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No. 87, 6 May 1994
RUSSIA FALSIFICATION OF RESULTS OF DECEMBER VOTE ANNOUNCED. A special team instructed by President Yeltsin to review the results of the December 1993 parliamentary election and constitutional referendum has found that turnout for the vote was only 46%, rather than over 50% as claimed by the Central Electoral Commission, Izvestiya reported on 4 May. Yeltsin set up the team earlier this year to reexamine the election results following the appearance in the Russian press of numerous reports alleging fraud in the vote count. The teams revelation means that the constitutional referendum failed to pass, since at least half of the eligible voters had to take part to make its results valid. However, on 5 May, Vladimir Mezhenkov, a spokesman for the presidential administration, told reporters that the findings of the special team will lead to neither new parliamentary elections nor a referendum on the constitution. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. CHERNOMYRDIN FAULTS CHUBAIS. The first item on the agenda at the cabinet meeting on 5 May, according to ITAR-TASS and Interfax, was a sharp ticking off by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin of those ministries and departments which have not been carrying out government decrees and decisions. Of 296 instructions, only 156 had been implemented. Heading the list of miscreants were the State Property Committee and the Ministries of Economics and Finance. This rebuke to Anatolii Chubais, the deputy prime minister in charge of privatization, will add grist to the rumor mill that foresees his ouster shortly after formal voucher privatization ends on 30 June. Chubais has never been a favorite colleague of Chernomyrdin, and he has many enemies among legislators and apparatchiks. The chairman of the State Duma committee on privatization told Interfax on 5 May that the parliament may not approve the post-voucher privatization legislation by 30 June, but Chubais was quoted as retorting that a duplicate presidential decree would push the procedure through on time. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW MEASURES TO STEM CAPITAL FLIGHT. Russia plans to introduce new export certificates for oil, metals, and other goods, and to deploy extra personnel at customs posts to reduce capital flight, Reuters reported on 5 May, citing ITAR-TASS. The certificates would be in addition to special export passports introduced on 1 January and, as the agency noted, will probably add another bureaucratic hurdle for exporters. The scale of capital flight from Russia in recent years has been variously estimated at between $12 billion and $20 billion a year: some observers believe that it has been greater than the inflow of Western assistance. It is likely to continue as long as Russians are convinced that foreign currencies or securities are more likely to store value better than their own funny money. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. BANKRUPTCY PROMOTED. In an article in Rossiiskaya gazeta of 6 May, summarized by ITAR-TASS on 5 May, Prime Minister Chernomyrdin seeks to convince the skeptical majority that bankruptcy can be good for you. He gently points out that bankruptcy proceedings do not necessarily lead to the closure of an enterprise and to driving its workforce onto the street. Chernomyrdins homily is significant in that deeds and words promoting faster action on bankruptcy have recently been left to other actors such as President Yeltsin and economic adviser Aleksandr Livshits (see Izvestiya and Segodnya of 21 April). That action in this sphere is overdue is evidenced by the fact that, as of mid-March, bankruptcy proceedings had been initiated against fewer than 50 industrial enterprises and none had been forced into liquidation. In the opinion of the general director of the Federal Bankruptcy Agency, at least 8,000 enterprises should be declared bankrupt immediately (see The Economist, 19 March 1994). Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. BUSINESSMEN SIGN CIVIC ACCORD. More than 100 Russian businessmen and bankers signed the Civic Accord on 5 May, ITAR-TASS reported. On 28 April 245 leading Russian politicians signed the accord, and President Yeltsin announced that anyone could sign it later. Interfax reported that while signing the accord on 5 May, businessmen and bankers pledged to refrain from unjustified production stoppages and to deal honorably with employees, suppliers, and clients. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. SURVEY OF RUSSIAS TOP POLITICIANS. Viktor Chernomyrdin remains the most influential politician in Russia according to the monthly opinion survey of experts published by Nezavisimaya gazeta on 5 May. The second most influential politician in April was Boris Yeltsin, and the third the speaker of the State Duma, Ivan Rybkin. Moscow mayor Yurii Luzhkovs influence is increasing; he now ranks fourth. The losers in the survey were the young turks in Russian politics-Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai, the leader of Russias Choice Egor Gaidar, and economist Grigorii Yavlinsky. Nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovskys influence has also fallen in comparison with previous surveys. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. US DEFENSE TEAM PRESSES MOSCOW ON COOPERATION. A high-level US delegation on 5 May ended two days of talks in Moscow that were aimed at convincing Russia to pursue a strategic partnership with the US. According to The Washington Post, US officials proposed a number of new security ventures, including a joint peacekeeping exercise to be held in the US which would focus on defending against a simulated short-range missile attack, and a cooperative research program on defense systems against short-range missiles. To convince Moscow of their sincerity, US officials reportedly presented a CIA briefing on perceived threats from regional powers such as Iraq, while a US Air Force general detailed the US short-range missile defense program. Ashton Carter, the head of the US delegation, was said to have expressed confidence that US-Russian peacekeeping exercises scheduled to be held in Russia in July will take place as planned; he also acknowledged that Russia as a powerful and important country . . . will have a powerful and important role in [the NATO] Partnership for Peace. Carter nevertheless rejected giving Russia such explicit status up front. US officials were reportedly unable to convince Moscow that the deployment of short-range missile defenses would not violate the ABM (Anti-Ballistic Missile) treaty, while Russian participants were equally unsuccessfully in winning US approval for changes in the CFE (Conventional Forces in Europe) treaty. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. GENERAL STAFF CHIEF HITS NATO ON CFE. Russian General Staff Chief Mikhail Kolesnikov said in a 5 May interview published by Segodnya that Russias talks with NATO on altering CFE sub-limits had reached an impasse and that NATO officials were deaf as a doorknob to Moscows requests to deploy more troops in the North Caucasus military district. According to AFP, Kolesnikov charged that the treaty restrictions were pushing Russia into a corner and that pressure on Moscow to comply with the treaty was making talks on the NATO Partnership for Peace program particularly difficult. This is not a partnership, Kolesnikov was quoted as saying; he urged NATO to make one step, even a small one, towards us. Kolesnikov said that General Staff First Deputy Chief Vladimir Zhurbenko had held negotiations on this issue with NATO officials during a recent trip to Brussels. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV TO VISIT NATO. Reuters, quoting the RIA news agency, reported on 5 May that Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev plans to visit Brussels on 24 May in order to present Russias current views on the NATO partnership plan. The report quoted Grachev as saying that while Russia should join the program, it is necessary to take into consideration Russias size and might. Our state is a superpower and one should not make equal all states which join this concept. Grachev said that the views he would present to NATO would first be approved by Boris Yeltsin. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA TO EXTEND TEST MORATORIUM. ITAR-TASS and Western press agencies reported on 5 May that Russia will extend its moratorium on nuclear testing past its mid-1994 expiry date and will press for a comprehensive test ban treaty to be signed by early 1995. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV ON BILDT VISIT. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev said that during talks with visiting Swedish Prime Minister Carl Bildt on 5 May, Russia and Sweden both expressed support for establishing a post of commissioner for human rights and national minorities in the Baltic states. (In September 1993, the creation of such a position within the ten-member Council of Baltic States was proposed, and a candidate is expected to be nominated this year.) Kozyrev also said that both sides came to the conclusion that this is a pan-European problem and it must be settled in accordance with the norms of the CSCE. The talks also focused on the situation in Bosnia, ITAR-TASS reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. CLASH BETWEEN LEZGINS AND AZERIS IN SOUTHERN DAGESTAN. Meetings of several thousands of Lezgins and Azerbaijanis in Derbent in southern Dagestan were into their fourth day, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported on 5 May. They were sparked off by a domestic quarrel between some members of the two nationalities which led to a clash in which two Lezgins were killed and several other people injured. The protesters were demanding an end to the rampant crime in the republic and the resignation of the local authorities. The clashes coincided with a visit to Dagestan by Sergei Stepashin, director of Russias Federal Counterintelligence Service, who discussed the Lezgin problem and signed a protocol in Makhachkala on 5 May with the Dagestani speaker and Dagestani prime minister calling for speedy talks with Azerbaijan on establishing a frontier and customs regime between Russia and Azerbaijan that would facilitate contacts between the Lezgins living on both sides of the frontier. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN REFUSES TO SIGN BISHKEK PROTOCOL. The CIS Inter-Parliamentary Assembly-sponsored talks in Bishkek on the Karabakh conflict ended on 5 May with the signing by the Armenian, Nagorno-Karabakh, Kyrgyz, and Russian representatives of a cease-fire protocol to take effect at midnight on 8 May, Interfax reported. The Azerbaijani delegate refused to sign because several of his proposals were omitted, including mention of the fact that 20% of Azerbaijans territory is occupied. The Russian representative, Vladimir Shumeiko, chairman of the CIS Inter-Parliamentary Assembly, said the primary obstacle to a settlement was Azerbaijans refusal to recognize Nagorno-Karabakh as a party to the conflict; he said it was illogical to propose the deployment of international, rather than CIS, peacekeeping forces to monitor a cease-fire given that the enclave is part of the CIS. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. NO UN PEACEKEEPING TROOPS FOR ABKHAZIA. In a written report to the UN Security Council, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali conceded the urgent need for a peacekeeping presence in Abkhazia to permit the return to their homes of refugees and displaced persons, but ruled out the dispatch of UN peacekeeping troops because of disagreements between the Georgian and Abkhaz authorities over where and how such troops should be deployed, ITAR-TASS reported on 5 May. As an alternative, Boutros-Ghali suggested the dispatch to Abkhazia of a CIS peacekeeping contingent that could subsequently become part of a UN presence there when the necessary preconditions were reached. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE MUSLIMS WANT AKASHI TO GO. RFE/RLs Balkan Service reported on 5 May that Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic has demanded that Yasushi Akashi be replaced as the top UN envoy dealing with the crisis, adding that his government would no longer negotiate with him. Akashi had agreed to allow some Serb tanks to pass through the Sarajevo exclusion zone in the direction of Herzegovina in return for the Serbs allowing a UN convoy to proceed to Gorazde. Some confusion remains as to how many tanks actually went through the zone and under what circumstances, but the Muslims were livid at the prospect of the UN allowing Serbian armor to head for the Konjic-Mostar area. That region was the scene of fierce clashes between Croats and Muslims last year, but has been fairly quiet since those two sides signed the Washington agreements in February and March. A Bosnian government statement said that after its passivity towards Serb aggression, the UNPROFOR has gone on to play an active part in the aggression. The Washington Post notes on 6 May that Akashi, [Gen. Michael] Rose, and their spokesmen consistently have sought to play down the Serbs repeated violations of the NATO-enforced exclusion zones. . . . UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, however, defended Akashi against the Muslims demands. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BOSNIAN SERBS REJECT LAND-FOR-PEACE FORMULA. Reuters reported on 5 May that Bosnian Serb parliament speaker Momcilo Krajisnik has rejected Western assertions that the Serbs could keep only 49% of the republics territory as part of an eventual settlement. He called the proposition a provocative offer. The Serbs, who make up less than a third of Bosnias population, hold now 70% of its land as a result of armed conquest and ethnic cleansing. They appear to have definite plans of their own for the future, and the governor of the rump-Yugoslav National Bank noted that we will become a well-fed country from this war. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. MARGARET THATCHER CALLS FOR TOUGH ACTION AGAINST SERBS. The 4 May New York Times carries a commentary by the former British prime minister entitled: Stop the Serbs. Now. For Good, in which she urges a policy of air strikes coupled with lifting the arms embargo on the Muslims. She notes that it is time to halt [Serb aggression]-late, but not too late. We have the justification, the interest, and the means. Mrs. Thatcher points out that this is not a civil war but a war of aggression, planned and launched from outside Bosnia using the Serbian minority within it. She had advocated the lift-and-strike approach at the start of the conflict, and says that, if her advice had been followed, thousands of people would now be alive and in all probability the Milosevic regime in Belgrade would have fallen. Similar tough language can be found in the Washington Post, but coming from the Danish commander whose tanks pounded Serb gunners on 28 April. Lt. Col. Lars Moeller said of fighting in the Balkans: all sides are full of a lot of macho bull . . . you have to adjust your behavior accordingly. The UN should not bow its head to any of these people. Once you do that, you lose your dignity and, even worse, the other guy will keep walking over you. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SERBIAN ECONOMIC NEWS. On 6 May Borba continues its coverage of the Serbian opposition Democratic Partys (DS) economic programs under the heading Legally, Quickly, and Equitably. The story, summarizing the DSs stated position on privatization, reports on a party-sponsored round table discussion dealing in part with the state of the economy. Earlier, on 5 May, Borba had reported on DS leader Zoran Djindjics economic platform under the headline: Privatization-the Last Chance. In another story, on 5 May Reuters reported on statements made by Dragoslav Avramovic, current governor of rump Yugoslavias national bank. According to Avramovic, the rump Yugoslav economy will be able to weather the effects of international sanctions and the national budget deficit should be eliminated by 24 June. On 6 May, however, The Economist expressed strong reservations about predictions for a speedy recovery of the rump Yugoslav economy, dubbing the current situation the purported economic miracle. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. KOSOVO UPDATE. In the Serbian province of Kosovo arrests and police raids against members of the ethnic Albanian majority have continued in recent days. Rilindja reported on 4 May that a family in Mitrovica was evicted from its home of 12 years. Elsewhere, the police arrested people while supposedly searching for arms in Kacanik, Pristina and small villages. An Albanian man, who had served in the Yugoslav army in Split in 1988, was arrested in Budakovo and brought to the barracks even though he was disabled thanks to injuries received during his military service. Meanwhile on 1 May, the police harassed a soccer match of the first league clubs of the self-declared Republic of Kosovo in the Pristina-Flamurtari stadium. Elsewhere, internationally wanted war criminal Zeljko Raznatovic, or Arkan, repeated his threat to expel ethnic Albanian Kosovars to Albania, allegedly to make room for Serbian refugees, adding that he will also deport the Kosovar President Ibrahim Rugova to his reserve homeland, Albania. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. SOLIDARITY REJECTS TRIPARTITE FORMULA. Meeting in Gdansk on 5 May, Solidaritys national leadership demanded direct, bilateral talks with the government. The union rejected negotiations in the tripartite commission, as it is an advisory body whose opinions are not binding on any party, PAP reports. A union statement also complained that public television is not presenting Solidaritys positions accurately. Solidarity leader Marian Krzaklewski told reporters that the unions protest action will culminate on 6 May, with strikes planned in hundreds of plants. Four coastal shipyards are to strike for eight hours. Krzaklewski also threatened that the brown-coal strike at Belchatow may be renewed, in retaliation for the governments refusal to abandon all wage controls. Some of Krzaklewskis remarks suggested that Solidaritys strike fund is not large, and that this has limited support for the strikes. Scattered railway strikes were reported on 5 May; strikes continued at 20 hard-coal mines. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH SENATE APPROVES WAGE CONTROLS. The Senate voted on 5 May to approve legislation restoring limited wage controls on firms with at least 80% state ownership. The vote was 51 to 14, with 8 abstentions, PAP reports. The Senate endorsed an amendment that would make the wage controls valid only until the end of 1994, in keeping with the governments recent offer to the trade unions. The bill now returns to the Sejm for consideration in its amended form; if approved there, it then moves on to the president for signing. This procedural delay means that the new controls are unlikely to take effect until 1 July. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH COALITION EXPANDS INFLUENCE. A second deputy minister from the ruling Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) has been appointed to a presidential ministry, Polish TV reports. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak named Zbigniew Sobotka to the post of deputy internal affairs minister on 4 May, ending weeks of speculation on the subject. Sobotka, a steelworker by training, served as one of the token workers on the communist party Politburo from 1988-90; since 1989 he has concentrated on parliamentary work on police matters. The appointment drew immediate criticism from the Union of Labor, whose leader said it signals the return of the nomenklatura. Danuta Waniek (SLD) was named deputy defense minister on 26 April; Marek Siwiec (SLD) is to become deputy foreign affairs minister by 1 July. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY IN PRAGUE. On 5 May Douglas Hurd, British Foreign Secretary, told journalists in Prague, where he had arrived for a two-day visit, that the expansion of the European Union and NATO to the East will be Europes main task for the rest of the century. CTK quotes Hurd as saying expansion will take place not all at once but gradually, using existing agreements. At the same time, Hurd said that he could not foresee the EU seriously considering further expansion before a scheduled 1996 conference reviewing EU institutions. Following his meeting with Hurd, Czech Premier Vaclav Klaus told reporters that the Czech Republic will apply for EU membership before 1996. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. MECIARS PARTY STEPS UP ATTACK ON GOVERNMENT. In recent days the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia has become increasingly critical of the current governing coalition. During a 4 May public meeting of the MDS and the Slovak National Party, attended by 7,000 people, former Premier Vladimir Meciar accused Deputy Premier Roman Kovac of having accepted a $5 million bribe from a US firm and claimed that Christian Democratic Movement Chairman Jan Carnogursky held talks with US President Bill Clinton in February 1993 concerning the reunification of Czechoslovakia. Similarly, TASR reports that in the 4 May parliament session the MDS and SNP brought forward a motion of no-confidence in Kovac. The motion was not passed, but Premier Jozef Moravcik said the move demonstrates the wretchedness of political culture of certain deputies and political groups. In a press conference on 5 May, former Justice Minister Katerina Tothova warned that the present coalition may try to delay parliamentary elections. When asked about Kovacs alleged bribe, Tothova said the MDS did not want to stir up the issue before it could be properly investigated. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. GYULA HORN SERIOUSLY WOUNDED IN A CAR ACCIDENT. The leader of the Hungarian Socialist Party (HSP) Gyula Horn had a serious car accident on the evening of 5 May. MTI says Horn is suffering from a brain concussion, a broken wrist and minor cervical vertebra damage. The accident occurred as the HSP is leading polls ahead of the first round of Hungarys general election on 8 May. Horn, whose car rammed a truck when returning from a campaign appearance in Miskolc, is expected to be hospitalized for several weeks. The police are investigating the incident. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. COUNTDOWN TO HUNGARYS PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION. It is unclear how Horns car accident will affect the HSPs popularity. According to the latest polls before the opinion survey moratorium, Hungarian media said the reform-communist HSP was favored to win the elections with 38%, riding on widespread dissatisfaction caused by the radical economic reforms. The Alliance of the Free Democrats-the largest opposition party in the last parliament-was projected to garner 14%, the Young Democrats 10%, the Smallholders and the Christian Democrats 9% each, and the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum 12%. In this second free election after the collapse of the communist regime, 7.8 million voters will choose between 15 parties and 4,600 candidates. Out of 386 parliamentary seats, 176 are distributed on single majority districts, while 152 regional and 58 national party list candidates will compete about the rest according to a proportional system. The second round takes place on 29 May. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN PARTIES EXCHANGE INSULTS OVER CORRUPTION. Radio Bucharest and Reuters reported on 4 and 5 May that the Romanian Party of National Unity and the Democratic Party-National Salvation Front exchanged insults and accused each other of corruption. The scandal was triggered by accusations of the PRNU vice chairman, Ioan Gavra, a member of the parliamentary commission set up to investigate possible power abuse by officials who are suspected of having taken over houses owned by the state. Gavra said widespread abuse had been revealed under both the Petre Roman and the Stolojan governments, which had fostered nationwide corruption and that prosecutors have been asked to investigate the matter. In turn, Adrain Severin, vice-chairman of Romans DP-NSF said that the issue at stake was not corruption, but an attempt by fascist parties to defame the entire [democratic] political class and the fledgling democracy. He also said the DP-NSF had urged prosecutors to lay charges on the PRNU for its involvement in the notorious Caritas investment pyramid racket. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. IMF DELEGATION VISITS ROMANIA. Maxwell Watson, the chief IMF negotiator with Romania, was received on 5 April by President Ion Iliescu, Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu and other Romanian officials. Watson, who heads a delegation of IMF, was said by Radio Bucharest on 5 May to have had a last exchange of opinions with his hosts before the IMFs Executive Boards meeting that will discuss the stand-by accord with Romania. He told a Radio Bucharest correspondent that he had registered with satisfaction the adopted macroeconomic stabilization measures, the drop of the inflation rate against last year, and the stabilization of the exchange rate. Should this trend continue, Watson was quoted to have told Vacaroiu, Romanias image among foreign investors was likely to radically change. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. TOP BULGARIAN PRIVATIZER SPEAKS OUT. In an interview with Bulgaria National Radio on 5 May, the Chairman of the Supervisory Council of the Agency on Privatization, Nikola Katsarski, expressed deep skepticism regarding the selling out of Bulgarian state property over the foreseeable future. In explaining the slow pace of privatization in the country, Katsarski mentioned flaws in the legislation, an almost total lack of foreign investments, the absence of a well-functioning financial system, as well as the unwillingness of the government and parliament to remedy the situation. He said he believes another important factor is that those who control the domestic capital continue to wait for the economic crisis to deepen, so that the prices on state property will become lower. He also said the failure to close down unprofitable state enterprises-a law to that effect has not yet been passed by parliament-has reached absurd proportions. In an unusual move on 5 April, the government declared the bankruptcy of 34 companies. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUSIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION UPDATE. On 3 May Interfax reported that the Belarusian prime minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, has collected over 100,000 signatures from Belarusian citizens in support of his presidential candidacy, in addition to 150 signatures from parliamentary deputies. Belarusian radio reported on 5 May that the leader of the Party of Communists of Belarus, Vasil Novikau, has also succeeded in collecting over 100,000 signatures in support of his candidacy. There are 19 registered contenders and among those progressing in their signature campaigns are the former chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich; the leader of the Belarusian Popular Front, Zyanon Paznyak; and the head of parliaments former anti-corruption committee, Aleksandr Lukashenka. All have reportedly collected 30-70,000 signatures. The signature collection will continue until 14 May. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS RESUME. The 19th round of Estonian-Russian talks started in Lohusalu, near Tallinn, on 5 May. The two sides tried to agree on a date for the complete withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia; they also discussed other, less controversial topics, such as cooperation in education. Earlier, the Russian side had indicated willingness to pull out its troops by 31 August 1994 if Estonia agrees to social guarantees for the approximately 10,000 retired Russian servicemen residing in Estonia, and about $23 million for the construction of housing in Russia for the troops returning there. The Estonian delegation head Vaino Reinart told BNS that his country believes that the withdrawal of troops must not be tied to other issues. Both Estonian and Russian officials indicated that they were not optimistic about the results of this round of negotiations insofar as troops withdrawal issues are concerned. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by John Lepingwell and Kjell Engelbrekt The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. Longer analyses are available in a monograph series, RFE/RL STUDIES, and brief analytic summaries appear monthly in the RESEARCH BULLETIN. 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