the crimes. It is estimated that 147 prisoners died while serving sentences in the inhuman Lovech and Skravena labor camps. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIA, PLO SIGN ECONOMIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT. On 7 June Romania and the Palestine Liberation Organization signed in Bucharest an agreement on rebuilding infrastructure in the areas of limited Palestinian self-rule, Radio Bucharest reports. The agreement was signed by Farouk Kaddoumi, head of the PLO's political department, and Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu. The accord provides for the building of a cement factory and a training program for Palestinian workers. It also envisages cooperation in highways, ports and airports in the Gaza strip and Jericho area. Melescanu said the projects will depend on international financial aid, including a $2.4 billion loan from the World Bank. Romania further offered fifty scholarships for Palestinians students in Romania specializing in economy and other fields. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVA SCRAPS ROMANIAN ANTHEM. Over the pro-Romanian minority's protests, the Moldovan parliament voted overwhelmingly on 7 June to scrap the anthem, "Awake ye Romanian," which hitherto served as Moldova's state anthem and is also Romania's national anthem. Agrarian deputies in the previous parliament, unaware of the anthem's text, had been rushed by Popular Front deputies into voting for it in the chaotic circumstances of August 1991 and were later unable to reverse the measure; but President Mircea Snegur never signed it into law. In the debate on 7 June 1994, the Agrarian majority's deputies argued that Moldova must not be confused with Romania and needs to express its distinct national identity. They were joined by the ethnic Ukrainian and Russian deputies in adopting the traditional Moldovan song "Our Language" as a provisional anthem, pending a competition for a final choice for which "Our Language" will also be entered. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. SWEDISH PREMIER IN ESTONIA. On 7 June Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar welcomed his Swedish counterpart, Carl Bildt, in Korgessaar on the island of Hiiumaa, where a new water purification installation will be built with Swedish assistance, BNS reports. Their talks centered on the deadlock in the negotiations on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia. On 8 June Bildt will visit Tallinn and tour Paldiski where two nuclear reactors at the Russian submarine base are to be dismantled. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN TALKS WITH LITHUANIA AND ESTONIA. On 7 June Viktor Isakov, the head of the Russian delegation negotiating with Lithuania, began two days of talks with his Lithuanian counterpart Virgilijus Bulovas, Radio Lithuania reports. Lithuania is reluctant to sign a special agreement on transit to and from Kaliningrad which Russia is demanding as a condition for ratifying the most favored nation trade agreement signed in November 1993. The talks also discussed the opening of three international customs posts and several posts for only Russian and Lithuanian citizens. Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin arrived in Tallinn for two days of talks with his Estonian counterpart Raul Malk. Their talks will focus on the withdrawal of Russian troops and the rights of Russian military retirees. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN-LITHUANIAN PREMIERS MEET IN JURMALA. In an interview on Radio Lithuania on 8 June Adolfas Slezevicius described his meeting with Valdis Birkavs the previous day as very useful in discussing mutual relations and preparing for the meeting of the three Baltic premiers in Tallinn on 13 June. Slezevicius noted that some progress was made in determining the Lithuanian-Latvian sea border, but the matter will be discussed further by groups of experts. The long delays in crossing the Lithuanian-Latvian land border were also mentioned as needing resolution. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. POLL DATA SHOWS CONSERVATIVE LEAD IN BELARUSIAN PRESIDENTIAL RACE. Results from a Belarus-wide opinion survey in April showed that of the four leading candidates for president, Alyaksandr Lukashenka held the lead, with 25% of respondents saying they would vote for him. Vyacheslau Kebich, the conservative prime minister, was in second place, with 16%; Stanislau Shushkevich was preferred by just 11%; while Popular Front leader Zyanon Paznyak polled a scant 6 percent. Lukashenka is a procommunist deputy in parliament who represents the interests of the state farm apparatus. When cross-tabulated with other opinion questions, respondents who said they would vote for either Lukashenka or Kebich proved to be considerably more anti-market, anti-Western, and pro-Russian than Shushkevich and Paznyak supporters. The survey was based on a representative sample of 2,030 and conducted by the Minsk-based NOVAK organization. Kathleen Mihalisko, RFE/RL, Inc. CRIMEAN PARLIAMENT REJECTS UKRAINIAN ACCORD. The Crimean parliament has refused to approve the 3 June agreement with Ukraine, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported on 7 June. The agreement was meant to resolve the tensions which arose after the Crimean parliament had voted to restore the 1992 constitution. Under its terms the Ukrainian constitution was given precedence over Crimean laws and affirmed that Crimea was a part of Ukraine. Serhii Nikulyn, head of the parliamentary group that signed the agreement, said that the document was agreed on in order to avoid forceful confrontation and that it did not include any binding commitments. Nonetheless, the parliament decided to form a new commission for further negotiations with Ukraine. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Jan de Weydenthal The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. 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