|To live is so startling, it leaves little time for anything else. - Emily Dickinson|
No. 85, 4 May 1994
RUSSIA DEFAULT ON PLEDGE TO IMF? President Boris Yeltsin's senior economic adviser has intimated that Russia will be unable to meet a key pledge made to the International Monetary Fund in March in order to qualify for the $1.5 billion systemic transformation facility. In an interview with the Financial Times of 4 May, Aleksandr Livshits said that the reduction of monthly inflation rates to single figures had been achieved too soon, and that higher inflation was the only way to save Russian industry from collapse. One of the preconditions stipulated by the IMF in March was that expenditures in the 1994 federal budget be kept at 183 trillion rubles and that revenues be boosted: this is unlikely to happen. Livshits stated that the steep fall in output (about 25%) during the first quarter of this year would be maintained in April and might deteriorate further in May because of the three days of public holidays. He was openly critical of both the president and the prime minister. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV HAILS MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev said on 3 May that the signing of the Gaza-Jericho agreement between the PLO and Israel is the first major step toward a comprehensive settlement in the Middle East. Speaking to reporters before departure in Moscow and upon arrival in Cairo, where the agreement is to be signed, Kozyrev praised the degree of cooperation between Russia and the United States, and he said that the achievement of the agreement could be attributed at least in part to the support of these two countries. Kozyrev, who will meet with US Secretary of State Warren Christopher during his stay in the Egyptian capital, also praised the level of US-Russian consultation on Middle East issues, saying, "we are in daily contact, we are acting in unison, in complete accord," ITAR-TASS reported. His comments conflict with Western press reports citing complaints among unnamed US officials about Russia's failure to consult on some issues connected with the Middle East peace process. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV AT SIGNING CEREMONY. Addressing (in English) the participants at the signing ceremony on 4 May, Kozyrev stated that he hoped that a "total agreement [for] all the territories" would be signed within the next year. He also stressed Russia's "longstanding vital interest" in peace in the region, noting that the Middle East was closer to Moscow than the Russian Far East. Kozyrev also reiterated that Russia will continue to maintain an active role as co-sponsor of the peace process. Even as Kozyrev made his comments, however, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat continued to negotiate details of the accord on the stage behind him. The signing ceremony and addresses were carried live by CNN International. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. RUEHE ON RUSSIA AND NATO EXPANSION. In a speech delivered on 3 May at the US West Point military academy, German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe said that he foresees a strong and expanded NATO that includes participation by Russia. Reuters quoted Ruehe as saying that "prosperity and democracy should not end at Germany's eastern borders, nor should NATO and the European Union end there." Ruehe praised the NATO Partnership for Peace program, but said that Moscow should play a special role within the partnership. In remarks made a day earlier Ruehe had suggested that Russian participation in the NATO partnership would involve a special arrangement between NATO and Russia, and that Moscow would not become a member of the Western alliance. He also called for Moscow to be more open about its military policies and said that Bonn did not agree with Russia's concept of a "near abroad" and of its claim to have special rights in that region. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. LAW ON BROADCAST MEDIA UNDER PREPARATION. A draft law on broadcast media which is currently under preparation seeks to introduce stricter control over newscasts, Russian Television reported on 4 May. The draft is being prepared by the parliament's committee on mass media in cooperation with representatives of the government. The draft reportedly makes no reference to privately owned Russian broadcast companies and does not foresee privatization of the state-run broadcast media. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. TV OFFICIAL CALLS FOR PRIVATIZATION OF STATE TELEVISION. Meanwhile, the chairman of the State Duma's subcommittee on TV and radio, Kirill Ignatev, said that Russia's state television was in crisis, Russian Radio "Novosti" reported on 3 May. He called on the political leadership to reduce control over broadcast policy and permit gradual privatization of state television and radio. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. STABLE INVESTMENT CLIMATE SOUGHT. In an effort to attract more foreign investment, the Russian government might consider a three- to five-year moratorium on changing laws once the necessary legislative framework is in place. This was announced in an interview in the Journal of Commerce of 3 May with Yurii Petrov, who is the head of the State Investment Corporation (Gosinkor) and a chairman of the Russian-American Commission on Foreign Investment. Petrov was reacting to widespread concern among present and potential external business partners that Russian legislation affecting foreign investment and trade is inconsistent, uncoordinated, wholly unpredictable, and, generally speaking, chaotic. The same newspaper reports that the American Chamber of Commerce in Russia has warned US companies to reconsider making loans to their Russian subsidiaries or partners because of attempts by the tax authorities to slap a 23 percent value-added tax on all loans from outside Russia. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. SOLZHENITSYN SPEAKS OUT. Russian writer and Nobel Prize winner Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn claimed in an interview with Forbes (9 May issue), shortly before his scheduled return to Russia, that the West "uses all means possible, no matter what the consequences, to weaken Russia." He attacked the West for its support for Ukraine, remarking that "the Ukrainian army is being indoctrinated with propaganda that war with Russia is inevitable." Solzhenitsyn stated that Russia, in 1991, "without a murmur" and "just to please America" had "thrown away the last vestiges of her concern for her security and her unprecedented collapse." He also blamed the West for its rush to recognize "artificial" new states on the territory of former Yugoslavia which, in his opinion had resulted in the present Balkan civil war. He argued that Western leaders should become more far-sighted and predicted that in the 21st century, "US together with Europe will be in dire need of Russia as an ally." Solzhenitsyn also criticized the radical economic reforms of former acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar as "another heartless experiment." He warned of nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky and said that the latter's victory became possible only because Russian democrats had "completely abandoned Russia's national interests." Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. KOSTOEV ON RETURN OF INGUSH REFUGEES. Isa Kostoev, chairman of the Federation Council's Committee of Constitutional Legislation, said at a meeting with his constituents in Ingushetia on 3 May that he and the Ingush Minister of Justice had drawn up several proposals on the return of Ingush refugees to the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia which they would be submitting to Yeltsin, Interfax reported on 3 May. Kostoev, an Ingush who was earlier Yeltsin's representative in Ingushetia, said they provided for the return of refugees to six settlements by 20 May, and the remainder by 20 September. Kostoev called for the dismissal of Vladimir Lozovoi, head of the provisional administration in the area, who, he maintained, was unwilling to use the unlimited powers he had to improve the situation. He also called for the transfer of the headquarters of the provisional administration from North Ossetia to neutral territory, for example the city of Terek in Kabardino-Balkaria. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN TO PARTICIPATE IN NORTH OSSETIAN CELEBRATIONS? North Ossetian President Akhsarbek Galazov told local leaders on 3 May that Yeltsin was intending to take part in the celebrations marking the 220th anniversary of the incorporation of Ossetia in Russia and the 210th anniversary of the founding of the North Ossetian capital, Vladikavkaz, Radio Mayak reported. This would seem to be a harking back to the Soviet period and could chime ill with the plans of other North Caucasian peoples to mark the 130th anniversary of the end of the 25-year-long Russo-Caucasian war which resulted in their conquest by Russia. Interfax reported on 3 May that on the instructions of the president of Kabardino-Balkaria an organizing committee had been set up to commemorate the victims of the war. Last week a group headed by the republic's minister of culture set out on horseback to retrace the steps of the hundreds of thousands who fled to Turkey with great loss of life at the end of the war. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA OUTCOME OF ISSYK-KUL SUMMIT. RFE/RL's Kyrgyz Service has obtained the text of a communique issued at the end of the closed-door summit of the presidents of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan that was held in the town of Cholpon-Ata on Lake Issyk-Kul on 29 and 30 April. During the summit Kyrgyzstan became a formal member of the economic union set up by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan in January; Kyrgyzstan had expressed its intent to join only a few days after the creation of the new regional grouping was announced. The communique stresses the need for increased cooperation in the political, cultural, and especially the economic sphere among the Central Asian states. The new economic union is offered as the basis for a CIS economic union, and all CIS states are invited to join. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS AGREEMENT ON NUKES IN KAZAKHSTAN. Russia's Independent TV on 28 April and Segodnya on 29 April reported that one of the agreements signed during the 28 March summit between presidents Yeltsin and Nazarbaev concerned the disposition of nuclear forces in Kazakhstan. According to Pavel Felgengauer's report in Segodnya, the agreement provides for Russia's assumption of jurisdiction over the nuclear forces in Kazakhstan, with all warheads to be removed within 14 months. Silos and missiles in Kazakhstan would be dismantled within three years. Complete details of the dismantling process have not been revealed, nor is there any information on whether, or how, Kazakhstan might be compensated for the highly enriched uranium in the warheads. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. ROK PRESIDENT TO VISIT RUSSIA AND UZBEKISTAN. South Korean President Kim Young-sam will visit Russia from 1-4 June and Uzbekistan from 4-6 June, Reuters reported on 4 May. In Moscow, Kim is expected to discuss with Boris Yeltsin means of strengthening ties between the two countries and of improving coordination in their efforts to promote stability on the Korean peninsula. Kim's visit to Uzbekistan was said to be aimed at cultivating economic and other ties with other independent states of the former Soviet Union. Uzbekistan has a large Korean minority. On his return to South Korea Kim is also scheduled to stop off in Vladivostok, headquarters of Russia's Pacific Fleet. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. Correction: In the RFE/RL Daily Report of 3 May Ashton Carter was incorrectly identified as [US] Deputy Secretary of Defense. His correct title is Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear Security and Counterproliferation. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBS AND MUSLIMS STRESS IMPORTANCE OF BRCKO. RFE/RL's Balkan Service reported on 3 May that both the Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic and the Muslim military commander Gen. Rasim Delic have underscored the key role of this Serb-held northern Bosnian town, which lies along the land corridor linking Serbia with its conquests in Bosnia and Croatia. Karadzic said it was of vital interest to the Serbs, while Delic stressed that the battle for the region would be decisive for the future of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Karadzic agreed in talks with UN envoy Yasushi Akashi to the deployment of UN observers in the area, while the Belgrade Politika on 4 May accuses the Croats and Muslims of staging "provocations around Brcko." Meanwhile in Sarajevo, Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic said on 3 May that the Serbs would have to withdraw completely from their recent conquests in Gorazde as a precondition for peace talks, the Balkan Service noted. The 4 May New York Times adds that the UN has admitted that armed Serb forces remain in the area although they were supposed to have been withdrawn in the face of a NATO ultimatum. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. UNESCO LAUNCHES PLANS TO REBUILD KEY CULTURAL SITES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. UNESCO Director General Federico Mayor visited Sarajevo on 3 May, the Balkan Service reported. He discussed plans to reconstruct the most pressing projects, including the National Library in the capital. This was originally the Moorish town hall dedicated by Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand just before his assassination in 1914 and was destroyed by Serb shells in 1992. Another item on the list is the Old Bridge in Mostar. Among the countries volunteering to help on that job are Turkey, whose architects and engineers built the structure in 1566, and Croatia, whose gunners blasted it into the Neretva River in 1992. Meanwhile, Mayor also participated in a ceremony to mark World Press Freedom Day by helping to dedicate a memorial to the 68 journalists and other press people killed in the Wars of the Yugoslav Succession. Freedom House in New York, however, ranked both Bosnia and Serbia as "not-free press countries" in its annual survey to commemorate that same day, while Croatia landed in the intermediate "partly free" category. The Balkan Service noted that, while Croatian television and some newspapers are firmly under the control of the governing party, the country has some independent and hard-hitting weeklies, and even the pro-government daily Vjesnik is acquiring a profile of its own. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CROATIA TO INTRODUCE NEW CURRENCY. Hina reported on 3 May that Croatia's National Bank has announced that the kuna will enter circulation on 30 May, which is celebrated as the Day of Statehood. The Bank says it expects "no economic earthquakes" to follow, and the long-planned kuna will be exchanged at the rate of one to 1,000 Croatian dinars, a transitional currency that has become fairly stable. The term kuna has deep roots in Croatian history, but many opposed reintroducing it because it was also the name of the currency of the Axis puppet regime from 1941 to 1945. President Franjo Tudjman, who is a military historian with a particular passion for heraldry and uniforms, has, however, refused to abandon centuries-old national symbols simply because they were reintroduced by the Ustase during World War II. Tudjman has nonetheless banned any rehabilitation of the fascist state or its top leaders, and retains the Tito-era national anti-fascist holiday. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SERBS STEP ETHNIC CLEANSING IN EASTERN CROATIA. Vjesnik on 4 May reports on Serbian efforts to expel Croats, Hungarians, Slovaks and other non-Serbs living in eastern Slavonia and replace them with Serb colonists. While ethnic cleansing has been a hallmark of Serbian policy throughout the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, it has been followed with particular zest in that region, which is contiguous to Serbia, since the Serb attacks on their neighbors began in 1991. On another theme popular in at least some of the Croatian press, Novi list on 3 May discussed how the ruling elite in Tudjman's Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) has come to control the economy and key political institutions, including the Foreign and Intelligence Services. The article is entitled "They Have Croatia," which is a play on one of Tudjman's political slogans, "We Have Croatia," meaning that the country is now independent. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. KARADZIC IMPLICATED IN BANK SCANDAL. On 3 May The Guardian reported that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has been linked to the collapse of the rump Yugoslavia's largest private financial institution, Dafiment Bank. Dafiment Bank closed its doors in April 1993, owing its customers an estimated DM 212 million. Dafina Milanovic, owner of the defunct bank, reportedly revealed that prominent politicians and paramilitary leaders were involved in plots to defraud the institution, and were permitted to make withdrawals after it was closed to others. According to a Financial Times report of 4 May, Milanovic also alleges that Karadzic "himself carried sacks of cash out of the bank." International media speculate that the disclosure of Karadzic's involvement with the bank in fact signals a falling out between Karadzic and Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. TENSIONS IN MONTENEGRIN-SERBIAN RELATIONS. Montenegrin President Momir Bulatovic described the 23 April congress of the Serbian intellectuals as a "meeting of individuals with personal viewpoints," adding that "no organized political force stands behind the words, declarations and documents of the congress," Politika reported on 29 April. The congress, which took place in Belgrade, discussed the "Serbian question" and the possible foundation of a greater Serbian state, which should include Montenegro. Many Montenegrin political forces, however, are strongly opposed to losing the status of a republic co-equal with Serbia in the federation by the creation of a centralized Serbian state. Elsewhere, Montenegro claims a right to oil that is produced in Serbia and Vojvodina, saying that the delivery of oil falls in the federal sphere and not exclusively in that of the Republic of Serbia, Politika reported the same day. Nonetheless, the paper says that even though negotiations are underway it is not likely that Montenegro will receive Serbian oil before June. Montenegro has no oil resources of its own, and Croatia has charged that Serbian occupation forces in Slavonia are taking large amounts of oil from Croatian fields. Meanwhile, Albanian police seized three road-tankers bound for Montenegro, Reuters reported on 28 April. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. NO BREAKTHROUGH AT GREEK-ALBANIAN MEETING. A two-hour meeting of the Albanian and Greek foreign ministers in Zurich on 3 May apparently failed to substantially improve bilateral relations, which lately have been strained due to minority problems and a border incident on 10 April in which two Albanian conscripts died. Reuters quoted Greek Foreign Minister Karolos Papoulias as qualifying the talks as "positive," and acknowledging that Tirana had demonstrated goodwill. But Papoulias stressed that there were several remaining problems to be resolved, mentioning that he had asked Albania to release five members of the minority Greek Omonia party which Athens says is being persecuted since the border incident. For his part, Papoulias' Albanian counterpart Alfred Serreqi described the meeting as "constructive," without elaborating further. He nonetheless noted that stable Albanian-Greek relations are currently important for the security of the whole region. Greek officials said the meeting had neither produced an agreement on practical measures, nor a date for a subsequent meeting. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND MARKS CONSTITUTION DAY. In a speech at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier marking the anniversary of the 3 May 1791 Constitution, President Lech Walesa lamented that Poland still lacks a new constitution, five years after the collapse of communism. "We are building a house without solid foundations," he said. Walesa expressed concern that work on the new constitution has become mired in political conflict. The framers of the 1791 constitution should serve as an example, he argued, as they managed "to rise above divisions, ambitions, and animosities." Meeting later with the diplomatic corps in Warsaw, Walesa noted that independence and democracy had enabled Poland to build good relations with all its neighbors. The signing of a new treaty with Lithuania had completed this process, he said. Walesa and Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak attended religious services at Jasna Gora on 3 May; these coincided with a pilgrimage of 100,000 farmers. The president also awarded the "Order of the White Eagle" (an honor reactivated in the country in 1992) to seven elderly Poles: Adam Bien, Aleksander Gieysztor, Czeslaw Milosz, Zofia Morawska, Jan Nowak-Jezioranski, Stanislaw Stomma, Jerzy Turowicz, and, posthumously, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. SOLIDARITY WANTS NEW SYSTEM. Solidarity's leadership is attempting to escalate its protest into a three-day general strike, starting 4 May; on 29 April the union's national protest committee instructed all members to take part. Gazeta Wyborcza reports that the union's coal and energy branches resolved late on 3 May to call strikes in all of Poland's hard-coal mines. Over the long holiday weekend, 16 coal mines and 3 zinc and lead mines staged "absentee strikes," with most miners remaining at home. Workers in Poland's 63 coal mines were meeting early on 4 May to determine whether to answer Solidarity's call. Solidarity leader Marian Krzaklewski announced that the union's railway branch will meet to debate a strike on 4 May; the "historic" plants, such as Ursus and the Gdansk shipyard, are to strike on 5 May. In remarks to union members on 3 May, Krzaklewski said that Solidarity is fighting for "a good system" to replace the current one, "in which our families grow poorer." Krzaklewski asserted that the current parliament is not legitimate enough to adopt a new constitution. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. THE CZECH REPUBLIC TO REPAY IMF LOAN AHEAD OF TIME. The Czech government's economic affairs ministers decided on 3 May that the Czech Republic will repay its $430 million IMF loan, due to be repaid in 1995, one year ahead of schedule. CTK reports that the main reason for the decision is that the country's hard currency reserves have been quickly rising over the past year and that the early repayment of the loan will result in savings. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK GOVERNMENT AGREES TO AMEND LAW ON NAMES. On 3 May Interior Minister Ladislav Pittner announced that the government approved a change in the law on names which would allow Slovakia's minority groups to use the forms of their first names which correspond to national traditions and would allow women to drop the "-ova" ending from their surnames. The passage of the law has been a point of contention in Slovak-Hungarian relations; Hungary threatened to block Slovakia's entrance into the Council of Europe in June 1993, claiming that the rights of ethnic Hungarians living in Slovakia were not guaranteed. The cabinet's proposal will still have to be approved by the parliament. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. PORTION OF THE BUDAPEST BY-PASS HIGHWAY OPENED. In a major step toward Hungary's highway construction, a 13.9 km stretch of the M0 was opened to the public on 3 May. Apart from connecting three existing four-lane highways--the M1, M5, and M7--the M0 circles Budapest and will enable eastward-going traffic to by-pass downtown Budapest and at the same time annually relieve the capital of some 500 to 800 tons of air pollution. MTI reports that the new portion was inaugurated by Prime Minister Peter Boross and Transportation Minister Gyorgy Schamschula. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN MINERS PROTEST AGAINST ECONOMIC TROUBLES. Romanian miners staged on 3 May what they called a "march of national despair," to protest against the deterioration of the country's economy, Radio Bucharest and Western agencies reported on the same day. Five miners' unions took part in the march. The leader of the lignite miners' union, Marin Condescu, told a Reuters correspondent that his members were calling for national unity and reform, not for pay rises. Condescu said 1,500 miners demonstrated in the main square of the mining town of Targu Jiu. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIA AND THE ISRAEL-PLO AGREEMENT. Teodor Melescanu, Romania's Minister of Foreign Affairs, flew to Cairo on 3 May to participate in the ceremonies of the signing of the Israel-PLO agreement on 4 May, Radio Bucharest reported on the same day. Melescanu said Romania has been invited to be represented at the occasion in recognition for the role it has played in the forging of the agreement, including the latest meeting at the Cras Montana forum in Bucharest between PLO leader Yasser Arafat and Israel's Foreign Minister Shimon Peres. He emphasized that Romania wanted to participate in the economic reconstruction of the region and was well positioned to do so, since its industrial potential and expertise in certain areas of infrastructure construction enjoyed a good reputation in Israel and the Arab world. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIAN UNION LAUNCHES WARNING STRIKES. The Chairman of the Confederation of Trade Unions in Bulgaria, Krastyu Petkov, told Bulgarian radio early on 5 May that workers in 150 municipalities and 950 enterprises have began warning strikes and are prepared to extend the protests to a full-scale walkout in the coming weeks. Petkov, who last month declared that the CITUB has withdrawn its support for the current government, accused the administration of neglecting the crisis-ridden mining and energy sectors. Over the past few weeks, the CITUB staged several strikes against the government's economic reform and social policies, urging that incomes be protected against inflation and that key industry sectors be reconstructed. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE TO SIGN AGREEMENT WITH EU; AND RECEIVE AID FROM US. On 3 May Interfax reported that Ukraine plans to sign an agreement on partnership and cooperation with the EU in June. The agreement would give Ukrainian goods more access to West European markets. This follows EU plans at a meeting on 27 April to extend a 100 million Ecu aid package to Ukraine. Ukrainian television reported that on 3 May an economic delegation from the US led by National Security Council official, Nicholas Byrns, was to meet with officials from Ukraine's economics ministry in Kiev. Discussions are to focus on working out the details of a $350 million aid package offered by the US during President Leonid Kravchuk's visit to the US in March of this year. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. 7,000 RUSSIAN TROOPS COULD LEAVE LATVIA BY END OF AUGUST. Ilgonis Upmalis, head of the Latvian office monitoring the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia, told Diena of 3 May that he believed Russia should be able to pull back the approximately 7,000 troops in Latvia by 31 August, in compliance with the troop pullout accords signed in Moscow on 30 April. Upmalis nonetheless expressed surprise that Russian media lately had been reporting that there were still about 12,000 Russian troops in Latvia--a figure that Upmalis said was exaggerated. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA PREPARED TO DISMANTLE PALDISKI REACTORS. The Estonian government has set aside 1.4 million Estonian kroons (about $100,000) for dismantling the two nuclear reactors at the former Soviet submarine training base at Paldiski. Much of the money comes from funds donated by Western countries for that purpose. Juri Tikk told BNS on 3 May that the Estonian side is ready to proceed with the dismantling and that flights over Paldiski--which are unrelated to the dismantling work--would be banned starting on 15 May. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by John Lepingwell and Kjell Engelbrekt The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. 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