|The only certainty is that nothing is certain. - Pliny the Elder|
No. 88, 9 May 1994
RUSSIA GRACHEV ON STATE OF RUSSIA ARMY; WITHDRAWAL FROM ABROAD . . . At a 6 May press conference marking the second anniversary of the Russian army, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev lamented the sorry state of the armed forces and urged the government to do more to help the Defense Ministry solve its problems. According to AFP, Grachev again criticized the proposed military budget, saying that it was hardly enough to cover the Defense Ministry's debts. He also charged that poor living conditions and lowered morale was causing recruits to flee the army and had led to a sharp increase in the number of suicides. Grachev suggested that problems facing Russia's naval forces--especially the Pacific Fleet--were severe and claimed that by 1992 some two-thirds of Russia's naval vessels needed to be replaced. AFP also reported that Grachev had admitted that the actual strength of the armed forces was now about 1.5 million; he said that the preferred strength of the army was two million. Interfax of 6 May quoted Grachev as saying that by 1 September 1994 Russia will have withdrawn all its military forces--some 32,000 troops--from abroad, with the exception of those deployed in states with which Russia has basing agreements. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . THREATENS ESTONIA WITH REINFORCEMENTS. In other remarks made on 6 May, Grachev compared the policies of Estonian authorities toward the nation's ethnic Russians to "apartheid" and warned that Moscow would consider increasing its military presence in Estonia if alleged discrimination did not cease. Contradicting once again Russia's nominal policy of not linking its military withdrawal to the treatment of Estonia's Russian minority, Grachev was quoted by Reuters as saying that the "withdrawal of [Russia's troops] is closely linked to guarantees of normal life for the Russian-speaking population. If [withdrawal] talks stall, Russia will keep its 2,500 servicemen there. If the situation changes it won't take long to send reinforcements." According to the same Reuters report, Russia's chief negotiator, Vasilii Svirin, echoed Grachev from Tallinn, saying that if "Estonia does not conclude the additional agreements on [military] pensioners Russia will pull out when it pleases." Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . ON JOINT EXERCISE WITH US; NATO PARTNERSHIP. Grachev also told reporters that he continued to support a joint military exercise with US forces, scheduled for July on Russian territory, although, according to the newspaper Newsday, he suggested that it might have to be postponed until the autumn. His remarks came following two days of talks with US defense officials. On a less positive note, however, Grachev again expressed Moscow's reservations toward participation in the NATO Partnership for Peace Program, saying that Russian authorities would draft their own concept for participation and, according to Reuters, present it to NATO on 24 May in Brussels. Grachev apparently gave no details, but said that the new plan, to be finished by 15 May, would first be approved by Boris Yeltsin and the Russian Security Council. According to Interfax, Grachev said that, on the strength of its geopolitical position, Russia should play a unifying role in efforts to build collective security structures in Europe and Asia. In a separate interview, with Interfax, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev spoke in similar terms with respect to NATO. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. DEFENSE LOBBYIST APPOINTED TO CABINET. Details have emerged of changes at the top following Prime Minister Chernomyrdin's public rebukes to reformist ministers on 5 May (see RFE/RL Daily Report for 6 May). Nikolai Travkin, head of the Democratic Party of Russia and a former lobbyist for the military-industrial complex, was named on 7 May as minister without portfolio, Russian and Western agencies reported. Dmitrii Vasilev, a deputy chairman of the State Committee for the Management of State Property (GKI), has been dismissed, while two of the most outspoken liberals, deputy ministers for finance and economy, Sergei Aleksashenko and Yakov Urinson, have been reprimanded. Travkin's appointment is expected to strengthen the hand of the defense lobby ahead of the renewed debate in the State Duma on the 1994 federal budget, expected to begin on 10 May. The lobby is seeking to boost defense expenditure from 37.1 trillion to about 82 trillion rubles in 1994. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. RUTSKOI DEMANDS POLITICAL REHABILITATION. Former Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi said he wanted a military tribunal to review his forced retirement from the armed forces, AFP reported on 8 May. After the October 1993 disturbances in Moscow, President Yeltsin issued a decree forcing Rutskoi out of the military on the grounds that by having instigated the disturbances he had "violated military honor." Rutskoi said that though he would not seek reinstatement into the armed force as long as Yeltsin was president, he did want to restore his prestige within the military by asking the tribunal to examine the reasons for his forced retirement. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. YAVLINSKY FOR CIS INTEGRATION. The leader of the moderate reform-bloc YABLOKO in the State Duma, Grigorii Yavlinsky, said in an interview with Komsomolskaya pravda on 5 May that he regards the break-up of the economic ties between the former Soviet republics as the main reason for the overall economic decline in the former Soviet republics. He stated that the present political elite must be replaced by new elites which would start again the process of economic integration. He repeated his intention to run for the Russian presidency and added that demagogic politicians like Vladimir Zhirinovsky could have received 20% of the votes also in elections in Western states. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. OPPOSITION LEADER WINS SUIT AGAINST FORMER KGB GENERAL. The leader of parliamentary conservative opposition Sergei Baburin has won a libel suit both against former KGB General Oleg Kalugin and the newspaper Izvestiya, RFE/RL correspondent reported on 4 May. In 1992, Izvestiya quoted Kalugin as saying that Baburin had been recruited as a KGB secret agent, and subsequently Baburin sued for libel. At the trial, the defense did not substantiate the accusation, but argued that serving as a KGB secret agent is not disgraceful, and, therefore, Kalugin's allegations about Baburin could not be considered libelous under Russian law. The court of the Kuntsevo district in Moscow apparently disagreed and Kalugin was sentenced to pay 1,500,000 rubles as damages to Baburin and 200,000 rubles to the state. Izvestiya must pay 2 million rubles to Baburin and 200,000 to the state. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. MALAYSIA TO FINALIZE PURCHASE OF MiG'S. Malaysian authorities announced on 6 May that they were ready to finalize a deal on the purchase of 18 MiG-29 fighter jets that has been in the works for nearly a year. AFP quoted Malaysia's Defense Minister as saying that negotiations in Kuala Lumpur with Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Aleksandr Panov were in their final stages and that he expected the agreement to be signed within "a matter of days." As Reuters suggested on 7 May, the last impediment to the deal appears to involve the proportion of the payment to be made in cash; Malaysia had earlier proposed paying a significant portion of the cost in palm oil. There have also been objections to the sale in Malaysia, which is predominantly Moslem, because of Russia's support for Serbia. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN GRAIN? Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Zaveryukha has again stated that Russia will require hardly any imported grain this year. During a news conference in Kazan on 6 May, he claimed that state stocks of grain amount to 18 million tons, which will keep the population and livestock inventories supplied through December [i.e., when this year's harvest will be in], Interfax reported. President Yeltsin and other leading figures have proudly asserted that Russia has reattained self-sufficiency in grain, apart from a few million tons to be shipped directly to the Far East and a small quantity of feed grains, while exporting a few million tons to other former Soviet republics. Yet although the reduced livestock inventories will require less feed grains, it is difficult to see how imports can be avoided if the domestic harvest falls below 90 million tons, as is widely expected. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. CALM BEING RESTORED IN DERBENT. The situation was gradually returning to normal in Derbent in southern Dagestan on 7 May after the leaders of the Lezgin, Azerbaijani, and Tabasaran national movements called for an end to the meetings that had followed the killing of two Lezgins by Azerbaijanis, ITAR-TASS reported. The rallies were demanding an end to the rampant crime in the area, and the Azerbaijanis were calling for changes in the local government bodies, insisting that they had "traditionally" been headed by Azerbaijanis, Interfax reported on 6 May. The republican authorities have replaced the head of the Derbent administration and the local department of internal affairs. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA RAKHMONOV IN MOSCOW. Tajikistan's head of state, Supreme Soviet Chairman Imomali Rakhmonov, spent 5 and 6 May in Moscow discussing Russian assistance to his country with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, Russian Premier Viktor Chernomyrdin and Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev. On 8 May Dushanbe Radio broadcast the text of a communique issued at the end of the visit indicating that alleviation of Tajikistan's severe economic problems was one of the cardinal points under discussion. Rakhmonov appealed for the process of unifying the two countries' monetary systems to be accelerated. After Rakhmonov's meeting with Kozyrev, Interfax reported that the Russian Foreign Ministry had issued a statement on 7 May warning that Russia will take whatever steps are necessary to secure the Tajik-Afghan border and accusing the Tajik Islamic opposition of planning a spring offensive from Afghanistan. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS CIS STAFF CHIEF SERIOUSLY INJURED. ITAR-TASS reported on 4 May that General Viktor Samsonov, CIS armed forces Chief of Staff (and de facto the highest ranking officer in the current nebulous CIS military hierarchy), was seriously injured in a traffic accident on 2 May. He had just returned from Brussels, where he was part of a CIS military delegation that met with NATO leaders. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. STATUS OF START. Several reports in the Russian and Western press have provided information on the disarmament process. Izvestiya on 4 May cited Colonel General Igor Sergeev, the commander of the Strategic Rocket Forces, as stating that all SS-24s in Ukraine have been deactivated and their warheads removed. Sergeev also noted that some 302 launchers in Russia have been "liquidated" as called for under START-1. (The treaty has not yet legally entered into force, as instruments of ratification have not been exchanged, but the parties are implementing its provisions.) Reuters quoted on 4 May a Ukrainian Defense Ministry spokesman as saying that there are only a few SS-24 missiles left to deactivate. Some 180 nuclear warheads have now been removed Ukraine. SS-25 mobile missiles have been withdrawn from two bases in Belarus (Lida and Mozyr) with some of them being redeployed at the Yoshkar-Ola base (formerly an SS-13 base) according to a Russian TV report of 20 April. The approximately 54 remaining missiles in Belarus are to be removed by the end of 1994. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE EX-COMMUNISTS RETURN TO POWER IN HUNGARY. According to preliminary counts, the Hungarian Socialist Party (HSP) received over 32% of the votes in the first round of the national election held on 8 May, MTI reported. The liberal Alliance of Free Democrats gained 19%, while the presently ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum came in third with 12% of the votes. The Independent Smallholders Party received over 8%, while the Alliance of Young Democrats and the Christian Democratic Peoples' Party gained the support of 7% of the voters each. The next parliament will be made up of the same six parties as the previous parliament as none of the other parties received the 5% support necessary for representation in parliament. The second round of voting will be held on 29 May; polls show that the HSP is leading in 158 out of 176 districts. Should this trend be confirmed, the HSP could rule the country without a coalition partner. Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc. MUSLIM-CROAT TALKS CONTINUE. International media reported on 9 May that negotiations between the new Bosnian federation partners have gone into a third day at the US embassy in Vienna. Many issues have apparently been cleared up, but the key problem of the borders between Croat and Muslim cantons remains. It is also not clear who will be the new state's first president and prime minister. Meanwhile in Brcko, UN observers took up positions behind Serb lines on 8 May, having previously deployed on the Croatian side. Serb forces, however, continued to block a UN medical convoy heading for Gorazde, while in Paris the French foreign minister said that the continuing Serb detention of 11 French aid workers is "unacceptable." AFP reported on 7 May that UN aid officials are planning to pull out of Gorazde, Srebrenica, and Zepa. Finally, the Washington Post on 8 May carried an article on the case of the missing Serb tank, or "this week's tragicomedy in the mountains around Sarajevo." The incident, by which some Serb tanks were allowed to cross through the exclusion zone with the approval of UN envoy Yasushi Akashi, led to a strain in relations between the US and the UN and to Muslim demands for Akashi's resignation. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BELGRADE BANS ZHIRINOVSKY RALLY. On 7 May RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported that Belgrade police authorities have banned a rally scheduled for 9 May which was to feature an appearance by Russian ultranationalist leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky. According to Tanjug, event organizers, members of the ultranationalist Serbian People's Renewal Party, describe Belgrade's move as "a political ban" and have said the rally, ostensibly to be held to commemorate Serbia's role in defeating the fascist powers during World War Two, will go ahead as scheduled. Meanwhile, Belgrade police have said the ban is necessary to preserve public order. In other news, Serbian media continue their probe of the scandal surrounding the now-defunct Dafiment Bank, once the rump Yugoslavia's largest private financial institution. On 9 May Politika resumes its coverage of the ongoing scandal under the headline, "How Much Money Disappeared from the Dafiment Bank" and also publishes an account of Dafina Milanovic's, the bank owner's, past dubious business practices. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. KRAVCHUK ON UKRAINIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk said that the issue of delineating the authority and balance of power between governing structures and economic reforms should head the agenda of the new parliament's first session which is scheduled for 11 May, ITAR-TASS reported on 7 May. Kravchuk also reiterated his opposition to holding elections before a constitution is passed and presidential powers defined. Interfax reported on 6 May that the leader of the Communist Party, Petro Symonenko, has said that the bloc of left-wing forces would not support Kravchuk's calls for delaying the elections. The bloc comprises Communists, Socialists and the Agrarian Party and controls over a third of the parliament's 388 elected seats which means it can derail any amendments it finds undesirable to the national constitution. Although the communists have said that they oppose the institution of a presidency in principle, they will support the candidate of the left-wing bloc, the leader of the Socialist Party, Oleksandr Moroz. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. SOLIDARITY SHOWS ITS MUSCLE. "Solidarity's protest action can go on for months, even years, because the union is fighting for a system in which the citizen is the master of his fate," Solidarity leader Marian Krzaklewski told strikers at the Gdansk Shipyard on 6 May, PAP reports. Krzaklewski claimed that 100 plants held strikes, with 200,000 workers taking part in the "culmination" of the union's national protest on 6 May. Some 20 plants struck for 8 hours in the Gdansk region. Government estimates on participation were lower. As 1,000 defense industry employees marched in Warsaw, Krzaklewski again threatened to paralyze Poland's energy production. He also said that the union will give consideration to a proposal from Zygmunt Wrzodak, the radical Solidarity leader at the Ursus tractor factory, to form a shadow government. Strikes continued in 19 hard-coal and 3 zinc and lead mines over the weekend. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak observed on 6 May that the mass media are giving wide coverage to the strikes while their impact is in fact quite limited. Deputy Prime Minister Grzegorz Kolodko strongly criticized the strikes, charging that they will lead only to higher prices and taxes. While Solidarity does not appear strong enough to force the government's hand, the strikes show the union still has considerable disruptive power. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK-GERMAN RELATIONS STRENGTHENED. Returning from a two-day visit to Germany on 6 May, Slovak Foreign Minister Eduard Kukan said that his German counterpart Klaus Kinkel guaranteed his support for Slovakia's membership in European organizations, TASR reported. The two met on 5 May to discuss bilateral economic relations and European integration. During the visit, Kukan also met with German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe to discuss Slovakia's efforts to join European security structures. In business news, a spokesman at the Slovensky energeticky podnik (Slovak energy company) said that on 5 May an agreement was signed with the German firm Siemens on the reconstruction of the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear plant in western Slovakia. Siemens, along with the French firm Electricite de France, is already involved in the construction of a second Slovak nuclear plant at Mochovce. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAKIA'S ROMANIES FORM ELECTION BLOC. On 8 May the Party of Social Democracy of Romanies announced that it will create a bloc of Romany election unity for the fall parliamentary elections, TASR reports. The bloc is open to Romany political parties, as well as independent Romany cultural representatives, businessmen and intelligentsia. The announcement followed a 6 May conference on "Romanies in Slovakia and Europe," which was held in cooperation with the Helsinki Committee and the Council of Europe and was attended by 37 Slovak Romany organizations, which are seeking a solution to the difficult social and political position of Romanies. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN AIR FORCE INTRODUCES IDENTIFICATION-FRIEND-FOE SYSTEM. In the presence of the US ambassador, Hungary inaugurated the first of its national air force units equipped with an IFF system in Kecskemet on 4 May. MTI said the IFF system is the first instance of high-tech US military equipment to be put into operation in Hungary. The IFF system reportedly cost 1.1 billion forint and will be used in 113 Hungarian Air Force planes by the end of this year. The IFF system will be extended later to other Central and East European states. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIA'S CHIEF RABBI DEAD. Romania's Chief Rabbi Moses Rosen died on 6 May, Romanian and Western media reported. Rosen, who was 81 years old, suffered a severe stroke three weeks ago and died of heart failure. President Ion Iliescu and the Romanian government praised Rosen's personality and condoled the Jewish minority. Iliescu said the authorities will continue to "fight with all energy against extremism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism." An official of the Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania said that after Rosen's death it will be difficult to ensure the cohesion of the community, particularly in view of the advanced age of most of the 14,000 Jews left in Romania. A memorial service for Rosen was attended by Iliescu on 8 May at the Choral Temple in Bucharest. His body will be flown to Jerusalem for burial. An official Romanian delegation headed by Minister of Justice Iosif Gavril Chiuzbaian will participate in the burial ceremonies. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. GERMANY PLEDGES SUPPORT TO ROMANIA. The German government has pledged increased support to Romania's path to a market economy. The pledge is contained in a framework agreement on economic cooperation and development signed in Bucharest on 6 May by Economic Cooperation Minister Carl-Dieter Spranger and Romanian Minister of State for Economic Reform and Strategy, Mircea Cosea, Radio Bucharest reported. The accord regulates the work of German experts and advisers. The German support will concentrate on consultation and help with the privatization of state enterprises. Bonn will also provide DM10 million to help Romanians establish new businesses and an additional 5 million for advising them. Another major area of German aid is agriculture. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. BEROV ON CABINET REORGANIZATION. In an interview aired on Bulgarian National Radio on 8 May, Prime Minister Lyuben Berov said he will submit his proposed cabinet reorganization for approval by parliament on 11 May. Although refusing to detail his plans, Berov revealed that he wants to transform the present government Committee on Energy, headed by Nikita Shervashidze, into a Ministry of Energy, as well as to reintroduce the death penalty to stem the rise in crime. Reuters points out that Justice Minister Petar Kornazhev, who strongly opposes the death penalty, is likely to resign if the moratorium on executions--in effect since 1990--is lifted. Berov also said he intends to appoint a former prominent member of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, Dimitar Gechev, as his deputy in charge of economic reform. Gechev, a 37-year-old economics teacher, would in that capacity succeed Valentin Karabashev who resigned on 28 April after Berov in parliament had criticized his performance. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBANIAN FARMERS OCCUPY TOWN HALL. Farmers started a hunger strike after clashing with police in the northeastern Albanian town of Kukes, international media reported on 7 May. About 150 farmers occupied the town hall there earlier, demanding compensation for homes they lost in a flood caused by a hydroelectric project in the communist era, when 26 villages disappeared under a lake. An unspecified number of people were injured in the clashes between 5 and 6 May when the farmers defied police. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. MOTORWAY BETWEEN DURRES AND TIRANA TO BE BUILT SOON. On 9 May construction will begin on the motorway from the Albanian Adriatic town of Durres to Tirana, Lajmi i dites reported on 30 April. The project is the first Albanian major highway and the first part of a larger route which will connect Durres with Skopje, Sofia, and Istanbul. This will considerably reduce Macedonia's economic dependence on Serbia and Greece. Representatives of the European Union, together with those of Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania, Greece and Romania, agreed on the project in Thessaloniki in early March 1994. The investments for the whole route will be provided by the PHARE program, which is designed to promote economic development in Central and Eastern Europe, but the first five kilometers will be paid for by the Albanian state. Another highway included in the project will connect Pomahon in Greece with the Bulgarian border checkpoint of Kulata and Romania. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN-ESTONIAN TALKS DEADLOCKED. The nineteenth round of Estonian-Russian negotiations ended on 6 May in Lohusalu without any progress on the two major issues: date for the withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia and social guarantees for military Russian pensioners in Estonia. Russia wants to link the two issues, while Estonia considers that they are separate matters. Prime Minister Mart Laar said that his country now aims to achieve a Russian troop pullout like Lithuania, i.e. without a formal agreement. Russia, however, would like Estonia to follow Latvia's example and sign accords both on troops withdrawal and on military pensioners at the same time. Responding to remarks of Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev on 6 May about keeping Russian troops in Estonia, Estonian president Lennart Meri cut short his visit to Portugal. Estonian Foreign Ministry official Raul Malk told BNS on 8 May that the Russian attitude to the troop withdrawal is a challenge both to the UN and the CSCE. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW VAT CAUSES CONFUSION IN LITHUANIA. The 18% value-added tax (VAT), which came into effect on 1 May, has caused considerable confusion in Lithuania. Finance Minister Eduardas Vilkelis admitted the new tax had "evoked a shock," since the prices of many foodstuffs and basic commodities jumped by about 20%. Seimas deputy Audrius Rudys told BNS on 4 May, that not enough explanatory work was done prior to the introduction of the new tax, which is expected to increase the state budget receipts by about 3%. BNS also reported that customs officers were not well-informed about the tax and stopped all incoming cargo at the border. At some service stations gasoline prices jumped by 25%, and bread prices rose by 20%. Nonetheless, no prices changes were reported in the first days of May in most stores in the Lithuanian capital of Vilnius. According to Interfax of 6 May, the Anti-Economic Crime Committee of the Seimas has asked Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius to oblige Vilkelis to correct the situation. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIA'S DEMOCRATIC PARTY PICKS NEW LEADER. On 4 May the Democratic Party's Council asked Juris Celmins to perform the duties of the party's leader until Aivars Kreituss, who was heretofore the leader, regains his mandate in the Saeima. Kreituss temporarily lost his mandate as a consequence of a decision in the Saeima that the State Prosecutor's office should investigate accusations that he and four other parliamentary deputies had a record of cooperating with the KGB. Investigations against all five all currently under way. In a related development, the Latvian parliament adopted on 5 May bills concerning state security institutions; another bill on former KGB collaborators may be passed before the end of this month, Diena reported. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LUKASHENKA'S RATINGS AS BELARUSIAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE. According to Belarusian radio on 6 May, social problems rate highly as an election issue in Belarus and Aleksandr Lukashenka is considered to have the most popular support on these issues from among the presidential hopefuls. The prime minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, follows in the ratings, and then the leader of the Party of Popular Accord, Henadz Karpenka. Kebich is reportedly concerned about Lukashenka's rising popularity. Lukashenka's pre-election campaign was based on his anti-corruption in government crusade. In January he had used corruption charges as a basis for removing the former chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanisalu Shushkevich, from office. Kebich's campaign is based on the theme that Belarus can only be rescued economically through a union with Russia. So far only Kebich and the leader of the Party of Communists of Belarus, Vasil Novikau, have gathered enough signatures to be placed on the slate on 23 June. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Dzintra Bungs and Jan Obrman The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. 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