|Жизнь - то же самое, что играть в ресторане на скрипке, котрую впервые взял в руки. - С. Батлер|
No. 91, 13 May 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN IN GERMANY. Shortly after his arrival in Bonn on 11 May, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with German President Richard von Weizsaecker for a formal welcoming ceremony. Most of Yeltsin's time was occupied with meetings with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, during which a wide range of topics were discussed. On 12 May Yeltsin met with the head of the German Social Democratic Party (SPD), Rudolf Scharping, and the SPD's presidential candidate, Johannes Rau. Scharping was critical of Kohl's stance on the troop withdrawal issue, and stressed the importance of continued German support for Russian reforms, German media reported. The only formal agreement concluded at the summit was an agreement, signed by the Russian and German foreign ministers on 11 May, providing for the installation of a "hot-line" between the offices of the Russian president and German Chancellor. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN, KOHL AGREE ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL CEREMONY. Yeltsin and Kohl on 11 May announced that they had solved the symbolic, yet politically charged, problem of a farewell ceremony for the last contingent of Russian troops to leave Germany. Speaking at a joint news conference broadcast on Germany's N-TV, the two agreed that a ceremony marking the departure would be held in Berlin in late August, rather than Weimar as Kohl had originally proposed. (A "cultural event" will be held in Weimar at a later date.) This solution represents a compromise--it does not grant the Russian request for Russian troops to participate in a joint farewell ceremony with the Western allies in Berlin. Yeltsin did not call attention to this omission, however, and Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev stressed that the entire issue was resolved, according to an ITAR-TASS report of 12 May. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. NO AGREEMENT ON CULTURAL ARTIFACTS. Discussions on another controversial topics, namely the repatriation of cultural artifacts seized during and after World War II, appear to have been less successful. The two leaders agreed to increase the frequency of meetings of a bilateral committee established to resolve the problem (it has only met once), with the next meeting to be held before 15 June. Some reports had speculated that Yeltsin would return the Gotha library of rare books during his visit, but this gesture was apparently postponed, according to Western press agencies. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. GERMAN-RUSSIAN AND EU TRADE DISCUSSED. A key issue at the Yeltsin-Kohl summit was trade, since Germany is Russia's largest trading partner. A deal announced on 11 May provides a German guarantee to back up a DM500 million Russian order for railway cars to be built in an eastern German factory. German Economics Minister Guenter Rexrodt confirmed that Russia had offered to pay part of its debt to Germany with deliveries of MiG-29 fighter aircraft, but that he had declined the offer. (Germany inherited some MiG-29s from the former East Germany. A similar arms-for-debt swap has been implemented between Hungary and Russia.) Izvestiya reported in its 13 May issue that Russian and European Union (EU) negotiators have completed a draft agreement that will be discussed by the EU early next week. The agreement would reportedly last until 1997. German media report that the German government is supporting a substantial relaxation of trade barriers and tariffs in 1995, but barriers in the steel, textile, and agricultural markets--those of primary importance to Russia--are likely to remain. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. SECURITY ISSUES DISCUSSED. Speaking at the 11 May press conference, Yeltsin stated that Russia would support Germany's becoming a permanent member of the UN Security Council "when such a decision is taken." In exchange, Yeltsin pushed for German support for the expansion of the Group of Seven (G-7) into the G-8 with Russian membership. Russian involvement in a successor organization to COCOM was also discussed. A compromise on the G-8 proposal was reached, with the member states to discuss the issue after this summer's G-7 meeting in Naples. On the topic of NATO's Partnership for Peace program, Yeltsin appeared to confirm that an agreement will be signed, but noted that more negotiations are required. (Interfax reported on 11 May that a Foreign Ministry official stated that an interdepartmental commission would examine a draft protocol on 17 May.) John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA CRITICAL OF WEU. Reacting to a Western European Union (WEU) decision of 9 May to extend "associate status" in the WEU to members of the WEU's Forum of Consultation--the states of Central and Eastern Europe, the Russian Foreign Ministry on 12 May issued a statement noting that the decision represented an attempt to "create a new model of military-political alliance in a limited space in Europe." The statement called instead for the strengthening of all-European institutions such as the CSCE, according to an ITAR-TASS report of 12 May. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN STATEMENT ON YEMEN FIGHTING. The Russian government issued a statement calling on the warring sides in Yemen to conclude a cease-fire, and offering Russian assistance in reaching an agreement, ITAR-TASS reported on 12 May. Russia is continuing to evacuate approximately 900 Russian citizens from Yemen--at least half had been evacuated as of 11 May, Interfax reported; an additional two aircraft were sent to Yemen to pick up many of those remaining on 12 May. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN JOURNALISTS ATTACK YELTSIN'S MEMOIRS. The first reviews on Yeltsin's memoirs in Russian newspapers have so far been very critical. On 30 April, the once pro-Yeltsin Komsomolskaya pravda published on its front page a sarcastic article dismissing Yeltsin's recollections as a mere "historical novel" and claiming that only tyrants--namely Mao, Hitler and Brezhnev--had published memoirs before their retirement. On 7 May, Nezavisimaya gazeta published a long analysis by its chief editor, Vitalii Tretyakov. After examining various passages in the book, Tretyakov concluded that Yeltsin condemned his political opponents for the kind of behavior, for which he praises himself. Tretyakov alleged that Yeltsin has no other policy but the pursuit of power and that Yeltsin would be prepared to sweep away or crush who stood in the way. Presumably in order to counterbalance such critique, Russian Television hastily replaced on 10 May another scheduled show with an interview with Yeltsin, which was already aired by ABC television on the occasion of the publication of the Russian president's memoirs in the USA. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. TIGHTER BUDGET SCALES FIRST HURDLE. After some initial wavering, the State Duma on 11 May passed on first reading the draft federal consolidated budget for 1994, Interfax and other Russian agencies reported. The revised draft envisages revenues of 124.5 trillion rubles, expenditures of 194.5 trillion rubles, and a "maximum deficit" of 70 trillion rubles. Planned revenues are to be raised primarily through a higher rate of VAT and by boosted excise duties, while most of the jump in anticipated expenditures will go to farm support. Acting Finance Minister Sergei Dubinin claimed that the higher deficit represented 9.6 percent of GDP, implying a GDP in 1994 of some 730 trillion rubles, whereas earlier pronouncements and calculations had assumed a GDP of 620 trillion rubles. (Another instance of shifting goalposts?) The big loser during this round was the defense lobby: it had called for a 50 percent boost in defense expenditure largely on the grounds that actual military spending during the first quarter was well above target and represented an annual total of 55 trillion rather than the 37.1 trillion rubles prescribed. A second reading of the budget is set for 2 June, when the headings of revenue and expenditure will be discussed in more detail. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. LAW PASSED ON FOREIGN CREDITS. On 11 May the State Duma passed on first reading a law on the limits to foreign credits to be accepted by Russia and to Russian credits to other countries. From the wording of the Interfax coverage, it appears that new credits accepted in any given year shall not be permitted to exceed the total sum of Russia's repayment of debt service in that year. In 1992, it was reported, Russia received a total of $10.5 billion in official and commercial credits. In 1993, that figure declined to $4.5 billion, while a further $2.8 billion is expected in 1994. Details were also given of past Russian credits to India, Cuba, Algeria, and Pakistan. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. CABINET APPROVES ANTI-EPIDEMIC PROGRAM. During its regular weekly sitting on 12 May, the cabinet approved "on the whole" a draft federal anti-epidemic program for the period 1994-97, Interfax reported. The head of the State Sanitation Control Agency justified the comprehensive program on the grounds of the growing number of immigrants, the deterioration in health care, and the sharp increase in imports of poor quality, harmful goods. The draft program provides for the establishment of a network of sanitary control posts at the borders, at sea and air ports, and at railway stations. Expenditures on checkpoints and laboratories in 1994 were estimated by the Ministry of Finance to be 26 billion rubles or roughly $14 million at current rates of exchange--not a large sum in view of the reported increases in the incidence of diphtheria, tuberculosis, cholera, and other horrors. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA KARABAKH CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT SIGNED. The defense ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan and the commander of the Karabakh army signed an agreement at midnight on 11 May on a cease-fire to take effect at midnight on 12 May, Interfax reported. Speaking at a press briefing in Moscow on 12 May a Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman greeted the cease-fire. Russian special envoy for Karabakh, Vladimir Kazimirov, told Interfax on 11 May that he was in favor of a summit between the Armenian and Azerbaijani presidents in Moscow once negotiations on a draft settlement of the conflict had made progress. Also on 11 May, Azerbaijani opposition parties denounced parliament speaker Rasul Guliev for signing the Bishkek protocol on the grounds that its ratification would signify the de facto recognition by Azerbaijan of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and create the foundations for the stationing of Russian troops on Azerbaijani territory, according to Interfax. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. NEXT ROUND OF TAJIK TALKS EXPECTED IN JUNE. Tajikistan's Foreign Minister Rashid Alimov told Interfax on 12 May that the next round of peace talks between the Tajik government and opposition in exile are expected to take place in early June. The talks are to be held in either Teheran or Islamabad. Alimov criticized opposition assertions that the Tajik government is not serious about negotiations but intends to build up Russian military presence in the country in order to crush the opposition by force. On 11 May Ekho Moskvy reported that the Tajik Islamic opposition in Afghanistan had issued a statement that it was considering ending armed attacks on the Tajik-Afghan border. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATS AND MUSLIMS REACH FEDERATION AGREEMENT. International media reported on 11 May that the two sides overcame an impasse in their talks at the American embassy in Vienna and that they will sign a final document on the 14th. The agreement spells out the vital details for putting into practice the principles signed in Washington in February and in March. The new text gives the Muslims four cantons and the Croats two, with two additional cantons being multi-ethnic, namely those of Mostar and Travnik. The Croats apparently backed down from earlier demands that Vitez in central Bosnia be an exclusively Croat canton, and it will be joined instead to a large multi-ethnic unit including Gornji Vakuf and Kiseljak. The first president of the federation will be a Croat, while the vice president and prime minister will be Muslims. The Muslims will have 11 cabinet positions to the Croats' 6. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. DIPLOMATIC AND MILITARY UPDATE ON BOSNIA. In other political developments surrounding the Bosnian crisis, French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe visited Washington to try to persuade the United States to help impose a settlement. He said that French forces would not spend another winter there under the present circumstances. On 12 May UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali met with other top UN officials concerned with Bosnia and urged "more pressure" on the three sides to make peace. That same day in Washington, the Senate passed a measure urging the US to lift the arms embargo against the Bosnian government, but the bill stands little chance of becoming law. On 13 May a meeting of Russian and Western foreign ministers is slated to take place in Geneva to discuss a common strategy in the wake of the activities of the new "contact group." Meanwhile at the front, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of 13 May reports heavy Serb shelling of Tuzla's residential areas and of Muslim villages near Zvornik. On 11 May Tuzla's mayor told the Berlin Tageszeitung that the UN should take charge of the Serb's corridor across northern Bosnia to enable all parties to have free access to trade and supplies. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. OTHER DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. On 12 May RFE/RL's Balkan Service reported that five Croatian civilians had been killed by armed Serbs in a UN-controlled zone near Daruvar. Meanwhile from Slovenia, on 10 May the Belgrade Politika reported on a talk with former foreign minister and prominent politician Dimitrij Rupel in which the Slovene warned against setting up a European "center" based on the EU while consigning the Balkans to the "periphery." He also repeated the standard Slovene position that theirs is not a Balkan country but should rather be treated together not with Croatia or other former Yugoslav republics but with Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic. Some Slovenes, however, see an advantage in their former Yugoslav links, and Borba on 10 May reported the foreign ministry has urged parliament to approve opening an embassy in Sarajevo. The move comes in the wake of the visit by an economic delegation to Bosnia, and the Slovene businessmen expect lucrative reconstruction contracts there once the fighting stops. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BERISHA: ZHELEV AVERTED MACEDONIAN CONFLICT. On 12 May Albania's President Sali Berisha told Reuters that his Bulgarian counterpart in 1991 helped to avert a looming conflict concerning the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia. During a visit to Austria, Berisha said Zhelyu Zhelev's refusal three years earlier to participate in a meeting called by Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis and Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic to discuss the future of Macedonia had served to defuse fears of an emerging Greek-Serbian-Bulgarian axis on the peninsula. He said he had discussed the matter with Zhelev when visiting Sofia during April, and thanked him for refusing to attend the meeting, which as a result was canceled altogether. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. TRIBUNAL RULES AGAINST WALESA. Poland's Constitutional Tribunal ruled on 11 May that President Lech Walesa had wrongly interpreted Article 7 of the broadcasting law as allowing him to dismiss Marek Markiewicz as Chairman of the National Broadcasting Council insofar as the right to appoint could not be assumed to include the right to dismiss. The tribunal did not, however, make clear whether the ruling invalidates Walesa's subsequent decision to appoint Ryszard Bender in place of Markiewicz. Walesa's legal adviser Lech Falandysz told reporters that the ruling would not affect the status quo because it could not be applied retroactively. There is some pressure on Bender to "do the honorable thing" and resign but Bender's own intentions are unclear. Walesa dismissed Markiewicz on 1 March claiming that his decisions went against the spirit of the broadcasting law. The dismissal gave rise to fears that Walesa is trying to restrict the broadcasting council's independence. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. ROW OVER POLISH TV NEWS. Walesa's spokesman Andrzej Drzycimski complained to NBC Chairman Bender that public television under its new management has become careless, tendentious and unprofessional, Gazeta Wyborcza reported on 12 May. Drzycimski's ire was aroused specifically by the fact that the main television news program failed to report on the president's visit in Estonia on 10 May, but he claimed that TV News' treatment of the head of state was generally "scandalous." Television Information Agency chief Jacek Bochenek expressed "deep shame" at the incident and suspended the editor responsible. News staff protested. The new management of public television has vowed to ensure objective information, free from political interference, but is finding it difficult to reconcile its statutory responsibility to present objectively the activities of government agencies with its pledge to guarantee full freedom of expression to individual journalists. The controversies have apparently prompted the NBC to reverse its previous stand on TV access for political parties by recommending in a draft ordinance that public television introduce a regular weekly slot in which parties would present their views on issues, Gazeta Wyborcza reported on 13 May. TV chief Wieslaw Walendziak said, "It would be nonstop electioneering." Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. SOLIDARITY STILL DEFIANT. Solidarity's National Commission (NC) voted on 11 May to continue its protest action until the government agrees to discuss the union's grievances in bilateral talks rather than in the tripartite commission that includes representatives of all the unions and employers, PAP reported. Solidarity claims that the government is consistently violating agreements it has already signed with the union. The NC voted to stage a mass demonstration in Warsaw on 27 May in preference to a national strike, which local activists believe would lack support. Meanwhile, striking coal miners agreed to go back to work after the government made concessions on most of their demands. The government did not, however, agree to pay for the strikes, although the strikers will be given an advance on the understanding that they will work it off. Solidarity lacks the funds to pay the strikers, although Polish legislation stipulates that employers are not obliged to pay for the time lost through strikes. One of Solidarity's major demands is the final abolition of the wage control tax. Walesa confirmed on 12 May that he would "listen to the people" and veto the latest version of the wage control bill. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH NATIONAL BANK LOWERS INTEREST RATES. The Polish National bank announced that it is lowering its basic interest rates as of 13 May, PAP reports. The drop--one and two percentage points-- was justified by lower inflation in the first quarter and in April, as well as a considerable increase in bank reserves. The drop was smaller than originally anticipated because of uncertainty about wage controls and the possible effect on inflation in the next few months. The commercial banks are expected to follow suit. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAKIA HOPES FOR IMPROVED RELATIONS WITH HUNGARY. According to a statement issued by the Foreign Ministry on 11 May, Slovakia hopes that the new government in Hungary will be "ready to hold a constructive dialogue" and that it will have "a realistic approach towards the possibility of resolving bilateral issues," TASR reports. Also on 11 May the Foreign Ministry announced its intention to hold discussions on temporary water management on the Danube, proposing that talks be held on 18 to 19 May in Bratislava. The two countries have been quarreling over the issue ever since Slovakia diverted the river in 1992 to feed the Gabcikovo dam. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. CHAIRMAN OF NATO MILITARY COMMITTEE IN SLOVAKIA. Field Marshal Sir Richard Vincent visited Bratislava from 11 to 12 May to meet with top Slovak officials, including Defense Minister Pavol Kanis, Premier Jozef Moravcik and Commander of the Slovak Army, Lieutenant General Julius Humaj. The goal of the visit was to discuss Slovakia's participation in the Partnership for Peace program, as well as cooperation within the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC), TASR reports. Vincent said that NATO views Slovakia as an active member of the NACC and as a potential NATO partner. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. POLLS SHOW HUNGARIANS WARY OF SOCIALIST MAJORITY RULE. A telephone survey of 1,009 people published on 12 May by the Hungarian daily Magyar Hirlap found that 53% of the respondents felt it would be bad for the country if the Hungarian Socialist Party (HSP) led by Gyula Horn would emerge from the second round of national elections on 29 May a winner of an absolute majority. The HSP won the first round on 8 May by taking about a third of the seats on the party list and is leading in some 160 out of the 176 districts on the individual list. While some 14% of the respondents said that a HSP majority would be good for Hungary, 10% declared themselves "neutral," and 23% said that they did not know. The survey was taken by Szonda Ipsos, a Hungarian media opinion survey company. Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc. GYULA HORN LEAVES HOSPITAL. On 12 May HSP Chairman Gyula Horn left the Miskolc hospital where he has been treated since he had a car accident on 5 May, MTI reports. The accident, which occurred only three days ahead the 8 May election, left Horn with a concussion, a broken wrist and damaged cervical vertebra. Doctors described Horn's condition as "rather good" but said he must remain under medical care in his home. Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc. BERISHA ENDS VISIT TO ROMANIA. RFE/RL's Romanian Service reported on 11 May that Albanian President Sali Berisha had ended his visit to Romania as the guest of his counterpart, Ion Iliescu. It was the first top-level contact between the two countries since the fall of communism and probably since long before, given that former communist leaders Nicolae Ceausescu and Enver Hoxha had little use for each other. The Berisha-Iliescu meetings produced a friendship treaty, which the Romanian leader said would help make the two countries "factors of stability" in the Balkans. Berisha, for his part, noted that it was necessary to show that the peninsula is not just "an arena for fights." Both countries border the former Yugoslavia, but Romania is sympathetic to its traditional ally, Serbia, while Albania regards Belgrade as the oppressor of the ethnic Albanian majority in Kosovo. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIA TO PROFESSIONALIZE ITS ARMY. Reuters on 12 May quoted Chief-of-Staff General Dumitru Cioflina that Bucharest intends to make good on its plans to move its military away form a conscript-based force to a smaller but more professional one. He hopes to have half of the army on professional contracts by the end of the decade, by which time the force would be reduced from the current 270,000 to 200,000. Also on 12 May, Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu said that Romania the day before had signed the so-called 11th protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights in Strasbourg. The document enables persons to appeal to the Strasbourg-based European Court of Human Rights after all appeals to domestic courts are used up. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA TAKES OVER COUNCIL OF EUROPE PRESIDENCY. On 11 May Bulgaria became the first ex-communist country to assume the rotating presidency of the Council of Europe. In an interview with BTA, Foreign Minister Stanislav Daskalov said Bulgaria during its 6-month chairmanship will seek to further "all major activities" of the CE and "particularly those implementing the decisions of the October 1993 summit in Geneva" (where CE states agreed to promote "democratic security" throughout the continent, to fight racism and intolerance, and to reform the European Court of Justice). The Chairman of Bulgaria's delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly in Strasbourg, Asparuh Panov, told Darik Radio that the most delicate problem the Bulgarian presidency is likely to face concerns Russia's wish to join the organization. Panov said the entrance of Macedonia and Albania into the CE is of considerable interest to Bulgaria, since these two countries play an important role for the stability of the Balkans. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. UPDATE ON BULGARIAN CABINET RESHUFFLE. Bulgarian dailies report on 13 May that Prime Minister Lyuben Berov is still trying to put together a cabinet line-up which will be acceptable for a majority of the Bulgarian parliamentary deputies. On the previous day Berov distributed an updated version of his original program to those parliamentary factions which he hopes will support him, but said he would not present a complete list of ministers before 16 May. Several papers say he now seems to have little room for maneuvering and that the government therefore could remain largely unchanged. On 12 May the opposition Union of Democratic Forces raised the stakes by introducing a motion of no-confidence against Berov, saying his cabinet has already demonstrated it is unfit to govern. UDF Chairman Filip Dimitrov said he expects the vote--which would be the sixth over the past year--to take place within one week. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. PAZNYAK QUALIFIES FOR BELARUSIAN PRESIDENTIAL SLATE. Interfax reported on 11 May that the leader of the Belarusian Popular Front, Zyanon Paznyak, succeeded in gathering over 100,000 signatures qualifying him for the presidential slate along with the prime minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, and the head of the Party of Communists of Belarus, Vasil Novikau. The final day for submitting signatures in support of candidates is 15 May. In other news Interfax reported on 12 May that presidential hopeful Aleksandr Lukashenka has accused the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Mechyslau Hryb, of having connections with the local Mafia. According to Lukashenka, Belarus's KGB has audio and video tapes showing Hryb with representatives of criminal structures. The chairman of the KGB, Henadz Lavitsky, has denied that the KGB has any such materials and said that Lukashenka's statement "is too cheap even for a primitive political provocation." Lukashenka has been basing his presidential campaign on his personal fight against corruption in government. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BALTIC-FRENCH DEFENSE COOPERATION PACTS SIGNED. On 11 May Baltic Defense ministers--Indrek Kannik of Estonia, Valdis Pavlovskis of Latvia, and Lynas Linkevicius of Lithuania--joined France's Defense Minister Francois Leotard in singing pacts on military cooperation, Western and Baltic media reported. According to the pacts, France would offer military training to the Baltic States; there would also be an exchange of officers and military observers, as well as joint military exercises. Earlier this week the Baltic States signed similar accords with the Western European Union. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN INFLATION, UNEMPLOYMENT. The Lithuanian Statistics Department announced that the rate of inflation in April was 1.6%, Radio Lithuania reported on 9 May. In the first three months of the year the monthly inflation rates were 4.8%, 2.9%, and 3.3%. In April the prices on personal care products and medical services grew most, by 6.9% with transportation and communication fees increasing 6.7%. Meanwhile, the Lithuanian Labor Exchange said unemployment in April was 3.1%, which is 0.1% lower than in March. Women made up 62.3% of the unemployed and 65.7% of the unemployed were blue-collar workers. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Dzintra Bungs and Kjell Engelbrekt The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. 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