Poborov gordost', chelovek stanovitsya priyatnym. Poborov gnev, on stanovitsya veselym. Poborov strast', on stanovitsya preuspevayuschim. Poborov alchnost', on stanovitsya schastlivym. - Drevnyaya Indiya
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 73, 18 April 1994


Minister Andrei Kozyrev said on 17 April that Russia
envisioned a kind of partnership with NATO that would be
"serious and substantive" and that would exclude unilateral
military and other actions. Kozyrev said that at the moment
there is no appropriate concept for Russia's participation in
the program. Defense Minister Pavel Grachev said on 15 April
that "recent events in Bosnia-Herzegovina have shown that
this concept remains in words only." He also faulted NATO
members for what he termed unilateral action and called for
defining the Russian role in the partnership, Russian
agencies reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.

chairman of the State Duma's committee on legislation and
legal reform and a member of the Agrarian faction, was quoted
by Interfax on 17 April as saying that Russia's participation
in NATO's Partnership for Peace program would effectively be
subjected to ratification by the State Duma. Isakov pointed
to the constitutional stipulation that the president
determines the foreign policy "in accordance with the Russian
Federation Constitution and federal laws." Since Isakov's
faction has proposed a draft law critical of joining the
Partnership for Peace program, he expects this law to
eventually tie Yeltsin's hands. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.

KOZYREV INITIALLY OPTIMISTIC. Kozyrev was in Serbia for 24
hours of consultations from 16-17 April in an attempt to
arrange a cease fire and to prevent further use of military
force by NATO. His visit was prompted by the US warning that
additional air-strikes were warranted and being planned if
the Bosnian Serbs did not cease shelling. Hopeful at the
outset of his mission, Kozyrev remarked: "Thanks to the
efforts of Russia, the road toward a comprehensive ceasefire
agreement in Bosnia-Herzegovina is open." He said the wild
card in the situation is the Moslem side because "the Muslims
are clearly provoking the Serbs." Kozyrev also faulted the
Serbs for responding. ITAR-TASS reported that Russia had
"blocked" additional airstrikes on 16 April; but NATO sources
said that the strikes had not taken place because no command
for close air support had been given, perhaps due to
visibility problems, Western agencies reported. Suzanne Crow,
RFE/RL, Inc.

RETURNS FROM TALKS. After a rapid round of talks with Serbian
President Milosevic in Belgrade on 17 April, Kozyrev returned
to Moscow. Talking to reporters at the airport, he said that
the situation in Bosnia was at a critical point and that
additional diplomatic efforts were the key. The foreign
minister stressed that Russia would back the lifting of
sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro (although he did not
specify whether Russia favored an immediate lifting of
sanctions or their lifting after a ceasefire). Kozyrev said
that Milosevic had expressed confidence that the Serbs were
ready to stop fighting and sign an agreement on Gorazde. He
added that this agreement had not yet been signed because of
Moslem provocations. Sounding a critical note on NATO
military action, Kozyrev said that this was "inappropriate,"
Russian agencies reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.

KOZYREV FRUSTRATED. In an interview later on 17 April with
Russian television, Kozyrev showed increasing signs of
frustration with the Bosnian Serbs, but also with NATO. He
blamed NATO's use of military force for the deterioration of
the situation and suggested that NATO may have given the
Serbs the opportunity to retaliate that they sought.
Criticizing the Serbian side, Kozyrev said the fact that the
Serbs had threatened Russian peacekeepers "shows with utmost
clarity the degree of irresponsibility of Serb fighters."
Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.

15 April Interfax cited an opinion poll held in Moscow by the
Institute of Parliamentarian Studies led by Nugzar Betaneli
as having revealed that the number of Russians who held dear
glasnost and the freedom of speech dropped from 51 to 12
percent in the past five years (from December 1988 to
December 1993). According to the survey, only 68 percent of
the respondents believe that all of Russia's citizens must
enjoy equal rights. Seventeen percent said that the rights of
some citizens must be restricted, and 15 percent were
undecided on the issue. Seven percent of those polled,
Interfax said, felt that civic rights should be restricted on
the basis of political beliefs and party affiliation, while 4
percent suggested that people be discriminated against
because of their ethnic and racial background. Only 14
percent agreed that Russia was a democratic country. Julia
Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.

held on 15 April in the prestigious Moscow Hall of Columns
concluded the celebration of Nikita Khrushchev's centenary.
It began four days earlier, on 13 April in Kalinovka, the
native village of the late Soviet Communist Party leader, and
continued the next day in the nearby city of Kursk. Also on
13 April, according to Izvestiya, former Soviet leader
Mikhail Gorbachev hosted the first in a series of conferences
devoted to Khrushchev. Russian radio and television broadcast
documentaries and interviews with relatives, friends, and
associates, including Volodymyr Semychastnyi, the KGB chief
who played a key role in Khrushchev's ouster in 1964. All the
programs suggested that Khrushchev's heroic denunciation of
Stalin and Stalinism in 1956, as well as his attempts to
achieve peace with the West--culminating in the first visit
of a Soviet leader to the US--cleared the way for Gorbachev's
reforms in the late 1980's. For that reason, they argued,
"the last true communist among Soviet leaders" should be
credited with the collapse of the communist regimes in Russia
and elsewhere. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.

Interfax reported that the lower house of the Russian
parliament approved in principle the draft budget for the
year. This approval, however, is subject to some substantial
amendments being made by the government. Parliament has
already had to approve the budget for the first and second
quarters, to enable the government to go on functioning. It
is quite likely that the process of agreement on the budget
for the whole year will be lengthy, as it was in 1992 and
1993. Last year the Finance Ministry only finalized the
last-quarter budget after the dissolution of the old
parliament in late September. The present draft is claimed to
contain a deficit equivalent to about 9% of projected 1994
GDP, and has the backing of the IMF's managing director,
Michel Camdessus. Russian critics, including such moderate
reformers as Grigory Yavlinsky, assert that the budget does
not contain enough "support" for investment and social
security. Philip Hanson, RFE/RL, Inc.

YELTSIN ISSUES DECREE ON CHECHNYA. Yeltsin issued a decree on
15 April charging the Russian government with "conducting
consultations with the representatives of the organs of state
power, and also all political movements of the Chechen
republic with the aim of getting out of the present social
and political situation," ITAR-TASS reported on 16 April. A
draft treaty delimiting powers between the state organs of
Russia and Chechnya is to be drawn up on the basis of these
consultations. Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev told
ITAR-TASS on 17 April that an extraordinary meeting of the
cabinet that evening would decide on an official reply to
Yeltsin's decree. Yaragi Mamodaev, head of the government of
popular trust, which is not recognized by Dudaev, repeated
his call for the leaders of all political parties and
movements to put aside personal and group ambitions and agree
on common ground for talks with Russia. Mamodaev said that
attempts by the Russian side to interact not only with Dudaev
but also with opposition movements could further complicate
the already very shaky negotiating process. Ann Sheehy,
RFE/RL, Inc.

of the Mordovian Supreme Soviet decided almost unanimously on
11 April that, in order to exercise some control over the
local heads of administration, who have all their own way
since the "illegal" abolition of the local soviets, raion and
city presidiums consisting of 25 deputies each of the former
local soviets should be set up, Segodnya reported on 14
April. The republican procurator has protested this step to
the Russian procurator general. Yeltsin's representative in
Mordovia, Valentin Konakov, has described it as "the complete
restoration of Soviet power on a Comunist basis" based on "a
desire {by deputies] to retain their powers to the limit."
The Mordovian government has appealed to Yeltsin and said it
will not carry out the decision until it has had his ruling.
Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.


CIS SUMMIT RESULTS. The one-day summit meeting of CIS members
held in Moscow on 15 April resulted in the adoption of some
twenty agreements and documents including an accord on
Ukraine's membership in an economic union as an associated
member and a decision to retain peacekeepers in Tajikistan.
The summit participants also adopted a statement on Abkhazia.
According to Georgian State Council Chairman Eduard
Shevardnadze, the statement included an appeal to the UN
Security Council "to resolve without delay the issue of
whether to conduct peacekeeping operations in Abkhazia." The
statement also said that the CIS "Council for Collective
Security expresses its willingness to introduce to the
conflict zone . . . [by] peacekeeping forces consisting of
military units of interested state signatories to the treaty
if for whatever reason a solution is not forthcoming in the
near future," Russian media reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL,

FLEET. In a private meeting after the 15 April CIS summit,
Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Ukrainian President
Leonid Kravchuk agreed on a division of the Black Sea Fleet,
various agencies reported. Details of the step-by-step
settlement are to be drawn up ten days after the preliminary
agreement. As with the Massandra accord, Russian and
Ukrainian officials have made differing statements as to what
was actually agreed on. ITAR-TASS reported that Russia will
recieve the bulk of the 300 ship fleet, while Ukraine will
get only 15-20%, and the Ukrainian navy and Russian Black Sea
Fleet would be based separately. The Ukrainian defense
minister, Vitalii Radetsky, said that Ukraine would actually
recieve half of the fleet, but would probably only keep what
it needs for its security needs and sell the rest to Russia.
According to Kravchuk the new agreement does not annul
previous accords, but is a continuation of them. He also said
that while the fleet HQ in Sevastopol should not be in
Russian hands, the problem of tens of thousands of Russian
sailors and their families there complicates the issue since
it is difficult to know what to do with them. In addition, he
emphasized that the Russians would be leased a base, not
bases, for their share of the fleet. The Russian presidential
spokesman, Vyacheslav Kostikov, criticized Ukraine for
promoting its own interpretion of the agreement even before
negotiations had started. Another round of talks is scheduled
for 22 April in Moscow. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

President Saparmurad Niyazov met with his Ukrainian
counterpart Leonid Kravchuk during the CIS summit on 15 April
and confirmed that Turkmenistan would resume gas shipments to
Ukraine that day, ITAR-TASS reported. Turkmenistan had shut
off gas supplies to Ukraine after the latter had failed to
pay for gas shipped in late 1993 and in 1994. Discussions
between the two countries resulted in a payment by Ukraine of
$10 million and $60 million worth of supplies and an
agreement that each quarter Ukraine will pay $78 million in
cash plus $200 million in supplies. As is the case with the
Transcaucasian states, Ukraine is heavily dependent on gas
from Turkmenistan, which has been using this dependence to
enforce its demands for payment from its financially-strapped
neighbors. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.


the presidents of Austria, Hungary, Germany, Poland,
Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Czech Republic was held on 15 and
16 April in the Czech town of Litomysl, news agencies
reported over the weekend. The meeting was organized by Czech
President Vaclav Havel, to discuss the process of European
integration, regional cooperation, Germany's role in Central
Europe, and to honor German President Richard von
Weizsaecker, who will retire from his post later this year.
Von Weizsaecker, while stressing the importance of
cooperation with Russia, pointed out that Moscow must not be
allowed to dictate the terms of that cooperation. Austrian
President Thomas Klestil told his counterparts from the
post-communist countries that Austria will support their
quest for EU membership once its own membership is granted.
Lech Walesa, the Polish Head of State, called for steps
toward a "United States of Europe," that would respect the
individuality of each country. Hungarian and Slovak
presidents Arpad Goncz and Michal Kovac discussed the
controversial issue of ethnic minorities, agreeing that the
matter should not be exploited in the upcoming election
campaigns in both countries. The meeting was described as a
successful means of regional confidence-building and Goncz
invited all participants to meet again next year in Hungary.
Jiri Pehe and Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.

SERB TANKS ENTER GORAZDE. International media reported over
the weekend of 15-17 April that Bosnian Serb forces shattered
the defenses of the besieged Muslim enclave and that Serb
tanks at one point moved on the local hospital. Amid a highly
confusing situation, Gen. Ratko Mladic's forces have at their
mercy the town that UN officials describe as so "submerged
with refugees [that] there is not a single free square meter
of space in both public and private buildings." On 16 April
the Serbs hit one French aircraft and shot down a British
one, but both pilots made it to safety. The BBC reported on
18 April that the UN commander in Bosnia, Gen. Sir Michael
Rose, the previous day had requested "close air support" for
Gorazde, but that his civilian superior, Yasushi Akashi,
turned him down. Meanwhile the Security Council has condemned
the "escalating military activities of the Bosnian Serb
forces." The 17 April Chicago Tribune nonetheless noted that
the "Serbs have the UN over a barrel," and on 16 April
Reuters quoted UN spokesmen as saying that there might not be
any point in UNPROFOR's remaining in Bosnia. Serb forces have
taken some 200 UN personnel hostage but have released only 19
of them. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

AN ORCHESTRA." This was a comment by a BBC reporter on 18
April, reflecting the latest string of broken pledges made by
the Bosnian Serb leader over the weekend. The broadcast
quoted Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Vitaly Churkin as
saying of the Serbs with whom he had been negotiating: "I
have heard more broken promises in the last 48 hours than
probably in the rest of my life." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL,

reported that Belgrade has barred additional foreign
journalists from working out of the rump Yugoslavia. On 16
April the Bulgarian daily Demokratsiya reported that among
those to have their accreditation revoked is RFE/RL
correspondent Eli Yurukova, who is also working for
Demokratsiya and Bulgarian TV. Other journalists, including
reporters for the French daily Le monde and The Christian
Science Monitor, have also been barred. This latest crackdown
on foreign journalists began 15 April, and follows in the
wake of Belgrade's 12 April announcement banning the US
network CNN and the France's news agency AFP. Stan Markotich,
RFE/RL, Inc.

EMBARGO. CNN on 18 April quoted Bosnian President Alija
Izetbegovic as again calling on the international community
either to mount stiff air attacks against the Serbs or to
allow his forces to acquire weapons to defend themselves. The
Guardian, for its part, argued that the Serbs had presented
the UN with a major crisis that could affect the course of
international peace-keeping in general. Meanwhile, news
agencies reported on 17 April that Croatian Serb forces had
begun taking back some of their heavy weapons they had put
under UN control in the Baranja region of eastern Croatia.
Finally, Reuters said from Geneva on 15 April that a UN
commission on war crimes linked Serb forces to genocide in
their campaign of "ethnic cleansing" at Prijedor in northwest
Bosnia in 1992. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

JOVANOVIC IN ATHENS, SOFIA. On 15-17 April rump Yugoslav
Foreign Minister Vladislav Jovanovic visited Greece and
Bulgaria to discuss bilateral and regional issues. In Athens,
Greek Foreign Minister Karolos Papoulias expressed support
for Belgrade's position that the UN sanctions should be
lifted, pointing out that Greek economic interests are also
being damaged. For his part, Jovanovic argued that in order
for the peace process to move forward, "all punishments
imposed on the Serbian people must stop." According to
Reuters, Papoulias also claimed that soon Bulgaria, Romania,
Hungary and Ukraine would join Greece and rump Yugoslavia in
asking the UN to remove the embargo. During his stay in
Sofia, however, Jovanovic was told by his counterpart
Stanislav Daskalov that Bulgaria intends to continue
enforcing the sanctions despite their negative impact on the
country's economy. After nearly three hour long talks on 17
April, Daskalov noted differences regarding the situation of
the Bulgarian minority in Serbia, which Sofia views as
worsening. At the same time, BTA quoted Jovanovic as
characterizing Bulgaria's position on the Bosnian war as
"objective." Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

Walesa threatened on 16 April to dissolve the parliament if
the ruling coalition amends the constitution to limit his
powers, Polish TV reports. A spokesman for the Democratic
Left Alliance (SLD) announced on 15 April that sixteen
deputies from the SLD and its coalition partner, the Polish
Peasant Party, were planning to submit a draft amendment that
would allow the prime minister to ask the Sejm to confirm
changes in the composition in the cabinet if the president
refuses to comply with a request to do so. The proposal is an
apparent attempt to circumvent Walesa's refusal to confirm
the coalition's nominee for finance minister and deputy prime
minister, Dariusz Rosati. These posts have been vacant since
8 February. Neither coalition party has yet formally endorsed
the proposed amendment. "The constitution is not a joke,"
Walesa said, warning that new elections would follow any
altering of the current regulations governing changes in the
cabinet. Coalition deputies responded that such "strong
words" are misplaced. The constitution grants the president
the right to dissolve parliament only when it fails to pass a
budget or form a government. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

European Union (WEU), Dudley Smith, began a five-day official
visit to the Czech Republic, Czech Radio reported on 18
April. The WEU is the military arm of the European Union and
its Assembly meets twice a year to make recommendations to
member countries. Smith is to meet Czech President Vaclav
Havel, Defense Minister Antonin Baudys, and Parliament
Chairman Milan Uhde. He will also pay a visit to a training
base for United Nations peace-keeping forces near Cesky
Krumlov. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.

and the Czech Republic agreed to hold joint army staff
exercises this year as part of the "Partnership for Peace"
initiative, CTK reported on 16 April. The agreement was
announced by the Czech and German defense ministers, Antonin
Baudys and Volker Ruehe in Hamburg. Both ministers expressed
their satisfaction over the development of military
cooperation between their two countries. More than 140 Czech
officers have been trained at German military academies over
the past three years. No details were given on when and where
the joint exercise will take place. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.

KINKEL IN BULGARIA. On the second leg of a tour to three East
European states--the first of which took him to
Albania--German Vice Chancellor and Foreign Minister Klaus
Kinkel arrived in Sofia on 14 April. On the next day, Kinkel
met with President Zhelyu Zhelev, Foreign Minister Stanislav
Daskalov, and National Assembly Chairman Aleksandar Yordanov
to discuss bilateral foreign policy, the situation in
ex-Yugoslavia, as well as matters related to European
integration and security. Before departing that evening,
Kinkel called on Bulgarian politicians to speed up the
privatization process and help rebuild the judicial system
based on the rule of law. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

. . . AND IN HUNGARY. Kinkel, who is also Chairman of
Germany's Free Democratic Party (FDP), visited Budapest on 15
April at the invitation of the liberal opposition parties the
Alliance of Free Democrats and Alliance of Young Democrats.
According to MTI, Kinkel said that Germany, which will chair
the European Union after 1 July 1994, will do everything to
promote the EU's opening toward East Central Europe and
associate membership in the Western European Union for the
countries of the region. He called the Visegrad Four
countries' cooperation a preliminary step toward and not an
alternative to EU membership. Kinkel's visit will be followed
by those of former German foreign minister Hans-Dietrich
Genscher and Otto Graf Lambsdorff, Chairman of the Liberal
International and former German economics minister, in the
FPD's effort to support the two Hungarian liberal parties in
the general elections in May. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc.

the Central Statistical Office, Hungary's consumer price
index rose by 1% in March, compared to 1.4% in February and
3.2% in January 1994, bringing the inflation rate down to
16.8% in March compared to 17% in January, MTI reported on 15
April. The annual inflation rate was 23.4% higher in March
1994 than a year ago. During the first quarter of this year,
Hungary's state budget posted earnings of 278.4 billion
forint and expenditures of 364.5 billion forint, registering
a deficit of 86.1 billion forint, compared to 41.4 billion at
the end of March 1993. Premier Peter Boross told an election
rally on 15 April that foreign investors had brought over $7
billion in the past four years to Hungary, and that
industrial production is expected to rise by 10%-12% this
year. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc.

ILIESCU ENDS FRENCH VISIT. Romania's President Ion Iliescu on
16 April ended a three-day state visit to France. Iliescu,
who was accompanied by Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu,
Finance Minister Florin Georgescu, Industry Minister Dumitru
Popescu and by his chief economic advisor Misu Negritoiu, met
with French President Francois Mitterrand, Premier Edouard
Balladur and other top French officials. Romania had
announced its interest in cooperating with French firms on
modernizing its railway system and building a bridge over the
Danube. In a statement made upon returning in Bucharest,
Iliescu stressed that his visit aimed to boost both political
and economic ties with France. He further praised the visit's
outcome as "outstanding" and said that he had extended
invitations to both the French President and Premier to visit
Romania. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

Shimon Peres was quoted by the Egyptian daily Al-Ahram on 16
April as saying that he will hold talks with Palestine
Liberation Organization Chairman Yassir Arafat in Bucharest
on 22 April. The two are expected to take part in the Crans
Montana Forum conference, scheduled to take place on 21-24
April in Bucharest. Last week Romania said it had no
knowledge of plans for a meeting of the two leaders. Dan
Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

Minister Vyacheslau Kebich told a news conference that the
country's constitution may have to be amended so that Belarus
can comply with the terms of the agreement on monetary union
with Russia, Interfax reported. The constitution, which went
into force on 30 March, states that the National Bank of
Belarus is the sole body in Belarus which has the right to
issue currency. The monetary accord prohibits the Belarusian
bank from issuing currency. Kebich said he would try to
organize a national opinion survey on the agreement. Ustina
Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

reported on 16 April that the leader of the Belarusian
opposition, Zyanon Paznyak, demanded that the prosecutor
general initiate criminal proceedings against Prime Minister,
Vyacheslau Kebich for signing the agreement on monetary union
with Russia which, in his view, goes against Belarusian
national interests and against the country's constitution.
According to Paznyak, the agreement means the loss of state
sovereignty for Belarus. He went on to say that he would
demand Kebich's resignation at the extraordinary session of
the Belarusian Supreme Soviet on 27 April. The former
chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, has
also attacked the agreement calling it "servility which is of
no use to Belarus or Russia." The accord, he said, would give
rise to anti-Russian sentiments in Belarus and enhance the
position of radical nationalists. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL,

April several thousand demonstrators in Riga protested
against the Latvian delegation's stand during talks with
Russia on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia and
the accords that the Latvian delegation had initialed. They
urged the Latvian parliament not to ratify them and to form a
new delegation for talks with Russia. On the eve of the
demonstration, Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs said that the
protest should be directed against the presence of Russian
troops in Latvia, rather than the government; he added that
there is no analogy between these accords and the various
agreements related to the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact of 1939.
President Guntis Ulmanis, however, also expressed
reservations about the accords, especially those dealing with
the situation of the retired Soviet military personnel living
in Latvia. He said that he would not sign any agreement with
Moscow until President Yeltsin retracts the decree of 5 April
which seems to provide for the establishment of a Russian
military base in Latvia. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

reported on 15 April that the Constitutional Court has ruled
that an amendment to the Lithuanian citizenship law allowing
former Soviet servicemen to become citizens of Lithuania
violates that country's constitution. That amendment, adopted
in 1993 by the Seimas, permitted persons who had served in
the Soviet armed forces to apply for citizenship provided
they had ended their military service before 1 March 1992 and
had obtained the initial citizenship "certificates" before 4
November 1991. The court ruled also that dual citizenship is
possible only in exceptional cases and that those servicemen
who were Soviet citizens at the time of their military
service had received the Lithuanian citizenship
"certificates" unlawfully. The ruling may affect about 800
former Soviet servicemen. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Roman Solchanyk & Edith Oltay
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