|I go to encounter for the millionth time the reality of my existence, and to forge in the smithy of my soul the uncreated conscience of my race. - James Joyce|
No. 75, 20 April 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN STATEMENT ON BOSNIA . . . Russian President Boris Yeltsin issued a statement on the conflict in Bosnia on 19 April calling on the Bosnian Serb leadership to "fulfill its promises given to Russia" to stop the attacks and withdraw from Gorazde, and to enable UN forces to come into the area. Yeltsin called for a summit meeting of Russia, the United States, the European Union, and representatives of the UN and instructed his Foreign Ministry to start preparations for such a meeting, ITAR-TASS reported. In contrast to other Russian statements of late, it did not name NATO airstrikes as part of the problem in Bosnia. Indeed, Yeltsin praised the efforts of the "United Nations and other members of the international community." His statement fell short of what press reports had predicted in the late afternoon of 19 April, namely, that he would announce Russia's complete disengagement from the peace process in the Balkans. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . INTERNAL DEBATE ON BOSNIA? Russian media were eager to report the possibility of a heated controversy brewing in the Russian government over what to do about the Bosnian Serbs, the question of lifting sanctions, and Russia's role as a mediator in the Balkans. Some surmised that a dispute had developed between Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin and Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev; Churkin denied this. Others suggested that the dispute was broader and involved competing ideas from all sides. A meeting of the Russian Security Council is scheduled to be held on 20 April, and Bosnia is on the agenda. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN MEETS ACTING CHAIRMAN OF CONSTITUTIONAL COURT. On 19 April, according to Russian TV newscasts, Yeltsin met with the acting chairman of the Russian Constitutional Court Nikolai Vitruk. The two reportedly discussed ways of passing a new law on the Constitutional Court and on methods of choosing candidates for the vacant positions of its new judges. Earlier in April, the State Duma refused to approve the bill on the Constitutional Court drafted by Yeltsin's supporters, arguing that it would turn the Court into an instrument of personal power of the president. The Constitutional Court has been inactive since October 1993, when Yeltsin suspended its activities because the Court had ruled unconstitutional his decree disbanding the old Russian parliament. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. SHUMEIKO'S NEWS CONFERENCE. On 19 April, Russian TV newscasts reported that Vladimir Shumeiko, the chairman of the Russian parliament's higher chamber, the Council of the Federation, held a news conference on the prospects of the Civic Accord agreement. The document, Shumeiko said, will be signed on 28 April in the Kremlin by the majority of those invited. The draft agreement on Civic Accord includes, among other things, a proposal banning introducing any amendments to the Russian constitution, and Shumeiko no doubt intends to sign it on behalf of the Council of the Federation. Nonetheless, in the course of the conference he suggested that the constitution be amended to make the work of the chamber's members permanent rather than part-time as is currently the case. Shumeiko also proposed thatYeltsin run for a second term, saying that "one more term would only benefit Russia." On the question of Russia joining NATO's Partnership for Peace, Shumeiko said that the main condition for doing so is the ability for Russia and other nations involved to work and implement decisions jointly, Interfax reported. Julia Wishnevsky and Suzanne Crow., RFE/RL, Inc. MEETINGS WITH ARAFAT. PLO leader Yasser Arafat concluded meetings in Moscow on 19 April securing Russia's agreement to help set up a police force in areas which are scheduled to come under Palestinian control as the Middle East peace process comes into being. Boris Yeltsin stressed Russia's commitment to the peace process and his press service issued a statement saying that "establishing a lasting and fair peace was and remains a strategic priority for Russia in this region of vital importance." For his part, Arafat said that Russia should play a part in monitoring the implementation of peace accords, Russian and Western agencies reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. DEFENSE SPENDING TOO LOW. According to General Yurii Merkulov, the present level of funding for the Russian armed forces is too low. Merkulov, who spoke at hearings in the Russian State Duma on 19 April, said the current level of funding necessitates so many cuts that Russia will be without nuclear weapons by the end of the century, Mayak radio reported on 20 April. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. NEMTSOV RESIGNS AS YELTSIN'S REPRESENTATIVE IN NIZHNII NOVGOROD. President Yeltsin has released Boris Nemtsov from his duties as the president's representative in the Nizhnii Novgorod Oblast, Ostankino TV newscast reported on 19 April. According to "Novosti," Yeltsin acted on Nemtsov's own request. Nemtsov had combined his position as Yeltsin's representative with that of the Oblast governor, to which he had also been appointed by the president. While having resigned the former post, Nemtsov has apparently retained his governorship. Simultaneously, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin approved of the blueprints for land privatization in the Russian Federation based on the Nizhnii Novgorod model. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN, YAVLINSKY, GAIDAR REMAIN MOST POPOLAR LEADERS IN MOSCOW. Boris Yeltsin, Grigorii Yavlinsky, and Egor Gaidar remain the most popular Russian politicians, although their ratings have fallen in the past four months, ITAR-TASS reported on 19 April, citing the results of an opinion poll held in Moscow earlier that month. According to the survey, 13% of Muscovites trusted Yeltsin in April (as opposed to 19% in December 1993); 11% trusted the economist Yavlinsky (10% in December 1993), and 10% trusted Gaidar (26%). They were followed by Vladimir Zhirinovsky (6%) and former vice-president Aleksandr Rutskoi (5%). Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai, Moscow mayor Yurii Luzhkov, and the leader of the Russian Communist party, Gennadii Zyuganov, received 4% each. All the aforementioned politicians are often mentioned as possible candidates in the forthcoming presidential elections. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. SHUMEIKO THINKS KHASBULATOV MIGHT TAKE OVER IN CHECHNYA. Chairman of the Federation Council Vladimir Shumeiko told journalists in Moscow on 19 April that he believed that the "Shevardnadze experience" could be replayed in Chechnya, Interfax reported. (After being prominent on the all-Union scene, Eduard Shevardnadze returned to his native Georgia and became the Georgian leader in 1992.) Shumeiko said that the return of Ruslan Khasbulatov, former chairman of the Russian parliament and "Chechnya's recognized leader," to his native Chechnya could alter the political situation there. He added that Khasbulatov's statements that he was giving up politics did not necessarily mean that he would leave the political scene altogether. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. NATIONWIDE CENSUS TO BE HELD IN 1999. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin signed a government decree on 15 April on the holding of a nation-wide census in 1999, Interfax reported on 19 April. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS DISAGREEMENT OVER RUSSIAN-BELARUSIAN MONETARY UNION. At an EBRD meeting in St. Petersburg, Russian and Belarusian officials have disagreed over the issue of currency emission, Reuters reported on 19 April. According to the terms of the monetary union signed on 12 April, there is to be only one center which can issue currency, namely, the Central Bank of Russia. This provision has been criticized by several Belarusian officials, including the chairman of the national bank of Belarus, Stanislau Bahdankevich, who said that this contradicts the Belarusian constitution. The Belarusian first deputy prime minister, Mikhail Myasnikovich, said that Belarus has won new concessions from Russia that allow the Belarusian national bank to coordinate the emission of currency and monetary policy with Russia. Russian deputy finance minister, Andrei Kazmin, refuted this statement, saying that the Belarusian national bank would be subordinate to the central bank of Russia. At the meeting, the EBRD agreed to give Belarus $45 million for reconstruction projects in the country, Belarusian radio reported. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA PROGRESS OF TAJIK PEACE TALKS. The Tajik opposition delegation to the peace talks that have been going on in Moscow with representatives of the Tajik government is proposing that the second round of talks be held in either Tehran or Islamabad, ITAR-TASS reported on 19 April. The opposition is also dropping a demand that Tajik head of state Imomali Rakhmonov be present. The two sides still disagree on an agenda for the second round: the government delegation gives priority to stopping the fighting on the Tajik-Afghan border and the repatriation of Tajik refugees, while the opposition wants the ban on opposition parties lifted and a non-partisan state council set up. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. UZBEK-CHINESE AGREEMENTS. Agreements on a Chinese loan and material assistance to Uzbekistan and on air traffic and trade cooperation were signed during Chinese Premier LI Peng's official visit to Uzbekistan, Russian and Western news agencies reported on 19 April. Li described the growing trade between China and the new Central Asian states as a resurrection of the ancient Silk Route. At a dinner in Li's honor, Uzbekistan's President Islam Karimov praised China's economic reforms and described the country as a force for stability in the region. Western agencies interpreted Karimov's remark as a signal that Uzbekistan will not permit Uigur separatists to operate from its territory. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. NAZARBAEV ASKS FOR MORE POWERS. On 19 April, the opening day of the first session of Kazakhstan's newly-elected professional legislature, President Nursultan Nazarbaev asked for additional powers for himself and his government, Western agencies reported. Nazarbaev said he wants to be able to issue decrees without parliamentary approval in order to speed up important decisions on economic and social issues. He also asked for constitutional amendments that would permit the president to nominate judges and prosecutors, and also proposed an amendment that would make it possible for parliament to impeach the president, or for the president to dissolve parliament. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ATTACKS ON GORAZDE CONTINUE. International media report that Bosnian Serb attacks against the Muslim town of Gorazde continued at least into the early hours of 20 April. Reports from 19 April indicate that Serb machine-gun and heavy artillery fire intensified throughout the course of that day. The headquarters of the UN High Commission for Refugees was struck at least twice by Serb artillery. On 20 April The Chicago Tribune notes that 26 people were killed in Gorazde, and 92 wounded. On 19 April Radio Sarajevo said that Serb forces had launched poison gas attacks on Gorazde, but these reports remain unconfirmed. Meanwhile, UNPROFOR spokesman Major Rob Annik said NATO airstrikes against Serb forces around Gorazde are effectively ruled out, given the Serb forces' proximity to civilian populations, Reuters reports. The New York Times of 20 April indicated, however, that US President Bill Clinton has approved of using greater NATO power to protect Gorazde and other "safe areas." Finally, on 19 April Tanjug reported that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic responded to Russian officials' disparaging remarks about the Bosnian Serb role in escalating the current violence by attempting to minimize them. Speaking about remarks made by Russian special envoy Vitaly Churkin, Karadzic said they were made under "pressure" and "as a result of an emotional reaction." Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. SERBS RETURN GUNS TO UN. International media reported on 19 April that as many as 100 rebel Serb soldiers seized 18 anti-aircraft guns from about 50 French soldiers near Sarajevo. The guns had been placed under UN auspices, in accordance with the terms of the Sarajevo cease-fire agreement. According to accounts, the French soldiers were overpowered and threatened with force if they had offered resistance. The Los Angeles Times of 20 April describes the Serb seizure of the weapons as part of "the campaign of harassment and humiliation of UN forces." AFP and Reuters on 20 April report, however, that the Serbs, following negotiations, have surrendered at least 13 of the seized guns and have also begun freeing UN personnel detained in response to the recent NATO airstrikes. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. MAJOR CONDEMNS BELGRADE MEDIA CRACKDOWN. On 19 April Reuters reported that British Prime Minister John Major added his voice to the list of those who are protesting rump Yugoslavia's ongoing crackdown on foreign journalists. Speaking before the House of Commons, Major observed: "I deplore that restriction of press freedom, and we have made the Belgrade authorities aware of our views." Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN DEFENSE MINISTER ON BOSNIA. Defense Minister Lajos Fur on 19 April expressed his conviction that the worsening situation in Bosnia would not affect Hungary's security, MTI reports. According to Fur, Hungary would continue its past military and foreign policy of staying away from the conflict. The 1992 accord with Serbia prohibiting overflights in a 10 to 20 km zone along the two countries' common border was still in effect, Fur said, adding that the Hungarian Army's air defenses had been upgraded in the past four years. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. LILIC CANCELS VISIT TO ROMANIA. President Zoran Lilic of the rump Yugoslav federation has canceled a visit to Romania due to the latest developments in Bosnia, a Reuters correspondent in Bucharest reported on 19 April. Lilic was scheduled to participate in the 21-24 April Crans Montana Forum conference in Bucharest. During the planned visit, he was expected to sign a friendship treaty with Romania. But earlier on 19 April, a spokesman for the Romanian Foreign Ministry announced that the document would not be signed this week. The postponement seems to have come in response to the wave of international protests over the Bosnian Serbs' offensive against Gorazde. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. SUPPLIES FOR UN PEACE KEEPERS STUCK IN BULGARIA. A trainload of supplies destined for US and Scandinavian troops on a peacekeeping mission in Macedonia, has been held up in Bulgaria, agencies report. On 19 April the Director General of Bulgaria's State Railways, Atanas Tonev, told Bulgarian TV that he is not prepared to allow the cargo to be--as planned--reloaded on trucks and then transported out of the country until the payment issue has been satisfactorily settled. Tonev said the fee offered by the Dutch firm responsible for the transport of the UN equipment is both insufficient and "humiliatingly low." The supplies, which include 14 armored personnel carriers, 4 trucks, plus other vehicles and equipment, were earlier held up several hours at the Bulgarian-Romanian border, when Bulgarian customs officials discovered that several seals had been broken. At that point, the Bulgarian side insisted on signing a formal protocol with Romanian officials documenting that the incident occurred before the shipment entered Bulgarian territory. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND'S POLITICAL CONFLICT: NO END IN SIGHT? President Lech Walesa on 19 April accepted an offer to meet with the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD), the largest party in the parliament and the senior partner in the ruling coalition, on 20 April. Walesa explained that he "never refuses invitations...from organized social forces that have more than five or ten serious members." Walesa's formulations were a veiled affront to SLD leader Aleksander Kwasniewski. It is not clear whether this meeting will ease the conflict that has left Poland without a finance minister or a coherent economic policy for more than two months. In an interview with PAP, Walesa again criticized a constitutional amendment proposed by coalition deputies that would enable the Sejm to appoint ministerial candidates rejected by the president. He repeated his threat to block such legislation by building a popular movement to force the dissolution of the parliament. Walesa added that he will soon set off on a tour of Poland to take this message to the public. The SLD's spokesman noted wryly that the last time Walesa embarked on such a campaign, his listeners showed no interest in the constitution and wanted to discuss wages and benefits. The Sejm leadership moved to ease tensions on 19 April by postponing consideration of the amendment until mid-May. Walesa also criticized Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak for setting a date for local elections without consulting him first. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. STILL NO DECISION ON POLISH WAGE CONTROLS. The Polish government debated the issue of anti-inflationary wage controls for five hours on 19 April without coming to a decision, PAP reports. The cabinet restricted two hours of its deliberations to ministers only. Following the Sejm's failure to override a presidential veto of a bill designed to replace the tax on excess wages (popiwek) that was lifted on 1 April, the government adopted revised wage control legislation on 12 April. The following day, however, Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak told union leaders that "life goes on even without the popiwek" and indicated that the government will not submit the new legislation to the parliament. Polish TV reports that the economic ministers favor reimposing wage controls on state firms to prevent inflation, while Pawlak and public administration chief Michal Strak are opposed. Pawlak told Polish Radio on 20 April that he wants a pledge from trade union leaders not to demand excessive wage increases in exchange for shelving the wage controls. Meanwhile, deputies from Pawlak's party have proposed a legislative draft identical to the version Pawlak has put on hold; the Sejm is to give it a first reading on 20 April. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. US AND CZECH OFFICIALS DISCUSS COOPERATION. US Envoy Richard Schifter who is on an official visit to the Czech Republic discussed economic and security relations with Czech government officials, CTK reported on 19 April. After a meeting with Economics Minister Karel Dyba, Schifter told journalists that US. government assistance to the Czech Republic will be cut because the country is now "more or less an equal partner" of the United States. He added that the Czechs now need "equal cooperation rather than assistance." Schifter also held a meeting with First Deputy Foreign Minister Alexandr Vondra to discuss cooperation in security matters. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK CABINET DISMISSES TASR DIRECTOR. On 19 April Dusan Kleiman was dismissed from his post as director of the Slovak state news agency, TASR, and replaced by deputy director Ivan Melichercik. According to government officials, Kleiman was removed because of his "many professional mistakes," including TASR's funding of the loss-making Republika daily, which is a strong supporter of former Premier Vladimir Meciar and his party, the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia. Melichercik is expected to present a proposal for the privatization of the paper. National Democratic Party Chairman Ludovit Cernak said that while he is not against the MDS keeping control of the paper, "they will have to pay for it on a normal basis." Although Kleiman insisted that his firing was politically motivated, Cernak said this was not the case. The cabinet had been discussing the issue for several days, and according to TASR of 13 April, the Party of the Democratic Left was hesitant to remove Kleiman and other personnel, for fear of being blamed for conducting political purges. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . AND REMOVES DISTRICT CHIEFS. Also on 19 April the cabinet approved a proposal to remove the chiefs of 26 district offices who had signed a statement criticizing President Michal Kovac's 9 March parliamentary address which sparked Meciar's fall. Although the district chiefs are supposed to be politically neutral, they stated support for Meciar and called Kovac's speech "a crude attack on parliamentary democracy." On 12 April the cabinet challenged the signatories to resign, but the officials refused to do so, TASR reports. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. GYULA HORN MEETS WITH SLOVAK OFFICIALS. Hungarian Socialist Party Chairman Horn met in Slovakia on 19 April with Prime Minister Jozef Moravcik and on 18 April with Peter Weiss, Chairman of the Slovak Party of the Democratic Left, MTI reports. Horn said his party would like to achieve a "historical reconciliation" with Hungary's neighbors, including Slovakia, by means of a state treaty that would recognize the inviolability of borders and full guarantees for the rights of Slovakia's Hungarian minority, including administrative and cultural autonomy. Moravcik disagreed with Horn on the minority issue but promised to speed up his government's response to the EU experts' proposal on the distribution of the Danube's water in the two countries' dispute over the Gabcikovo dam. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc. INTENSE DIPLOMATIC ACTIVITY IN BUCHAREST. Romanian and Western media reported on 19 April that Dutch Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers started a two-day official visit to Romania. Lubbers, who is accompanied by Foreign Minister Pieter Kooijmans, discussed with Romanian President Ion Iliescu and Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu ways of expanding bilateral political and economic ties. The foreign ministers of the two countries, Kooijmans and Teodor Melescanu, signed an agreement on guaranteeing and protecting mutual investments. In a separate development, Armenian Foreign Minister Vahan Papazian discussed with Iliescu the wars in Bosnia and Nagorno-Karabakh. The two agreed that their countries should use their influence to help solve the conflicts. Papazian is on an official visit in Romania until 24 April. Western agencies further report that Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat is expected to arrive in Bucharest on 20 April. Arafat, who will attend the Crans Montana conference, is scheduled to hold talks with Israel's Foreign Minister Shimon Peres on the peace process in the Middle East. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. CHORNOBYL REACTOR FORCED TO CLOSE. ITAR-TASS reported on 19 April that a flaw in the cooling system at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant has forced the number three reactor to shut down. The report said the incident did not present any danger to plant workers or the environment. The plant should have been shut down at the end of 1993, but the energy crisis in Ukraine prompted parliament to keep it running. On 9 April it was reported that the Ukrainian government had agreed in principle that the plant should be shut down, although this could only be done if alternative energy supplies became available. Reuters reported on 19 April that the EU president, Theodoros Pangalos, said that help with Chornobyl would be included in a broader plan of economic aid for Ukraine to be drawn up by the European Commission. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. IRAN CRITICIZES UKRAINE. The Iranian oil minister, Gholamreza Aqazadeh, has criticized Ukraine for the lack of progress in implementing a two year old agreement on trading Iranian oil for Ukrainian goods. Iran was supposed to supply Ukraine with five million tons of oil in 1992 and four million in 1993 by pipeline via Azerbaijan. In exchange Ukraine was to give Iran scrap iron and other materials. Ukraine's foreign minister, Anatolii Zlenko, acknowledged that there have been problems in implementing the deal, but stressed that continued cooperation would produce concrete results. Zlenko had been on an official visit to Iran on 17-18 April. During the visit the Iranian foreign minister, Ali Akbar Vilayeti, promised to help in securing the release of Ukrainian POWs from Afghanistan, although he said it has been difficult because of the continued fighting, Ukrainian radio and Reuters reported on 18 April. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVA AND RUSSIA AGREE TO COOPERATE IN COMBATING TERRORISM. An agreement on cooperation in the sphere of intelligence activity was signed in Kishinev between Evgenii Primakov, director of Russia's Foreign Intelligence Service, and Vasilii Kalmoi, Moldova's Minister of National Security, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. The two countries will coordinate their activities in combating terrorism, organized crime, drug trafficking, and the illegal arms trade, as well as in other matters of mutual interest. Russia's Foreign Intelligence Service has already signed similar agreements with six other CIS member states, namely Armenia, Belorus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. ULMANIS ACCEPTS YELTSIN'S INVITATION TO MEET IN MOSCOW. Diena reported on 19 April that Latvia's president, Guntis Ulmanis, has accepted the invitation of his Russian counterpart to meet in Moscow on 21 April to discuss Latvian-Russian relations and to sign accords on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia. Ulmanis said that he was prepared to sign three of the four initialed accords related to the Russian troop pullout but would not sign the accord dealing with social guarantees for retired Soviet and Russian military residing in Latvia because he believes it to be unacceptable to most Latvians. Latvian Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs told the RFE/RL Latvian Service on 19 April that if Latvia does not endorse the accords, it risks prolonging the presence of Russian troops on its territory for an indefinite period of time. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA TO STRENGHTEN ITS BORDERS. Tarmo Kouts, head of the Estonian Border Protection Department, told Paevaleht on 18 April that next summer modern monitoring equipment will be installed along Estonia's borders. He said that most of the 2,200 persons currently guarding the borders are equipped only with binoculars and automatic rifles. Kouts noted that the "control line with Russia" was the most difficult segment of Estonia's land boundaries. He pointed out that currently Estonia is being used as a transit zone for illegal migration, which has developed into a profitable business. Kurds tend to enter Estonia by crossing the Narva River from Russia; from Estonia, they try to reach the Scandinavian countries. BNS and Interfax reported on 18 April that Estonia is also considering establishing an internment camp for illegal immigrants and refugees. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. CONGRESS OF THE LATVIAN GREENS. At its fifth congress on 16 April in Riga, the Green Party analyzed the current situation in Latvia and sought ways to make a greater impact--its current membership is estimated at under 150--on the upcoming local government elections scheduled in May. The "greens" intend to form joint lists of candidates with members of Latvia's National Independence Movement and the National Forces coalition. The congress delegates elected three co-chairmen: Juris Zvirgzds, Olegs Batarevskis, and Janis Kalvins, Diena reported on 18 April. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Roman Solchanyk & Edith Oltay The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. 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