|The highest possible stage in moral culture is when we recognize that we ought to control our thoughts. - Charles Darwin|
No. 103, April 28, 1994
RUSSIA CIVIC ACCORD SIGNED. On 28 April, President Boris Yeltsin, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, chairmen of the State Duma and the Council of Federation, leaders of Russias republics and regions, representatives of political parties and movements, trade unions and religious organizations signed the Civic Accord, a document that calls on all signatories to refrain from violence in pursuing political goals. The signatories also promise not to call for early presidential and parliamentary elections and to propose constitutional changes only on a conciliatory basis. A special conciliatory commission has been set up to monitor the compliance with the accord by the signatories, ITAR-TASS reported. The Accord will be in force for two years, which are regarded by the Russian leadership as the most painful transition period. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSINS SPEECH AT SIGNING CEREMONY. During the ceremony of signing the Civic Accord President Yeltsin said that the formation of a new conciliatory commission means that a mechanism has been created for solving emerging conflicts at an early stage, ITAR-TASS reported on 28 April. He stated that the Accord could mark the end of a century-long confrontation which had shaken Russian society since the Civil War (1918-20). According to Yeltsin, the genocide of Cossacks, forced collectivization, the deportation of people, the bloody crackdown on workers in Novocherkassk (1962), the August 1991 putsch, and the bloody events of May and October 1993--were all the result of the curse of the Civil War. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. THREE REPRESENTATIVES AT THE CEREMONY FAIL TO SIGN ACCORD. Out of 248 participants at the ceremony of signing the Civic Accord, 245 put their signatures under the document, the presidential administration told ITAR-TASS on 28 April. Leader of the Russian Communist Party Gennadii Zyuganov, chairman of the Vladimir oblast legislature N. E. Vinogradov, and chairman of the Kemerovo oblast legislature Aman Tuleev, refused to sign the document. All three have been sharp critics of President Yeltsins policies. The following politicians signed the Accord with reservations: presidents and chairmen of parliaments of Tatarstan and North Ossetia, chairman of the Chita oblast legislature, and several trade union leaders. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. UNION OF 12 DECEMBER REGISTERED AS NEW PARLIAMENTARY FACTION. The pro-reform Liberal Democratic Union of 12 December headed by former Finance Minister Boris Fedorov has been officially registered as a new faction in the State Duma, ITAR-TASS reported on 28 April. The new faction comprises 39 deputies. Earlier this year, Fedorov said his group decided to call itself liberal democratic union in order to rehabilitate this name, which has been misused by Vladimir Zhirinovsky, whose ultra-nationalist party is also called liberal democratic. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. SPECIAL TEAM FORMED TO INVESTIGATE MURDER OF DUMA DEPUTY. The Russian Interior Ministry, the Federal Counterintelligence Service, and the Office of the Russian Prosecutor General, have formed a joint team to investigate the murder of Duma deputy Andrei Aizderdzis, Interfax reported on 28 April. The agency said the Prosecutors Office has already established that it was a contract killing. The murder provoked sharp debates in the State Duma, which demanded that the government take emergency measures to fight organized crime in Russia. President Yeltsin opened the signing ceremony of the Civic Accord with a moment of silence for Aizderdzis. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. POLLS SHOWS STEEP DROP IN YELTSINS POPULARITY. On 28 April Interfax reported the results of surveys which indicate that Yeltsins popularity has significantly dropped among the public. In a poll conducted in April, 1,204 residents of various Russian cities were asked whom would they vote for if only Yeltsin and Zhirinovsky ran in the forthcoming presidential elections? Only 27% replied that they would vote for Yeltsin; 11% said they would vote for Zhirinovsky; 51% said neither of them; and 11% were undecided. In a poll conducted in March, 1,202 Russians were asked with whom in the events of October 993 they sympathized. Only 20% of the respondents sided with Yeltsin; 10% with the parliament; 6% with the military and law-enforcement bodies; 4% with Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin; 42% took no side in the conflict; and 18% were undecided. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. REDUCED ROLE FOR CHURKIN? Statements from Moscow that Russian Deputy Foreign Minister and special envoy to the former Yugoslavia Vitalii Churkin will be replaced as Russian representative on a working group discussing the conflict in Bosnia have raised rumors that Churkins previously high-profile role in the Bosnian negotiations is being reduced. Balkan expert Aleksei Nikiforov is to serve as Russias representative in the working group. Kommersant-Daily on 28 April speculated that Churkin may now be paying for earlier criticism of the Bosnian Serbs and noted rumors of his alleged differences with Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev. Interfax of 28 April quoted Foreign Ministry spokesmen as saying that henceforth Churkin will continue to serve as the presidents special envoy to the former Yugoslavia, but that his presence will be reduced and he will only be sent into the negotiations at crucial junctures. Meanwhile, the same Interfax report quoted presidential aide Dmitrii Ryurikov as denying reports that the recent bloodshed in Gorazde signified a defeat for Russian foreign policy. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV IN BONN TO DISCUSS BOSNIA POLICY. German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel characterized in very positive terms three hours of talks with Kozyrev that took place in Bonn on 28 April. According to DPA, Kozyrev, arriving in Bonn following visits to Geneva and Paris, presented plans for a major conference of foreign ministers on Bosnia and emphasized Moscows readiness to cooperate on the basis of partnership. In his own remarks, Kinkel expressed the hope that the conference would be held in the near future. He also said that Russia must continue to be involved in the peace efforts and exert its influence on the Serbian side. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. OFFICIAL ON POTENTIAL RUSSIAN REFUGEES. Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin warned on 28 April that some six million refugees and displaced persons could flood into Russia in the next two or three years if, in his view, the situation for ethnic Russians living in neighboring states does not change for the better. According to Interfax, 150,000 out of 25 million ethnic Russians living in these states had received Russian citizenship; Karasin complained that tough and soft squeezing have already compelled some two million to move to Russia. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE OPTIMISM ON RUSSIAS NATO PARTICIPATION. Speaking to reporters on 28 April, NATO Deputy Secretary-General Sergio Balanzino said that Moscow was now emitting positive signals on its willingness to sign onto the NATO Partnership for Peace program. Reuters quoted Balanzino as saying that we hope that by summer we will have another flag to add...namely the Russian flag. Balanzino, whose optimistic remarks echoed those made a day earlier by British Field Marshal Sir Richard Vincent, was speaking, AFP reported, at the official opening of a coordination unit for the partnership at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers in Europe (SHAPE) in Mons, Belgium. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. GROWING TRADE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CHINA. According to a spokesman for Russias Foreign Economic Relations Ministry, the total trade turnover between Russia and China in 1993 amounted to $7.7 billion, an increase of 27.3% over the 1992 total, and was expected to double by the year 2000, making China Russias major trading partner, the Journal of Commerce reported on 28 April. The ministry spokesman said that last years figure does not include illegal trade conducted by private commercial travelers from both countries, which the ministry estimated at 25% of the official figure. More than 80% of the total trade is conducted between the border regions of the two countries, the report said, with the main impediment to increased trade volume being the low capacity of the two existing railway crossings on the border. It added that this year Russia will deliver to China some $290 million worth of goods as payment for credit extended by Beijing in 1990; a significant portion of the goods is believed to be military equipment. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE SUPPORT FOR THE DEFENSE LOBBY. The chairman of the State Dumas Defense Committee, Aleksandr Piskunov, has proposed an increase in defense expenditure in 1994 from 37.1 trillion to 55 trillion rubles, Interfax reported on 28 April. Piskunov also heads a working group for what is described as the classified part of the governments draft budget that includes defense expenditure. His interview conveyed the impression that the defense industry has continued to produce and deliver military hardware far beyond the scale authorized in the defense allocation in the draft budget. Thus, during the first quarter of 1994, the debt of the Defense Ministry to the defense industry was said to have grown from 2.1 trillion to 4.7 trillion rubles. The speaker of the State Duma, Ivan Rybkin, has urged President Yeltsin to discuss the defense budget at the next session of the Security Council. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. REPAYMENT OF FOREIGN DEBT IN 1994. According to the State Dumas Committee on Budget, Taxes, and Finances, the Russian government intends to repay $4.7 billion out of a total amount of $32 billion due this year in principal and interest on its foreign indebtedness, Interfax reported on 28 April. The total foreign debt outstanding at the beginning of 1994 was put at over $80 billion: this figure excludes debt to East European countries and commercial arrears. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS KARABAKH ARMENIANS ACCEPT CEASE-FIRE PROPOSAL. On 28 April the Karabakh Armenian authorities agreed to the Russian proposal for a cease-fire in the region of the Karabakh conflict, in accordance with the agreement signed in Moscow on 18 February between the defense ministers of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Nagorno-Karabakh, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. The cease-fire will take effect as of 00:01 hours on 29 April. Meanwhile a CSCE delegation traveling in southwest Azerbaijan was subjected to artillery fire by Armenian armed formations, but no casualties were reported. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL ASIA AND TRANSCAUCASIA MITTERRAND IN TURKMENISTAN. On 28 April, the second day of his state visit to Turkmenistan, French President Francois Mitterrand signed a treaty on friendship and cooperation with his host, Saparmurad Niyazov, ITAR-TASS reported. Interfax quoted Mitterrand as stating that France would grant Turkmenistan a credit of FF220 million for unspecified economic projects, and expressed interest in greater cooperation in the oil and gas extraction industries, aviation and agriculture. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. ARMENIAN PRIME MINISTER PROPOSES COMMON CIS CURRENCY. In a letter to CIS government heads, Armenian Premier Hrant Bagratyan has reiterated a proposal made at the CIS Moscow summit earlier this month on the introduction of a common CIS currency, to be used parallel with national currencies, in order to simplify financial transactions between CIS member states, Interfax reported on 28 April. Bagratyan argued that such a currency would help stabilize local currencies and block the growth of CIS member states debts to Russia. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE US CONCERNED ABOUT MOVEMENT OF SERB WEAPONS. Reuters reports on 29 April from Jerusalem, where it is covering Secretary of State Warren Christophers visit, that a senior US official expressed concern that the Serbs are moving military equipment from Gorazde and elsewhere to the narrow corridor they hold around Brcko. That region is not a UN-declared safe area, but the official added that theres a great deal of concern about movements toward Brcko and thats something thats actively under review both in Brussels and at the UN. Meanwhile in Washington, Congress voted on 28 April to pass a non-binding resolution calling on President Bill Clinton to lift the arms embargo on the Bosnian government to enable its forces to defend themselves, international media said. In Oslo, negotiator Thorwald Stoltenberg told Reuters that he sees the present dividing line in Sarajevo and possibly all of Bosnia as well turning into a de facto partition line on the model of Cyprus and Lebanon. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SERBS CONTINUE TO HOLD PART OF GORAZDE. The New York Times reports on 29 April that Serbian forces remain in the southern Gorazde area of Zupcici, even though they are supposed to have withdrawn under NATOs ultimatum. The Serbs say they must remain to protect recently settled Serbian civilians. In Sarajevo, international media said that the new contact group of Western and Russian diplomats are continuing talks on possible resumption of peace negotiations. They met on 28 April with UN commander Gen. Sir Michael Rose, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, and Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic. Meanwhile, CNN showed footage of Rose and Silajdzic having a less than comfortable chat of their own. The general was trying to smooth the ruffled feathers of the Bosnian authorities following his remarks to British troops to the effect that Bosnian forces had run at Gorazde and expected the British to fight the Serbs for them. Rose apparently did not know that the remarks would be publicly circulated on a video, but, in any event, claimed in Sarajevo that his words were taken out of context. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. HELMUT SCHMIDT OFFERS ADVICE ON BOSNIA. In the 29 April issue of Die Zeit, former German Chancellor Schmidt says that there are basically only three models for dealing with the Bosnian conflict. One involves imposing a lasting peace and would require at least 100,000 soldiers, while the second option would focus on calming and containing problems on a case-by-case basis, as the European governments did up to the time of the First World War. This approach would, however, necessitate concepts and leadership . . . [both of which] are missing in the West. The third possibility is that of letting things go on as they will, but that obviously has little to do with morality and human rights. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CHETNIKS TO REORGANIZE, JOVANOVIC INTERVIEWED. On 29 April Borba reports that the Serbian Chetnik Movement, the organization implicated in paramilitary activities and ethnic cleansing campaigns throughout former Yugoslavia, will redefine its relationship to ultranationalist Vojislav Seseljs Serbian Radical Party (SRS). According to the report, the Chetnik organization will be formally disbanded, with its membership being integrated directly into the SRS. In other news, Borba of 29 April continues its coverage of Belgrades ongoing media crackdown and publishes a list of the names of the foreign journalists who have been banned. Finally, on 29 April the Washington Post reports on rump Yugoslav Foreign Minister Vladislav Jovanovics recent remarks about peace prospects in former Yugoslavia. According to the report, Jovanovic, and by implication the Serbian and rump Yugoslav governments, would accept the creation of a larger state that would incorporate both Croatia and Serbia. Nevertheless, Jovanovic stressed that an easing of sanctions against rump Yugoslavia would be a necessary precondition for an end to fighting in Bosnia. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. NO PROGRESS IN GREEK-MACEDONIAN DISPUTE. Despite the ongoing efforts of UN mediator Cyrus Vance and US envoy Matthew Nimetz, no progress has been reported in reaching an agreement between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia. According to Nova Makedonija and MIC, Greece is not prepared to lift the trade embargo unless Macedonia pledges to drop the Star of Vergina from its flag and officially disavows purported territorial aspirations which Athens claims are contained in the Macedonian constitution. Greece is willing to postpone the resolution of the controversy around Macedonias name. Macedonia prefers not to put this matter off and seems unprepared to change its flag at this time. The negotiators are nevertheless hoping to forge a preliminary agreement wherein both sides make concessions. UN Secretary Boutros Boutros Ghali was scheduled to meet separately with Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou and Macedonian Foreign Minister Stevo Crvenkovski in New York on 28 April but no reports concerning the outcome have been received. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT TO DECIDE ON US OVERFLIGHT REQUEST. On 28 April the government decided to refer to the National Assembly a request of the US Embassy in Sofia for air passage of 10 F-16 fighter planes over Bulgarian territory. Government spokesman Raycho Raykov told BTA that the Defense Ministry and the General Staff had suggested approval of the request, while the Transport, Interior and Foreign ministries advised the government to refer the issue to parliament. Raykov also revealed that the request had been submitted on 11 April and that the overflight had originally been scheduled for 28 and 29 April. The National Assembly, however, is to take a recess until 11 May. Two weeks earlier, a request to transit military equipment to United Nations peace keepers in Macedonia prompted heated parliamentary debates, with the Bulgarian Socialist Party saying that Sofia in effect was abandoning its policy of non-interference in the Balkan conflict. Much of the current controversies have centered around whether the transit of military equipment or fighter planes--in this case without munitions--can be regarded as foreign troops and consequently, in accordance with the 1991 constitution, need approval by parliament. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. SOLIDARITY STRIKES. Solidarity claimed that 1,500 workplaces answered the unions national protest call on 28 April, Polish TV reports. Most plants held four-hour warning strikes. Government sources said that 10,685 miners in 17 hard-coal mines had joined the 4 brown-coal mines already on strike. More protests are expected on 29 April. Warsaw Solidarity leader Maciej Jankowski addressed a small demonstration outside the Sejm, charging that Poland is not a country of social justice or respect for the law, which means that it is not truly democratic. Several non-Solidarity mining unions condemned the strikes as harmful and political. Industry Minister Marek Pol negotiated with striking miners for 15 hours in Konin on 28 April. Talks were suspended when the unions demanded that the government pledge to implement the pact on state firms by a specific date; the talks resume on 29 April. The unions resolved to supply enough coal to power plants to produce one-third the normal electricity until 2:00 p.m. on 29 April. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. GOVERNMENT RECOMMENDS TALKS. Solidaritys ultimatum for a timetable outlining the governments plans to satisfy union demands went unanswered. Labor Minister Leszek Miller argued in the Senate on 28 April that Solidarity had abandoned talks and launched strikes because it had lost the privileged position it enjoyed under past governments. Negotiations are not as spectacular as strikes and demonstrations, Miller said. He expects Solidarity to submit its demands at a meeting of the tripartite socio-economic commission on 29 April. The government cannot permit excessive inflation, he stressed. Deputy Prime Minister Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz told reporters that the government will not yield to union demands phrased as a dictate. President Lech Walesa urged the government to act swiftly. In general I oppose strikes, the president said. Although Ive been in many strikes, that was only when there was no other way to solve problems. Prime Minister Pawlak made the oblique comment that many problems can be solved on the condition that many people, including unions and workers, show responsibility. Speaking for the Church, Bishop Tadeusz Pieronek cautioned that strikes are a last weapon to be used only in truly exceptional situations. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE DELAY ON POLISH WAGE CONTROLS. Despite pleas from the finance ministry, the Senate opted not to consider wage control legislation on 28 April. This legislation, approved by the Sejm on 22 April, is designed to replace the excess wages tax that expired on 1 April. President Lech Walesa vetoed an earlier version of the bill. The Senate attributed the postponement to procedural problems, but pressure from Solidarity seemed to be the real explanation, as one of the demands of the current strikes is complete wage freedom. The Senates failure to take up the bill effectively postpones reimposition of wage controls until 1 June, at the earliest. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak has argued that excessive wage growth is not a threat, but Deputy Finance Minister Ryszard Pazura told a Senate commission on 27 April that he is alarmed at the current rate of wage growth. Central Planning chief Miroslaw Pietrewicz echoed this concern on 28 April, warning that industrial surveys indicate that wage growth is very serious. Lack of wage controls could extinguish economic growth, he said. Grzegorz Kolodko, the economist who will be named finance minister and deputy prime minister on 29 April, told reporters he identifies with the governments stance on strikes and wage controls. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN EXTREMISTS REESTABLISH HUNGARIST MOVEMENT . . . The leaders of World National Popular Rule Party, the Hungarian National Front, and the Alliance of the Victims of Communism, Albert Szabo, Istvan Gyorkos, and Kemal Ekrem, reestablished on 12 April the Hungarist Movement, according to Nepszava of 28 April. The leaders told a press conference on 27 April that they identified themselves at least partially with the Arrow Cross Party of Ferenc Szalasi the spiritual leader of the Hungarist Movement who led a reign of terror when his party was put to power by the German occupiers in 1944. Gyorkos said that the movement was needed because of the strengthening of left-wing parties and because the current parties did not represent Hungarian interests. He denied that the Hungarist Movement had been responsible for the Holocaust in Hungary and expressed doubts that 600,000 Hungarian Jews had perished. Gyorkos accused Jews of trying to discredit Hungary at home and abroad. The Hungarist leaders stressed that the Hungarist Movement...considers itself an operating organization irrespective of any court registry decision. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . AND ARE CONDEMNED AND ARRESTED. Prime Minister Peter Boross and the presidium of the Hungarian Democratic Forum condemned the Hungarist movement. Boross stated that organizations [whose policies had led to] a national tragedy have no place in Hungarian public life, MTI reported on 28 April. Hungarian Justice and Life Party co-chairman Istvan Csurka called statements of support for his party by Hungarist leaders a provocation, and a dirty political trick orchestrated by political forces who were interested in portraying his party as an extremist organization. He stressed that the HJLP had no ties whatsoever to the Hungarist groups. MTI reported on 29 April that police had taken Szabo and Gyorkos into custody and that proceedings have been initiated against them for inciting against the community. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PM COMMENTS ON SLOVAK-HUNGARIAN RELATIONS. Slovak Prime Minister Josef Moravcik said that Slovakia and Hungary must resolve their disputes over border and minority issues to ensure future membership in the European Union, Reuters reported on 28 April. Moravcik said that a Slovak-Hungarian border treaty was important for stability in Central Europe and would increase the credibility of the two countries as they pursue EU membership. Hungary formally applied for full EU membership last month and Slovakia intends to follow suit later this year after its associate EU membership has been ratified. Slovakia and Hungary have argued over the status of minorities in their respective countries as well as over other issues, including the controversial Gabcikovo-Nagymaros dam for several years. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc. NO EASTER VISIT FOR KING MICHAEL. Western agencies reported on 28 April that the Romanian authorities have blocked plans by Romanias exiled former monarch to spend the Orthodox Easter in the town of Timisoara. George Antoniade, an aide to King Michael, said the talks with the authorities on the kings private visit had collapsed because the king could not accept Bucharests demand that he drop Timisoara (where the 1989 uprising began) and visit elsewhere in Romania, as a guest of the government. Radio Bucharest quoted Antoniade as saying at a press conference that the organization and the program of the visit were becoming more and more restrictive. Earlier, the radio broadcast a communique of the government, according to which King Michael had agreed to the private character of the visit, as well as to state that he had no intention to contest the existing constitutional order in the country. The government said that it had proposed in a gesture of goodwill to guarantee the good organization and unfolding of the visit and expressed regret that the authorities openness for dialogue was not reciprocated. Bucharest had also offered a special aircraft to fly Michael to Romania but Antoniade said he refused to use that costly privilege . . . while the Romanian people live in dire economic and financial straits. Michael Shafir., RFE/RL, Inc. DEPUTIES BACK KEBICHS PRESIDENTIAL BID. On the first day of the extraordinary session of the Belarusian Supreme Soviet Prime Minister Vyachelsau Kebich received enough signatures from parliamentary deputies to support his bid for the presidency, Belarusian radio reported on 27 April. 70 deputies signatures are required for a nominee to be placed on the presidential slate or 100,000 Belarusian citizens signatures. Two other nominees attempting to collect signatures in parliament are the leader of the Party of Peoples Accord, Henadz Karpenka, and the BPF opposition leader, Zyanon Paznyak. Paznyak has almost no chance of gathering enough signatures in parliament since opposition deputies hold only 10% of parliaments seats. Opposition groups had been critical of the electoral law since they saw it as favoring the candidacy of Kebich, practically the only nominee who was assured sufficient parliamentary support so that he would not have to pursue a signature campaign. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. DEPUTIES CALL FOR POSTPONEMENT OF PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN UKRAINE. On 27 April UNIAN reported that a group of newly elected parliamentary deputies have been gathering signatures in support of a motion to postpone the 26 June presidential elections. So far they have collected around 130 signatures, representing roughly one-third of the deputies. According to UNIAN, since President Leonid Kravchuk asked parliament to postpone the elections until a constitution is passed and presidential powers delineated, support for the motion has increased. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN, RUSSIAN PRESIDENTS TO MEET THIS WEEKEND. Western and Latvian media reported on 28 April and 29 April that a meeting between the Russian and Latvian presidents will take place in Moscow on 30 April. It is expected that accords on the withdrawal of Russian troops will be signed by Boris Yeltsin and Guntis Ulmanis, since the Russian and Latvian experts meeting in Jurmala had finished work on the four documents on 28 April. Meanwhile Sweden has pledged $ 1 million to help dismantle the Russian radar station at Skrunda and US specialists have outlined programs for the construction of housing in Russia for the Russian troops leaving Latvia, BNS reported. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN-US TRADE TREATY SIGNED. Lithuanian Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys signed a treaty with the United States on trade relations and the protection of intellectual property. The accords also confer the most favored nation trade status for both countries, BNS reported on 28 April. While in Washington, Gylys met with several US officials, including Nichol Burns of the National Security Council; they discussed security issues of the Baltic region. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus & Edith Oltay The RFE/RL DAILY REPORT, produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division, is available through electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU. This report is also available by postal mail, as are the other publications of the Institute, and by fax. RFE/RL NEWS BRIEFS, an edited compendium of items first published in the Daily Report, is distributed along with the RFE/RL RESEARCH REPORT, a weekly journal providing topical analyses of political, economic and security developments throughout the Institute's area of interest. 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