If you're sure you understand everthing that is going on, you're hopelessly confused. - Walter Mondale
RFE/RL Daily Report

No.89, 10 May 1994

RUSSIA

VICTORY DAY MARKED. Addressing a large crowd of people who
gathered outside a newly inaugurated war museum in Moscow to mark
the 49th anniversary of the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War
II, President Boris Yeltsin promised to revive Russia's grandeur
and dignity in 1994. He said: "We were united in the great war. We
can be united now in civil peace." Russian Television on 9 May
also covered a march through central Moscow organized by the
opposition. Addressing the opposition rally, former Vice President
Aleksandr Rutskoi said that "Yeltsin's regime" would be out of
power before victory day next year. He said "I urge you to
celebrate out victory over this regime by the time we celebrate
the 50th anniversary of the Soviet victory over fascist Germany."
Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.

YELTSIN ON ARMY, JOINT EXERCISE, NATO. In the speech marking the
49th anniversary of the defeat of Nazi Germany, President Yeltsin
linked allied cooperation during World War II to a call for
strategic partnership with the West today, but also emphasized
that Russia must remain vigilant and be treated with respect.
Yeltsin said that Russia, through its victory over German fascism,
had saved the world in the twentieth century, and he suggested
that the West would benefit from Russia's cooperation in the
future. On more specific issues, he said that Russia wanted to
lower its levels of arms and armed forces while maintaining parity
with NATO and the US. He also signaled his renewed support for the
conduct of joint Russian-American military exercises, scheduled
for July in Russia. On 26 April, under pressure from conservatives
in Russia's parliament, Yeltsin had ordered the Defense Ministry
to reconsider holding the exercises. Yeltsin's remarks were
broadcast by Russian Television.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

GRACHEV ON ARMY READINESS, RESTRUCTURING. In remarks made to
Interfax following a Victory Day wreath-laying ceremony, Russian
Defense Minister Pavel Grachev was quoted as saying that Russia's
armed forces have "risen from their knees and are today completely
fit for war . . . They can solve problems not only locally but on
a wider scale as well." Turning to the ongoing restructuring of
the army, Grachev singled out the creation of the Kaliningrad
Defense Area, where, he said, the Baltic Fleet commander is in
charge of an integrated force comprised of all locally stationed
naval, land, and air troops. He also said that the North Caucasus
Military District is ready for combat, that armies are gradually
being replaced by brigades and corps, and that the creation of
mobile forces and the replacement of air defense forces with air
and space defense forces is nearly completed. Grachev also said,
however, that Russia's force structure in the Far East remained
unchanged, and suggested that a plan announced earlier--aimed at
integrating all forces in the region under a single command--had
been put on hold. Grachev's sanguine remarks to Interfax on the
army's readiness contrasted with the far more negative assessment
that he had provided only days earlier, on the second anniversary
of the Russian army's founding.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

YELTSIN TO GERMANY. Boris Yeltsin arrives in Germany on 11 May to
begin a three-day visit. According to AFP, talks are expected to
focus on ceremonies marking Russia's final military withdrawal
from Germany and on Russia's participation in the NATO Partnership
for Peace Program. Organizing the military withdrawal has become
an especially prickly issue, with Russian military and political
leaders upset over Bonn's plans to hold separate ceremonies for
the final withdrawal of the last 30,000 Russian troops on the one
hand, and the former allied forces on the other. Moscow has
objected to the conduct of separate festivities for Russian troops
in Weimar, arguing that its proximity to the Buchenwald
concentration camp made it an "inappropriate" place for the
celebration. AFP reported that Bonn has rejected a request from
Russian military leaders that their troops parade alongside
Western forces in ceremonies to be held in Berlin, although the
agency also said that in an exchange of letters a week earlier
German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and Yeltsin had agreed on some sort
of send-off for the Russian troops in Berlin. The two leaders are
also to discuss restitution of works of art confiscated during
World War II.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF KOMI ELECTIONS. Preliminary results of the
elections held on 8 May to the post of head of the republic of
Komi and to the republic's local bodies of power show that about
36 percent of the electorate took part, Radio Rossii reported on 9
May. Only in the coal mining city of Vorkuta was the minimum
participation rate of 25 percent necessary for the elections to be
valid not reached. Yurii Spiridonov, the Russian chairman of the
Komi parliament, was elected head of the republic after what seems
to have been a bitter campaign in which his main rival was
Vyacheslav Khudaev, the Komi chairman of the Council of Ministers,
who loses his job since under the new Komi constitution the head
of the republic is also head of the government. In a referendum on
12 December 1993 the electorate failed to support the introduction
of a presidency.  Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.

TENSION BETWEEN COSSACKS AND CHECHENS IN STAVROPOL KRAI. On 7 May
Radio Rossii reported that an incident involving Cossacks and
Chechens in the settlement of Krutoyarsk in eastern Stavropol krai
on 24 April, when houses were burnt down and people injured, had
nearly led to a major interethnic conflict and was keeping
Stavropol krai and the Chechen republic in a state of tension. The
Cossacks were angered when the law enforcement agencies arrested a
Russian as well as some Chechens, and the ataman of the Terek
Cossack Host summoned 50 Cossacks from the Don, Kuban, and
Kalmykia to obtain the release of the Russian. When the situation
threatened to get out of hand, the man was released with the
permission of the Russian procurator general's office. The
governor of Stavropol krai demanded that the Cossacks should not
take the law into their own hands in future.  Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL,
Inc.

                  TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

AZERBAIJAN BELATEDLY SIGNS BISHKEK KARABAKH PROTOCOL. On 8 May
Azerbaijan's parliament chairman Rasul Guliev signed the Bishkek
protocol calling for a cease-fire in Nagorno-Karabakh to be
enforced by CIS peacekeeping troops, Russian special envoy
Vladimir Kazimirov told Interfax on 9 May. Guliev insisted on two
minor changes in the text of the protocol, which must still be
ratified by the Azerbaijani parliament. For the cease-fire to
become effective it must be supplemented by a second document
outlining the three-stage Russian proposal for a settlement of the
conflict. The first stage provides for a cessation of hostilities
over a 6-day period; the second stage comprises the liberation of
the six occupied districts outside the confines of
Nagorno-Karabakh, an exchange of prisoners, the return of refugees
and the restoration of communications; the third stage is
negotiations on the status of Karabakh and of the Lachin corridor
linking Karabakh with Armenia.  Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

CHEVRON CUTS BACK TENGIZ INVESTMENT. The Chevron Corporation's
decision to cut back on its investment and production plans at the
Tengiz oil field in western Kazakhstan, reported in the European
edition of the Wall Street Journal on 9 May, could be a serious
blow to the confidence of foreign investors, whom Kazakhstan
desperately needs to develop its economic potential. According to
the report, the reduction by Chevron is the result of suspension
of negotiations over completion of an oil pipeline to ship oil
from Kazakhstan via Russia to loading facilities at the port of
Novorossiisk. Limited existing pipeline capacity has meant that
the Tengiz field is producing only about a fifth of the amount
originally projected by Chevron.  Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.


CORRECTION: The RFE/RL Daily Report for 9 May, relying on AFP of 7
May, stated that Dmitrii Vasilev, a deputy chairman of the State
Committee for the Management of State Property (GKI) had been
dismissed. An RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow reports that it was
in fact another deputy chairman, Valentin Sychkin, who was fired,
while Vasilev is to be reprimanded on his return from an overseas
trip.


                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

WEU OPENS ITS DOORS TO EAST EUROPE. The Western European Union
(WEU), the European Union's defense organization, opened its doors
to nine former communist states, admitting them as "associate
partners," international media reported on 9 May. The WEU, which
consists of all European Union members with the exception of
Ireland and Denmark, offered "associate partner" status to Poland,
the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Latvia,
Lithuania, and Estonia. Meeting in Luxembourg, the defense and
foreign ministers of the WEU members issued a statement saying the
move will prepare the new partners "for integration and eventual
accession to the European Union." While no security guarantees
were given to the new "partners," they were encouraged to
participate in the group's meetings and in its peacekeeping and
humanitarian activities. With the exception of the three Baltic
states, none of the former Soviet Republics was invited to become
a WEU "partner," but the organization's Secretary General Wim Van
Eekelen stressed that the expansion was not directed against
Russia or any other nation. The WEU, created in 1954, lived in the
shadow of NATO during the Cold War. Since the fall of the Iron
Curtain, however, efforts have been developed to turn it into an
European defense pillar. The organization is expected to play an
important role in European defense considerations after 1996.  Jan
Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.

SERBS STILL HAVE TROOPS AND GUNS IN GORAZDE. News agencies
reported on 10 May that UN forces in the eastern Bosnian Muslim
enclave of Gorazde say that the Serbs still have 100 soldiers
there disguised as police. Heavy guns have also been identified
within the exclusion zone, all in violation of NATO's ultimatum.
Meanwhile, Politika reported from Vienna that Muslim-Croat talks
on the future of their federation continue but that the stumbling
block at the moment is the control of Mostar and Stolac, which
both parties claim. AFP, for its part, reported from Sarajevo that
Bosnian Serbs loyal to the Bosnian state want to be included in
international peace talks on an equal footing with Radovan
Karadzic's people. One loyalist Serb said: "we don't want to
represent the Karadzic Serbs, we don't want to represent
criminals. But we cannot accept that he with his lies represents
us." Finally, Reuters noted on 9 May that Iran, which has just
offered 10,000 peace-keepers for Bosnia, plans to start
broadcasting daily to that embattled republic. Patrick Moore,
RFE/RL, Inc.

MILOSEVIC CLAIMS NO ETHNIC CLEANSING POLICY. On 9 May Reuters
reported on an interview given by Serbian President Slobodan
Milosevic in which the Serbian leader claimed, despite mounting
evidence to the contrary, that Serbia had and has no policy of
ethnic cleansing. Instead, he argued that Serbs in Kosovo were
themselves the victims of ethnic cleansing campaigns at the hands
of the Albanian majority in the province. Milosevic also insisted
that Serbia is providing a home "for at least 40 different
nationalities" and that the sanctions imposed against the rump
Yugoslavia by the international community will not topple the
government or "press Serbs into giving up their national
interests." In other news, on 10 May both Borba and Politika
report that a 9 May rally attended by ultranationalist Russian
leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky was held after Belgrade police
authorities lifted a ban, introduced ostensibly to preserve public
order. Rally organizers, members of the ultranationalist Serbian
People's Renewal Party, had predicted that nearly a million people
would take to the streets to participate in the event
commemorating Serbia's victory over the fascist powers in World
War II, but only an estimated 5,000 turned out.  Stan Markotich,
RFE/RL, Inc.

IS BRCKO THE KEY TO BOSNIA? Borba on 10 May reported on the
strategic importance of Brcko for all three parties to the Bosnian
conflict. Globus on 6 May ran a highly detailed map that shows
just how tenuous the Serbs' hold on the town is, and together with
it the northern Bosnian corridor that links Serbia with its
conquests in Bosnia and Croatia. Brcko was a mainly Muslim town
that was "ethnically cleansed" by the Serbs after they took it in
1992. To underscore Brcko's importance to its new masters, the
Bosnian Serb parliament is meeting there on 10 May, Borba notes.
Western news agencies quote Croatian and Bosnian officials,
moreover, as arguing that the current UN policy of discouraging
any fighting in the area plays into Serb hands by freezing their
hold on the town and hence by keeping the corridor in tact and
open. On 9 May The Guardian reported that the Serbs are trying to
convince skeptical journalists that the Muslims are planning an
offensive there, but the only gunfire the press corps heard was
from the Serb side. One Serb officer said of the corridor: "this
is the mouth that feeds our people--we must hold it at all costs."
Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

CROATIAN VOTERS STILL PREFER TUDJMAN. Globus reported on 6 May
that the split in the governing Croatian Democratic Community
(HDZ) last month does not appear to have caused any decisive
change in the overall strength of the HDZ and President Franjo
Tudjman. The weekly's poll gives the HDZ a slight edge over the
second-place Croatian Social-Liberal Party (HSLS), and Tudjman has
a commanding 20-point lead over HSLS leader Drazen Budisa in a
presidential race. The new Croatian Independent Democrats (HND)
and their leader Stipe Mesic finished a very poor third. The HND
has tried to link Tudjman to war crimes in Bosnia, and the
independent Feral Tribune on 2 May has also raised the issue of
Tudjman's possible role in some unexplained political murders in
Croatia. These charges, however, do not appear to have affected
the overall popularity of "the father of the Croatian nation."
Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

MILOSEVIC IS NOT AGAINST KOSOVAR AUTONOMY? After a visit by
British Foreign Office Minister Douglas Hogg to Belgrade and
Pristina, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic assured him that he
"sees no obstacles to the creation of political and cultural
autonomy for Kosovo and the Albanians," Borba reported on 10 May.
The Kosovar Albanian Information Center called it a "proof of the
demise of Serbian policy." The Albanian agency added that "after
five years of state-sponsored violence and terror, the Serbian
leader [now] expresses willingness to talk about the Kosovo
question, whereas he had said earlier that he will never put this
question on the agenda." Nonetheless, Kosovar Albanian President
Ibrahim Rugova noted that "it is very certain that official Serbia
will not find anybody to talk with about this kind of autonomy or
about helping to set it up, neither among the legitimate
institutions of the Republic of Kosovo, nor among Albanian
prominent public figures." According to Rilindja on 7 May, Rugova
called for a "civil protectorate" after Hogg made clear that
Kosovo will not get international recognition as a republic. It is
not clear, however, what Rugova meant by "civil." Fabian Schmidt,
RFE/RL, Inc.

POLISH GOVERNMENT HOLDS RETREAT. The Polish cabinet held a two-day
closed meeting at a government resort in Lansk, near Olsztyn, on
9-10 May, to discuss different versions of Poland's economic
policy for coming three years. Deputy Prime Minister and Finance
Minister Grzegorz Kolodko said that his preferred plan focuses on
increasing the level of domestic savings and foreign investment.
He urged reporters to concentrate on longer-term prospects rather
than look for immediate results. Journalists were accredited for
the event but were not allowed beyond the resort's gates; a
scheduled press conference was called off on Prime Minister
Waldemar Pawlak's instructions. Labor Minister Leszek Miller
bicycled out to the reporters to explain that the ministers needed
peace and quiet to work, without journalists looking over their
shoulders. Eventually, Polish TV reported, two reporters were
selected to observe the proceedings inside. This treatment is
likely to worsen the already strained relations between the press
and the prime minister, who shuns contacts with the media and has
accused them of a lack of objectivity.  Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL,
Inc.

POLAND'S COAL STRIKES FADING? The Polish industry ministry has
invited representatives of all the mining unions to Warsaw for
talks on 10 May, Gazeta Wyborcza reported. On 9 May, Industry
Minister Marek Pol reiterated his willingness to "consult"
directly with the unions at any time but also indicated that
binding agreements will only be reached in the tripartite
commission. Solidarity reportedly began talks with mining
management on 9 May, with an eye to securing payment for strike
days. Such compensation is banned under Polish law, but employers
often agree to lump-sum payments as a way of halting protests.
Management refused to accept the union's terms, however, proposing
instead that workers take strike days as unpaid vacation. One
official said that half of those "on strike" were in fact on
vacation or sick leave. Gazeta Wyborcza sees the union's request
as a sign that the strikes are winding down. Solidarity's mining
branch indicated that the strikes would be suspended if management
agreed to allow miners to work off strike days later in the year.
Some 12,000 miners at 20 hard-coal mines have been on strike as
part of Solidarity's national protest for two weeks. Louisa
Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIAN SPY ON TRIAL IN WARSAW. Proceedings against Marek Z. on
charges of espionage opened before a Warsaw military court on 9
May, Gazeta Wyborcza reported. The defendant, a former employee of
the analysis department at the internal affairs ministry, is
charged with providing Soviet--and later Russian--military
intelligence with information on the Polish opposition movement in
the 1980s. He reportedly confessed to spying. His motives, he
said, were "ideological," but he also received scarce food
products as compensation. Poland's State Security Office arrested
Marek Z. in September 1993 as he was handing over documents to the
Russian military attache. The attache, Col. Vladimir Lomakin, was
expelled from Poland. The court is conducting the trial behind
closed doors.  Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

SLOVAK FOREIGN RELATIONS DEVELOPMENTS. On 9 May Slovak President
Michal Kovac arrived in South Africa, where he will attend the
inauguration of President Nelson Mandela, TASR reported. Also on 9
May, former French Premier Edith Cresson visited Bratislava, where
she met with Slovak Premier Jozef Moravcik. Cresson was
accompanied by French businesspeople, who spoke with Moravcik
about their interest in developing Slovakia's infrastructure and
energy sources. Returning from an eight-day visit to the US and
Canada on 9 May, Slovak Minister of Culture Lubomir Roman informed
journalists of his suggestion that the Voice of America move their
European base to Slovakia. Roman also offered the VOA a medium
wave frequency which at this time is not being used. Kovac's
office announced that he will pay an official visit to Austria
from 16 to 17 May at the invitation of his Austrian counterpart
Thomas Klestil, while Moravcik is expected to travel to France
shortly for an official visit.  Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

HUNGARIAN SOCIALISTS ON FUTURE POLICY. Imre Szekeres, the
Executive Vice-Chairman of the Hungarian Socialist Party (HSP)
said that his party is ready to cooperate with any democratic
party, MTI reported on 9 May. At the same time, however, he
pointed out that his party will not discuss coalitions until after
the second round of the elections that is to be held on 29 May.
Szekeres said the HSP's future coalition partners will have to
meet a number of conditions and left little doubt that the
Socialists intend to play a dominant role in the future Hungarian
government. He also stressed that if the HSP gains an absolute
majority in the parliament, it will not seek coalition partners at
all. Speaking about his party's foreign policy orientation,
Szekeres said that the HSP is seeking NATO and EU memberships;
good relations with Hungary's neighbors; and autonomy for
Hungarian ethnic minorities. He also said that a government headed
by the HSP will work to stop the growth of unemployment and
inflation in order to avoid social tensions.  Judith Pataki,
RFE/RL, Inc.

ALBANIAN PRESIDENT VISITS ROMANIA. On 9 May, the President of
Albania, Sali Berisha, began a two-day official visit to Romania,
Radio Bucharest reported. Berisha and President Ion Iliescu will
sign a treaty of friendship and cooperation between their
countries, as well as three other conventions.  Michael Shafir,
RFE/RL, Inc.

BULGARIAN FINANCE MINISTER THREATENS TO RESIGN. In interviews on 8
and 9 May, Bulgaria's Finance Minister Stoyan Aleksandrov declared
that he intends to resign in case parliament fails to adopt
legislation on bankruptcy and substantial amendments to the
privatization law by 30 June. Aleksandrov told the Bulgarian
National Radio on 8 May that he considers the next 50 days to be
crucial for Bulgaria's economy. He stressed that the government
and the National Assembly must prove to the international
financial institutions and foreign creditors that they are serious
about radical economic reforms. Aleksandrov added that the country
presently is in great need of foreign assistance to bolster its
finances. After a closed government session on 9 May, Aleksandrov
said several ministers are ready to follow his example and step
down on 11 May, if parliament does not commit itself to passing
crucial economic legislation soon.  Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

FINANCIAL TIMES ON BULGARIA'S CAPITALISTS. The 10 May issue of the
Financial Times carried a story on Bulgaria's recently founded
business lobby, the Group of 13, noting that several of its
leading members are known to have had close links to the communist
regime or the secret police. The paper specifically mentions Ivan
Pavlov, a former professional wrestler and friend of the family of
ex-dictator Todor Zhivkov, who today runs the Multigrup business
empire with a $1 billion annual turnover and some 3,500 employees
in 90 subsidiaries. While acknowledging that there are indications
that the G-13 is operating on the fringes of the law, Deputy
Finance Minister Dimitar Kostov told the daily that the alleged
influence of these companies over Bulgarian society are
exaggerated. A Western banker is nevertheless quoted as warning
that legal regulation is needed, since the G-13 has "the power to
poison the scene [and] the ability to buy politicians." Kjell
Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

WALESA VISITS ESTONIA. On 9 May Polish President Lech Walesa began
a two-day visit to Estonia, BNS reported. He held talks with his
Estonian counterpart Lennart Meri, Prime Minister Mart Laar, and
parliament chairman Ulo Nugis. Walesa told reporters that Poland
understands Estonia's determination in speeding the Russian troop
withdrawal, but added that "we must also understand Russia."
Deputy Foreign Minister Iwo Byczewski and the Vice Chancellor of
the Estonian Foreign Ministry Raul Malk signed a bilateral treaty
designed to prevent dual taxation. On 10 April Walesa will travel
to the Poltsamaa region and Tartu where he will meet with the
rector and other leaders of Tartu University.  Saulius Girnius,
RFE/RL, Inc.

UPDATE ON UKRAINIAN PRESIDENTIAL RACE. UNIAN reported on 7 May
that the Ukrainian central electoral committee has been asked by
several presidential candidates to prolong the period of signature
gathering in their support. One candidate who made the request,
Ivan Valenya, said that the Kharkiv oblast administration held up
his documents for registration, thus shortening the time he has to
collect signatures. The deputy head of the electoral committee,
Viktor Pohorilko, said a number of other candidates have made the
same complaint, but declined to name them. Article 13 of the
electoral law gives the electoral committee the right to extend
the signature collection period. In other election news UNIAN
reported that on 6 May the nominee of the Leftist Bloc and head of
the Socialist Party of Ukraine, Oleksandr Moroz, has gathered
110,000 signatures in support of his candidacy. UNIAN also
reported that on 7 May the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists
(CUN) has decided to create a bloc in parliament which may include
the far right Ukrainian National Assembly and the Ukrainian
Conservative Republican Party. According to CUN representative
Mykhailo Ratushny, the group has not yet decided whose candidacy
it will support in the presidential elections.  Ustina Markus,
RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIAN TROOP DEPARTURE TIMETABLE FROM LATVIA INCOMPLETE? Ilgonis
Upmalis, head of the office monitoring Russian troop pullouts from
Latvia, told the press that the appended documents to the
Latvian-Russian accords of 30 April on the withdrawal of Russian
troops from Latvia fail to include many Russian military
installations and units in that country, BNS reported on 9 May.
According to his office, there are still 247 Russian military
installations and 191 military units in Latvia. Upmalis explained
that part of the problem stems from the fact that the Russian side
has grouped its installations into "associations" without listing
the components. His office intends to submit later this week a
list of "missing" installations and units to the Russian
Northwestern Group of Forces Command and the Latvian Defense
Ministry.  Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

MORE ON BELARUSIAN PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN. The Secretary of the
Central Electoral Commission, Ivan Likhach, outlined the media
coverage candidates are entitled to in an interview with
Belarusskaya niva on 15 April. The electoral law does not allow
candidates to solicit funds for their campaigns individually.
Instead all candidates who succeed in gathering enough signatures
to be placed on the 23 June slate will be allotted equal media
coverage which will be paid for by the state. According to
Likhach, 80 billion rubles have been earmarked for the
presidential race. This sum is to cover the costs of renting space
and facilities for the election, paying the workers involved in
the election, and financing the candidates' campaigns. At the end
of the signature collection marathon on 15 May, each successful
candidate will receive 20 million rubles towards their campaign.
In addition, candidates will be allowed two and a half hours of
television coverage and an equal amount of radio time. Candidates
will also have the right to publish their program on half a page
of a national newspaper free of charge. This procedure has been
criticized by the opposition which claims that it gives the prime
minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, an edge over other candidates as he
receives extensive media coverage beyond any other candidate by
virtue of his current position. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET]

  Compiled by Dzintra Bungs and Jan Obrman
The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research
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