|Druzhba samoe neobhodimoe dlya zhizni, tak kak nikto ne pozhelaet sebe zhizni bez druzej, dazhe esli b on imel vse ostal'nye blaga. - Aristotel'|
No. 96, 20 May 1994
RUSSIA ARMS TRADE TO BE DECENTRALIZED? At what Interfax described as a "government meeting"--presumably the regular weekly cabinet meeting--on 19 May, First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets urged the liberalization of arms exports. He cited one factory in Udmurtiya that had stockpiled automatic weapons worth $200 million but was unable to export these because of bureaucratic delays in Moscow and was on the verge of going bankrupt. The cabinet passed a resolution granting defense plants the right to export military hardware produced in excess of government procurement orders and to seek foreign business partners independently. This move would appear to signal the end of the arms export monopoly granted to Rosvooruzheniye, which was created earlier this year (see Izvestiya, 19 February 1994). Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. RENEWED PRESSURE TO BOOST DEFENSE EXPENDITURE. The chairman of the State Duma's Defense Committee, Sergei Yushenkov, told a news conference on 19 May that he will urge legislators to reconsider the draft budget for 1994 and to increase projected defense expenditure from 37.1 trillion to 55 trillion rubles, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. Yushenkov echoed the assertions made by several defense lobbyists to the effect that anything less than 55 trillion rubles would bring about the disintegration of the armed forces: the initial bid by the Ministry of Defense had been 87 trillion rubles [i.e., about 14 percent of anticipated GDP]. First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin supported the move by declaring that over 60 percent of the defense budget is earmarked for such social expenditures as pay, housing, and the withdrawal of troops from abroad. Presidential spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov reiterated Yeltsin's support in principle for an "adequate" defense budget without specifying where the money would come from, and accused some legislators of "political gambling" in orchestrating a collision course between the president and the military-industrial complex. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. JOINT RUSSIAN-US EXERCISES PUT ON HOLD? Moscow Radio's "Ekho Moskvy" reported on 19 May that the Russian Defense Ministry has halted its preparations for joint Russian-US exercises that had been planned for July in Russia's Orenburg region. The report, which has not been confirmed by other sources, said that fresh talks with US military leaders would be held in June. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. GROUND FORCES COMMANDER ON MANNING PROBLEMS, OTHER ISSUES. According to Interfax, Russian Ground Forces Commander in Chief Col. Gen. Vladimir Semenov told reporters on 19 May that officers are continuing to leave the army and that his service, which currently has only 80% of the officers it needs, faces an especially acute shortage of junior officers (some 17,000). Overall, the general said, the Ground Forces are undermanned by 550,000, and have managed to recruit only 55% of the needed number of contract soldiers and sergeants, with the percentage falling to 30-35% in the Far East. Semenov said that by 1 January 1995 the army should number at least 1.9 million (most current estimates put the number below 1.5 million); he said that 21,000 troops would be stationed at Russian military bases in other CIS states. On other issues, Semenov said that the "Black Sea Fleet was created by Russia and belongs to Russia;" that he has mixed feelings about participation in the NATO Partnership for Peace Program, but that he favored conduct of the joint Russian-US exercises scheduled for July. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RUTSKOI QUESTIONED BY PROSECUTOR. Former Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi was questioned on 19 May in the Russian Prosecutor's Office about a speech he made in Moscow on 9 May. He told an opposition rally marking the victory over Nazi Germany that "Yeltsin's regime" would be finished within a year. Various government officials called on the prosecutor's office to look into Rutskoi's speech, since the Russian Constitution forbids calls for the overthrow of the existing government. After the meeting with a prosecutor, Rutskoi told journalists that he meant in his speech that Yeltsin's government should be changed through "constitutional means," rather than overthrown by force, AFP reported. The agency quoted Rutskoi as saying, "I did not violate the constitution, which guarantees each Russian citizen freedom of ideas and expression." Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN REJECTS SHAKHRAI'S RESIGNATION. Boris Yeltsin has rejected the resignation of Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai. Presidential spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov told journalists that Yeltsin wants Shakhrai to continue to work as Deputy Prime Minister and coordinate several policy areas, Ostankino TV reported on 19 May. On the previous day Yeltsin had charged that Shakhrai's accumulation of so many positions "sometimes does not correspond with Russia's national interests." Kostikov also stated that Yeltsin had a six-hour discussion with Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin on government policy and economic reform and that Yeltsin criticized some aspects of Chernomyrdin's policy. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. AIRCREW STRIKE SUSPENDED. An official of the civilian aviation aircrew union told Interfax on 19 May that the strike committee had decided to postpone the strike until 2 June, pending further negotiations with the government. On the same day, a Moscow court ruled that the aircrew strike was illegal, as it violated a law on work disputes that bans transportation strikes. The court issued an order against further industrial action by the aircrews, but the presiding judge added that the union could appeal to the Supreme court within ten days. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA KARABAKH MEDIATION UPDATE. After lengthy talks with Azerbaijani President Heidar Aliev in Baku on 18 May, Azerbaijani Defense Minister Mamedrafi Mamedov returned to Moscow on 19 May to clarify details of Russia's proposed Karabakh peace plan with Russian deputy defense minister Georgii Kondratev, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. Interfax quoted Kondratev as stating that Azerbaijan will sign the ceasefire protocol providing that it is linked to signing a political agreement on a settlement of the conflict and amended to provide for the return of occupied territories. Meanwhile representatives of more than 20 opposition parties in Azerbaijan have rejected the deployment of any foreign peacekeeping troops, whether Russian or CIS, in Azerbaijan, Reuters reported. Also on 19 May, a US State Department spokesman and Turkish President Suleyman Demirel expressed support for the rival CSCE Karabakh peace proposal, ITAR-TASS reported. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. KARIMOV AND NAZARBAEV GIVE UP ON EURASIAN UNION. According to Ostankino TV on 18 May, Uzbekistan's President Islam Karimov told a press conference in Tokyo that he and Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev have agreed that Nazarbaev's proposal for a Eurasian Union should be withdrawn from discussion by CIS heads of state. The two presidents considered that since integration within the CIS has proved impossible, the idea of a new union is nothing more than a "premature slogan." Karimov was also quoted as saying that Uzbekistan is not prepared to join the NATO Partnership-for-Peace program. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. PROMINENT JOURNALIST KILLED IN DUSHANBE. Khushvakht Khaidarsho, responsible secretary of the important Tajik daily Dzhumkhuriat, was shot to death near his home on 19 May, ITAR-TASS reported. This is the latest in a series of murders of prominent persons in the Tajik capital: on 17 May a cameraman for Tajik TV was killed near his home, and the following day the director of a Tajik-US joint venture, Vladimir Nirman, was shot to death in his garage. Nirman had been briefly an advisor to Tajikistan's former prime minister, Abdulatip Abdullodzhanov. ITAR-TASS suggested that Khaidarsho may have been killed because he published attacks on the "criminal and political mafia." Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS MORE CIS COORDINATION. A new coordinating body is being created to organize Russia's stance toward work in CIS consultative organizations. The new body, which will hold its first meeting in June, is to be part of Russia's Ministry for Cooperation with the CIS, a ministry created in January 1994. (According to Interfax of 19 May, the Ministry is headed by Vladimir Mashchits, not by Economics Minister Aleksandr Shokhin, who had initially been charged with running it.) The task of the new body will be to implement the economic strategy of Russia towards the CIS states. Its members will include, among others, representatives of the Central Bank of Russia and the directors of large Russian state-owned and private companies. The body will also serve in an advisory capacity to the Russian government. The creation of this new body will deepen Russia's policy commitment to greater integration of members of the CIS, a goal that Russian President Boris Yeltsin and other Russian officials have highlighted with increasing frequency over the last year. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVA SAID FACING RUSSIAN DEMANDS FOR BASING RIGHTS . . . Under the headline, "Russian Neoimperialism," Nezavisimaya gazeta of 18 May quotes "Dniester republic" sources privy to the Moldovan-Russian troop talks as reporting that the Russian side insists on obtaining basing rights for its 14th Army in Moldova. The Moscow daily also quotes that army's commander, Lt.-Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, as corroborating the report and recommending that "in order to persuade Chisinau of the necessity" of granting the basing rights, "it is not necessary to openly use force; economic measures are enough." Sources within the Russian delegation to the talks with Moldova expect that Moldova's "not particularly constructive" position may soon change, ITAR-TASS reported on 19 May. For the past two years the Russian side has intermittently and unofficially demanded basing rights which Moldova has refused. Both sides have refrained from public comment--Russia for international diplomatic reasons, Moldova to avoid domestic political repercussions and to conciliate Moscow in the perceived absence of international concern with the situation. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . AND PRE-PAYMENT FOR GAS. The management of Moldova's natural gas authority told the media on 17 and 19 May that Russia's state concern Gazprom has demanded pre-payment for gas deliveries, effective 1 June. Moldova currently owes Gazprom 258 billion rubles for past deliveries, but more than half of this amount is owed by consumers in Transdniester not under Chisinau's control. Gazprom has steadily increased the price of gas delivered to Moldova, which currently stands at 98% of the world price, the officials said. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. CORRECTION. In the item entitled "Military Budget a Blow to Grachev?" the RFE/RL Daily Report of 17 May incorrectly dated an article in the newspaper Kommersant-Daily. The article appeared on 14 May, and not on 14 March, as was reported. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CRIMEA ACCUSES UKRAINE OF ATTEMPTED COUP . . . Crimea's acting interior minister, Valerii Kuznetsov, accused the Ukrainian interior ministry of actions which amounted to a military coup in Crimea on 19 May, various agencies reported. Kuznetsov said Ukraine's first deputy interior minister, Valentyn Nedryhailo, arrived in Simferopol accompanied by spetsnaz units. Nedryhailo then attempted to deliver a directive of Ukraine's president, Leonid Kravchuk, which dismissed the leadership of the Crimean internal affairs ministry and subordinated the ministry to the Ukrainian president. ITAR-TASS reported that 1,000 special forces troops had been sent by Ukraine to Crimea and were concentrated around the Black Sea Fleet base of Sevastopol. The Crimean parliament reacted to the incident by voting to confirm Kuznetsov to the post of Crimea's interior minister. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . WHICH UKRAINE DENIES . . . Ukrainian officials refuted the reports that any coup had been attempted. Defense Ministry Spokesman Oleksander Kluban said the report of troop reinforcements being sent to Crimea is "another fantasy of the Black Sea Fleet press center . . . no forces were ever sent." Interior Ministry Spokesman Stanislav Kovtunenko said that only eight interior ministry officials had arrived in Crimea. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . WHILE CRIMEA IS TO PROCEED WITH VOTE ON CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT. The incident came on the heels of a decision by Crimea's parliament to postpone a vote to reinstate a 1992 constitutional amendment which stipulates that relations between Kiev and Crimea be governed by treaties until 20 May. The Ukrainian government views the amendment as a declaration of independence since it would allow dual citizenship and give Crimea the right to have its own military forces. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. SERB PAPER SLAMS GENERAL MLADIC OVER TUZLA LOSSES. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reports on 20 May that the Belgrade daily Vecernje Novosti has attacked the performance of the Bosnian Serb commander in unusually harsh terms. The paper has close links to the Bosnian Serb civilian leader, Radovan Karadzic. The issue was Serb losses to the Muslims in recent fighting around Hill 619 in the Tuzla area. Elsewhere, Denmark has protested to the UN over the latter's recent denial of permission for an air strike to support Danish troops under Serb fire at Tuzla airport. The Danish defense minister said that "when a Danish commander in the field asks for air support, he's not doing it just for fun. It must be given to him." Finally, the BBC reports that Croats and Muslims have worked out an agreement for the practical restoration of basic functions in Mostar. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CROATIAN PARLIAMENTARY CRISIS ENDS. Croatian Television reported on 18 and 19 May that a late-night compromise between the governing Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) and the opposition had been reached. The deal enables the speakers of both houses, who last month set up a new party, to stop blocking the convening of sessions and to leave their offices with honor. HDZ loyalists will take over the respective speaker posts in place of the outgoing Stipe Mesic and Josip Manolic, while opposition members will obtain two deputy speaker posts in each house. Other deputy jobs have been created for the HDZ, plus one in the lower house for a representative of the ethnic minorities. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. KOSOVO UPDATE. The Liberal Party has now followed the lead of the President of the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo, Ibrahim Rugova, in refusing the offer of political and cultural autonomy made by Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic. Party leader Gjergj Dedaj said that "there is no going back on the Albanians' demands," Rilindja reported on 18 May. Even though Rugova rejected Milosevic's move as not serious, he concluded after meeting with Albanian President Sali Berisha that negotiations with the Serbs must be resumed at some point, Koha Jone reported on 18 May. Elsewhere, Borba carried a report on 17 May, saying that Rugova's ministers in exile are widely criticized in Kosovo for their policy of "passive resistance" and even for the emigration of thousands of young Albanians, "who face the threat of assimilation" in Western Europe, but Borba gives no source for its allegations. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. SESELJ FACES CHARGES. On 20 May Borba continues its coverage of the 18 May incident in the rump Yugoslav federal parliament in which ultranationalist Serbian Radical Party leader Vojislav Seselj and several of his deputies nearly came to serious blows with Socialist Party of Serbia deputies and parliamentary security personnel. Borba says that Seselj continues his spirited defense of both his own violent actions and those of his deputies, while Tanjug reports that the Belgrade district attorney's office has charged Seselj and four of his deputies with violent conduct and attempting to provoke a brawl. If convicted, each could face a prison term of one year. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. MACEDONIAN CENSUS TO BE HELD IN JUNE. On 19 May, the Macedonian parliament voted in favor of conducting a national census AFP and MIC reported. The census is needed to establish the ethnic make-up of the state, now contested especially by the Albanian minority. Opposition deputies voted against the census because census questionnaires will be printed in the languages of national minorities as well as in Macedonian. They argue that this is unconstitutional and fear that the move may lead to the federalization of the country. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PREMIER VISITS SLOVENIA. On 19 May Slovak Premier Jozef Moravcik traveled to Ljubljana for a one-day official visit. Accompanied by Economics Minister Peter Magvasi as well as representatives of the Slovak business community, Moravcik met with his Slovenian counterpart Janez Drnovsek, President Milan Kucan and Foreign Minister Lojze Peterle. Discussions focused on the establishment of embassies in the respective countries and the development of economic relations. After the talks, Moravcik and Drnovsek noted that many bilateral agreements signed in recent months have already begun to show results. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. ZHIRINOVSKY'S VISIT TO SLOVAKIA POSTPONED. Vladimir Zhirinovsky, chairman of the Russian Liberal Democratic Party, has canceled his planned two-day private visit to Slovakia, which was to begin on 21 May, Reuters reported on 19 May. Although LDP representatives said the trip was called off "due to bribery allegations involving a faction in the party," TASR reported that the members of his entourage had not yet obtained their business passports and were also having problems reserving the necessary number of flight tickets from Moscow to Bratislava. Zhirinovsky was invited by Slovak businessman Ladislav Mojzis and by Jozef Lauko, who attended the LDP party congress in April. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARY'S FREE DEMOCRATS HOPE FOR BALANCED POLITICAL CULTURE. Gabor Kuncze, chairman of the Alliance of Free Democrats party which finished second in the first round of Hungary's general elections, said his party will have a popular mandate to enter into a coalition, should the share of votes of the leading Hungarian Socialist Party not exceed 50% after the second round. Also on 19 May, AFD campaign chairman Balint Magyar said the second round will decide whether Hungary will in the next four years enjoy a "balanced political culture" and a stable government in the framework of a "coalition of partners," or whether the HSP will gain an absolute majority in parliament. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN PARTY CONSENSUS ON EUROPEAN STABILITY CONFERENCE. A delegation headed by Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky, but without delegates from the opposition parties, will represent Hungary at the conference on European stability due to open next week in Paris, MTI and Magyar Hirlap reported on 19 May. The government, after asking for the views of the leaders of the Magyar minorities in Slovakia, Romania, and Serbia, will harmonize on 20 May its draft declaration of intent with the six parties represented in parliament in order to achieve a consensus on the document. All parties agree that the conference should promote European stability by dealing with both the borders and minority rights protection issues, with the Alliance of Young Democrats calling for the participation of minority organizations in the relevant bilateral and multilateral discussions. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN, CZECH COMMUNIST LEADERS MEET. Gyula Thurmer, chairman of Hungary's (communist) Workers' Party, met in Hungary with Miroslav Grebenicek, chairman of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, MTI reported on 19 May. Thurmer proposed the holding of a consultative meeting of the communist and workers' parties of Central and East Europe in 1995 in Budapest. Grebenicek welcomed the victory of the Hungarian Socialist Party in the first round of Hungary's general elections and said a strengthening of the left could also be expected in the Czech Republic's local government elections this fall. Grebenicek added that Czech government circles had greeted "with anxiety" the first round results of the Hungarian elections and refuted Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus' statement to the effect that the Czech Republic was the "only safe island" in Central Europe. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND, CZECH REPUBLIC SETTLE DEBT. Poland has agreed to repay its $57 million debt to the Czech Republic by the end of 1995 in the form of investments aimed at environmental protection in border regions, PAP reports. The agreement was reached on 19 May during a one-day visit to Warsaw by Czech Deputy Prime Minister and Agriculture Minister Josef Lux and Economics Minister Karel Dyba. Increasing mutual trade, which now stands at $800 million per year, was also discussed. The Czech side expressed concern at the Polish introduction of "equalizing payments" to protect domestic production from agricultural imports. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. WALESA BACKS CONCORDAT IN ROME. Polish President Lech Walesa met briefly with Pope John Paul II in a Rome hospital on 19 May before returning to Poland, PAP reports. Speaking to journalists afterward, Walesa said that "the Polish nation can only behave as a Christian nation, a nation of faith." He argued that parliamentary ratification of the concordat with the Vatican is overdue. Walesa also urged veterans and the Polish exile community to take part in ceremonies later this year marking the 50th anniversary of the Warsaw Uprising. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH WAGES RISE, UNEMPLOYMENT FALLS. Poland's Main Statistical Office reported on 17 May that industrial wages rose 1.9% in April, the first month without any wage controls in force. Though small, this increase alarmed some economists, as Polish wages generally decline in April. In the first quarter of 1994, wages rose 4.2% over the last quarter of 1993. Prices rose 2.9% in April, the highest monthly increase since December 1993. In a report issued on 19 May, the Central Planning Office noted that industrial growth remains high (10% above the first four months of 1993), enterprise finances continue to improve, and the trade deficit is dropping. Inflation remains at disturbing levels, however. The labor ministry reported on 19 May that unemployment dropped for the second month in a row, falling to 15.7% in April. This was attributed both to economic growth and public works projects, but a new flood of unemployed school graduates is expected in the summer. More than half the registered unemployed, or about 1.5 million people, have no right to benefits. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. UDF FAILS TO TOPPLE GOVERNMENT. For the sixth time in less than one year the opposition Union of Democratic Forces failed on 19 May to oust Prime Minister Lyuben Berov in a vote of no-confidence. While 96 lawmakers voted against the cabinet, and only 25 in favor, the result fell short of the 121 negative votes required to force Berov to resign. The ballot was secret, but since most deputies of the Bulgarian Socialist Party and the New Union for Democracy factions were absent, Otechestven vestnik notes that the predominantly Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms must have come out in Berov's support. Nevertheless, the bad showing demonstrates the present weakness of the government, which for several months has been under sharp criticism for different aspects of its economic policy from both opposition and supporting factions in parliament. Berov has since then been trying to drum up parliamentary backing for a revitalizing government reshuffle, though so far unsuccessfully. In Duma of 20 May, BSP leader Jean Videnov calls on the MRF and NUD to place their trust in Berov's capacity to reorganize the cabinet himself. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. ILIESCU SAYS RETURN TO COMMUNISM NOT POSSIBLE. At a rally in Oradea on 19 May, Romania's President Ion Iliescu said that a return to a communist regime in Romania was no longer possible. Rompres quoted him as saying that "the old totalitarian regime has been demolished," but that the "new situation" has created social tension. Iliescu, who is paying a working visit in north-west Romania, reiterated his appeal for dialogue and reconciliation as a means of overcoming the difficulties of the transition to a democratic society and a free market economy. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. COUNCIL OF EUROPE CRITICIZES ROMANIA. Romanian newspapers ran on 19 May the text of a report drafted by Friedrich Koenig and Gunnar Jannson from the Council of Europe on Romania's democratic progress. The report criticizes Romania over slow reforms and the failure to bring its policies on ethnic, religious and sexual minorities to European standards. It is particularly critical of the treatment of the Hungarian, Gypsy and other ethnic minorities, including curbs on mother-tongue tuition. Leading figures in the opposition described the criticism of the Council of Europe rapporteurs as well-founded. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIAN DEFENSE MINISTER TO BE REPLACED. Baltic media reported on 19 May that Prime Minister Mart Laar's decision to dismiss Defense Minister Indrek Kannik had received sufficient backing from the Pro Patria parliamentary faction and that the appointment of a new defense minister could be expected soon. Apparently a key factor in the dismissal was a personality clash between Laar and Kannik. The rumored resignation of five other ministers did not take place and Laar's cabinet may otherwise remain intact at least until after the Pro Patria party congress, scheduled for 11 June. Laar told the press that if he is not reelected chairman of the party, he would resign from the premiership. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. ALLEGATIONS OF LATVIAN POLITICIANS' COLLABORATION WITH KGB REJECTED. At a press conference on 18 May, spokesmen for Latvia's Prosecutor General's office and the Documentation Center of the Consequences of Totalitarianism rejected stories disseminated in the Russian press claiming that Latvia's President Karlis Ulmanis and three parliamentary deputies--Igors Bukovskis, Alfreds Cepanis and Odisejs Kostanda--had been KGB agents. Furthermore, on 19 May Ulmanis gave Russian ambassador Aleksandr Rannikh a letter by Latvian Prosecutor General for his Russian counterpart, protesting against the publication of the allegations and asking for an investigation of the matter. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. SWEDISH FOREIGN MINISTER ON RUSSIAN TROOPS, KALININGRAD. While visiting Kaliningrad on 19 May , Sweden's Foreign Minister Margaretha af Ugglas announced that her country was allocating funds for an international project to attract investments to the Kaliningrad region. Calling for the reduction of Russian military presence there, Ugglas depicted the Kaliningrad region as "an anomaly in the Baltic Sea region" because of the huge concentration of military forces there. Ugglas said that Sweden would also be prepared to support a program for Russian army officers to learn civilian professions. She described as "serious" the violation of Sweden's territorial waters by Russian submarines. On the previous day, while visiting Lithuania, Ugglas once again insisted on a complete withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia and Latvia, Interfax reported on 19 May. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. NOTICE The RFE/RL Daily Report will not appear Monday, 23 May 1994. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Vladimir Socor and Michael Shafir The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. 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