|Upon the education of the people of this country the fate of this country depends. - Benjamin Disraeli 1804-1881|
No. 68, 11 April 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN CRITICIZES GORAZDE STRIKES. Speaking to reporters at the airport prior to his departure for Spain on 11 April, Russian President Boris Yeltsin complained that US President Bill Clinton had not consulted with Moscow prior to the strike by NATO aircraft on Serb targets near the Bosnian city of Gorazde. We want this matter to be discussed at the UN. Security Council, Yeltsin said. Yeltsin, who talked to Clinton by telephone early on 11 April, said he had insisted to Clinton time and again that such decisions cannot be taken without prior consultation between the United States and Russia. They cannot be. And we shall insist on this, Western agencies reported. Yeltsin made no mention of the UN resolution providing a legal basis for the strikes --to defend UN peacekeepers under fire through close air support. Meanwhile, Vitalii Churkin, Yeltsins special envoy to the former Yugoslavia, arrived in Belgrade on 10 April for consultations with Serb President Slobodan Milosevic. Churkins visit was planned prior to the airstrikes and will continue with stops in Zagreb and Sarajevo. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. HONEYMOON OVER; NATO PARTICIPATION LINKED TO G-7 MEMBERSHIP? Yeltsins chief spokesman, Vyacheslav Kostikov, told reporters on 8 April that Russias romantic embrace with the West was over and that Russia increasingly sees itself as a great power which has its own strategic, military and political interests, different from those of the US and Europe . . . It has started saying this loudly. As reported by Reuters, Kostikov also linked Moscows participation in the NATO Partnership for Peace program to membership in the G-7 (Group of Seven) economic club. You know that Russia want to join the G-7, he was quoted as saying; why shouldnt these two problems be linked? According to AFP, Kostikov argued that linkage of the two issues would appease opposition leaders in parliament and help win their approval for Russias participation in the NATO partnership program. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN TO SPAIN. Boris Yeltsin started a three-day visit to Spain on 11 April where he is expected to sign a framework agreement on Russian-Spanish relations and drum up business interest in Russia. Yeltsin will meet with Spanish leaders, including King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia, as well as with business people in both Madrid and Barcelona before returning to Moscow on 13 April. Western press reports stress that Yeltsin will be under careful scrutiny of Western observers for assurances that he is fit and able to lead his country. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. DRAFT 1994 BUDGET UNDER FIRE. Members of the State Dumas Committee on Budget, Taxes, Banks, and Finances, told a news conference on 8 April that the committee cannot accept the draft federal budget for 1994 in its present form, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. Their principal complaint is that planned revenues do not take into account the sharp reduction in output recorded during the first two months of this year. Too large a share of planned revenues will accrue to the federal government at the expense of regions. Other provisions of the draft do not correspond with the governments projections of socio-economic developments this year. Further, they criticized the lack of the requisite supporting data. On 10 April, the Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin group of deputies announced that it would vote against the draft budget because it provides no basis for further reforms nor for solving Russias acute problems. Legislators had earlier promised to deal with the budget as expeditiously as possible. It is unclear whether the IMF will accept the governments good intentions as set out in a draft budget or insist on a final document that has been approved by parliament. Keith Bush PAYMENTS ARREARS CRIPPLE ENERGY SUPPLIERS. Officials of the fuel and energy complex, in interviews with Reuters and Interfax on 8 April, described the slowdown in output and supplies of oil, gas, and nuclear power owing to payments arrears. In March, gas supplies were down by 653 million cubic meters and nuclear power was cut by 1.2 billion KWH. Debts to the complex now amounted to 6.6 trillion rubles, of which 450 billion rubles were owed to the nuclear power industry. Last week, after nuclear power workers picketed government buildings in Moscow, a 50-billion ruble credit was offered to help ease the industrys payments arrears problems. Fuel and Energy Minister Yurii Shafranik blamed the sharp decline in oil output during the first quarter to 73.9 million tons (excluding joint venture output), compared with 88.3 million tons in the first quarter of 1993, on payments arrears. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. BURBULIS SEEKS RAPPROCHEMENT WITH YELTSIN. Former State Secretary and cofounder of the Russian democratic movement, Gennadii Burbulis, told journalists in the Kremlin on 9 April that he expects Boris Yeltsin to run for a second term as president, ITAR-TASS reported. However, according to Burbulis, success for Yeltsin will depend upon whether he is able to unify the nation over the next eighteen months, whether he succeeds in creating a strong structure which would support him in the election campaign, and whether Yeltsin will publicly promote those political figures upon whom he wants to rely if elected. Burbulis stated that if Yeltsin fulfills these requirements, he will support the president. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. KAZANNIK RESIGNS AGAIN, WARNS OF DICTATORSHIP. In an address to the Council of the Federation on 8 April, Aleksei Kazannik requested that his resignation be accepted. Appointed by Yeltsin as the Russian Prosecutor-General during the presidents bloody clashes with the parliament last fall, Kazannik submitted his resignation for the first time in March because, he said, Yeltsin and his aides had pressed him to bend the constitution and laws. On 6-7 April the higher chamber of the Russian parliament voted twice to reject Kazanniks resignation, a move which, in a strict legal sense, meant that he remained in his post. Yeltsins aides, in turn, claimed that Kazanniks successor, Aleksei Ilyushenko, would continue as Acting Prosecutor-General. It has become obvious . . . that the president has no intention of observing the constitution and laws, nor does he intend to implement the decision of the Council of Federation [as the constitution requires], Kazannik said on 8 April; he added that an open dictatorship is upcoming in Russia. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV ON CONSCRIPTS, SIZE OF ARMED FORCES. Addressing the Russian Defense Ministry Collegium on 8 February, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev complained that the army needed to draft some 700,000 conscripts this year in order to maintain its combat readiness, but that it would receive only about 200,000. The Defense Ministry has long made clear that it hopes the new parliament will amend the current laws regulating military service. Grachev also repeated criticism of the Russian law on defense, which mandates a Russian army of 1.5 million men. He said that Russia needs an army of at least 2.1 million, arguing that the lower staffing level would limit Russia to waging only localized combat operations. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. DEPUTIES OBJECT TO US-RUSSIAN MILITARY EXERCISE. Vladimir Zhirinovsky and other hard-line deputies on 8 April criticized plans for joint US-Russian military exercises, AFP and Interfax reported. Their objections came during an appearance before the parliament by Deputy Defense Minister Georgii Kondratev, who announced that the exercises were to take place in July in the southern Urals region of Orenburg. A total of 250 soldiers from each side would take part, Kondratev said, and the US government is to pay all expenses for the American troops. The exercises are to focus on coordinating peacekeeping operations between the two countries. Zhirinovsky was quoted as threatening that officers who think that they can get an extra star by organizing this kind of exercise should remember that the regime will change one day and that they will lose everything. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TRANSCAUCASUS REACTION TO RUSSIAN BASES PROPOSAL. Neither the Armenian nor the Georgian leadership has any objections to the continued presence of Russian bases on their territory under the terms of existing agreements, local spokesmen told Interfax on 10 April. An aide to Azerbaijani President Geidar Aliev told Interfax that the issue did not concern Azerbaijan since there were no longer any Russian troops stationed there, but that negotiations were continuing on the leasing by Russia of the Gebele radar station in northern Azerbaijan, which he qualified as not an army base but a military facility. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. AZERBAIJAN IS NOT PLANNING TO LEAVE CIS. A spokesman for Azerbaijans President Geidar Aliev told Interfax on 10 April that there was no truth to a report published in Kommersant on 8 April that Azerbaijan planned to announce its withdrawal from the CIS at the upcoming summit of CIS leaders in Moscow to protest Russian plans for the deployment of peacekeeping forces in Nagorno-Karabakh and for the closure of the Azerbaijani-Iranian frontier. No comment was made on the Kommersant allegation that because of his advanced age and deteriorating health Aliev will send parliament speaker Rasul Guliev to attend the CIS summit in his place. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. TURKMENISTAN CUTS OFF GAS TO AZERBAIJAN. Turkmenistan cut off the supply of its natural gas to Azerbaijan on 8 April, Western and Russian agencies reported on 9 April, because the Caucasian state has not paid its bills. According to Azertadzh-TASS, Turkmenistan provides half the gas used in Azerbaijan. Baku TV reported on the day of the cutoff that Azerbaijan was supposed to supply oil industry equipment and other products to Turkmenistan in return for the gas, but has not met its obligations. Earlier in the year Turkmenistan successfully used threatened or actual gas cutoffs to discipline other CIS states into paying up their arrears or making arrangements to do so. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS BLACK SEA FLEET INCIDENT. On 9 April Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev spoke with his Ukrainian counterpart, Anatolii Zlenko, about a provocation involving the Black Sea Fleet and the Ukrainian navy. The incident, reported by various agencies, involved a Black Sea Fleet vessel, the Cheleken, which left the port of Odessa and sailed to Sevastopol carrying marine research and navigational equipment valued at some $10 million. According to the Ukrainian navy command, the equipment belonged to the port facilities of Odessa and was not the property of the Black Sea Fleet. When Ukrainian coast guard boats tried to stop the Cheleken they were reportedly fired on with tracer bullets and water cannon, and a Ukrainian naval commander, Mykola Zhibarev, was detained overnight after he boarded the ship in an attempt to prevent it from sailing with the equipment. According to Russian and Black Sea Fleet naval officials the equipment belonged to Russia; they blamed Ukraines failure to finance navigational systems of the Black Sea Fleet for the seizure. This has been the most serious in a series of incidents between the Ukrainian navy and Black Sea Fleet personnel. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE NATO BOMBS SERB TARGETS. International media reported that two American F-16 jets, after repeated warnings, bombed Serb positions near Gorazde on 10 April. The Bosnian Muslim enclave has been under renewed attack for nearly two weeks. UN commander General Sir Michael Rose called for the air strikes to protect UN personnel in the safe area, but US President Bill Clinton also described the attack as a clear call to the Serbs to pull back from Gorazde and resume the negotiations. A Serb-Muslim cease-fire on 8 April had fizzled out, and negotiations on a broader agreement broke down the following day. The BBC on 11 April quoted Bosnian Serb spokesmen as saying that all talks with the UN were off, since the world body had in Serb eyes allied itself with the Muslims. The Gorazde Muslims welcomed the bombing, which followed important Serb strategic gains in the area over the weekend. NATO had launched air strikes against Serb planes on 28 February, but the Gorazde episode marked the alliances first-ever bombing run against Serb land positions. Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic told the New York Times that the strikes restored the international communitys credibility in the area. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. TUDJMAN MOVES TO HOLD PARTY TOGETHER. Croatian dailies on 8 and 9 April reported on President Franjo Tudjmans efforts to prevent the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) from splitting. By the middle of that week it had appeared that upper house speaker Josip Manolic, whom Tudjman had stripped of his party offices, would form a new center-left party with the help of lower house speaker Stipe Mesic, together with up to 20 other legislators. Tudjman told HDZ parliamentarians at a special meeting that Manolic had attacked the Croatian state itself and politically could do as he pleased, but that Mesic would remain in the party and at his post, although other accounts in the Croatian, German, and Austrian press suggest that Mesic is lost to Tudjman. At issue is not only the unity of the HDZ--perhaps East Europes last post-communist broad front movement--but also that partys majority in parliament. Should the majority crumble, new elections would be all but certain. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. JOVANOVIC INTERVIEWED ON RADIO BUCHAREST. In a 9 April interview on Radio Bucharest, the Foreign Minister of the rump Yugoslav Federation Vladislav Jovanovic described his impressions from a recent visit to Bucharest with President Slobodan Milosevic as extremely positive. Romania and rump Yugoslavia are expected to sign a friendship and cooperation treaty later this month. According to Jovanovic, the treaty will create a framework not only for cooperation but also for possible integration between the two countries, which, he maintained, shared a keen interest in integration initiatives in the Balkan peninsula. Jovanovic seized the opportunity to attack against the West for alleged interference in the Balkans. Germany, he added, was the country most responsible for the tragedy that fell upon us. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. SEJM PROBES SUCHOCKAS GOVERNMENT. The Sejm voted 212 to 61, with 31 abstentions, on 8 April to accept the report of a special commission set up to investigate the performance of Prime Minister Hanna Suchockas government during the period in which there was no sitting parliament (June-October 1993). While conceding that Suchockas government did not in essence violate the law, the commission cited six instances on which it had reservations, most associated with the privatization of state firms. Suchockas party, the Democratic Union (UD), denounced the commissions findings as an attempt to take political revenge and discredit the ousted governments achievements. The vote has no practical consequences. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH PREMIER, SLOVAK FOREIGN MINISTER IN POLAND. The Polish and Czech prime ministers held unofficial talks on 10 April at a castle near Lesna, on the Polish side of the Polish-Czech border. Vaclav Klaus denied that there are strains in Czech-Polish relations and said that the Czech Republic does not intend to vie with Poland for entry into the European Union. Klaus acknowledged discussing EU membership with Polish officials but said coordination is too strong a term to describe these talks. Polish TV reports that Klaus accepted Polands offer to repay its debt to the Czech Republic in coal, ecological investments, and the construction of new border crossings. On 9 April, Slovak Foreign Minister Eduard Kukan held talks with Polish officials in Warsaw. Kukan told reporters that it is not accidental that Poland was the destination of his first foreign visit. Polish Defense Minister Piotr Kolodziejczyk met briefly with his Slovak counterpart, Pavol Kanis, in Poprad on 8 April, after concluding a three-day visit to Ukraine. The two ministers stressed the importance of defense coordination among the Visegrad countries. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. LARGEST CZECH TRADE UNION HOLDS CONGRESS. The Bohemian and Moravian Trade Union Chamber, the largest trade union organization in the Czech Republic, held a congress in Prague on 8 and 9 April. CTK reports that Richard Falbr was elected the organizations new chairman. Premier Vaclav Klaus told the congress that trade unions should focus on activities in enterprises rather than lobbying the government. The delegates were upset by Klauss remarks, and demanded an apology for other disparaging statements he had made about a trade union demonstration in Prague on 22 March. The congress decided that all newly elected union officials be screened for ties with the communist secret police. Falbr cautioned that he himself might be eliminated, because he was a foreign language teacher at the internal affairs ministry in the early 1960s. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. FORMER CZECH SECRET POLICE AGENT SENTENCED. On 8 April, a Czech military court sentenced a former agent of the Federal Bureau of Security and Intelligence (FBIS), Vaclav Wallis, to 37 months in prison on charges of selling classified information to Viktor Kozeny, head of the Harvard Investment Funds. Kozeny himself was cleared of any wrongdoing by the court at the end of March. In the summer of 1993, revelations about Walliss activities sparked the biggest post-1989 political scandal in the Czech Republic, as the file provided by Wallis to Kozeny allegedly contained sensitive information about the private lives of leading Czech politicians and data on other investment funds and companies due to become privatized. The contents of the file were not made public during the trial. CTK reported the story. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SHARES IN 861 CZECH COMPANIES ON OFFER. Shares valued at a total of over $5 billion, in 861 Czech companies that are being privatized under the second wave of the voucher privatization program, are on offer from 11 April to 25 April. More than six million Czechs purchased vouchers and registered to bid for shares in the companies slated for privatization when the second wave was launched in the fall of 1993. The highest valued enterprise being offered is the Ostrava-Karvina coal mine; it is worth an estimated $400 million. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIANS WRITE OPEN LETTER TO US CONGRESS. About one hundred Hungarian intellectuals, politicians, and journalists, including former members of RFEs Hungarian Service, addressed an open letter to the US congress demanding that RFEs Hungarian archives be placed in Hungary and made available for public use there. Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN COMMUNISTS HOLD CONGRESS. On 9 and 10 April, the Socialist Labor Party (former communists) held its second national congress in Bucharest, Radio Bucharest reports. In his report, SLP president Ilie Verdet, a former prime minister under Nicolae Ceausescu, claimed free market reforms had disrupted public and social life and introduced rapacious capitalism in Romania. Verdet presented his partys own alternative ruling program aimed at creating what he termed a social and humanist market economy. The congress unanimously re-elected Verdet as the partys chairman. The SLP, which won seats in both chambers of parliament in the September 1992 elections, backs Nicolae Vacaroius minority cabinet, which is dominated by the Party of Social Democracy in Romania. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. WEU DELEGATION IN SOFIA. Between 6 and 8 April a group of leading politicians and officials of the West European Union visited Bulgaria to participate in meetings and seminars devoted to European security problems, BTA reports. On the first day of the visit, the Chairman of the WEU Parliamentary Assembly, Dudley Smith, confirmed that Bulgaria will most likely be invited to become an associate WEU member when the organization convenes in Luxembourg on 9-10 May. Smith said Bulgaria would be eligible for a reinforced status within the alliance, which means that it will be represented in the so-called Group on Operative Planning. On 7 April WEU Secretary General Willem van Eekelen was received by President Zhelyu Zhelev. At present, Bulgaria has observer status in the WEU. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. JOINT STATEMENT OF BALTIC PRESIDENTS. On 7 April presidents Algirdas Brazauskas (Lithuania), Guntis Ulmanis (Latvia), and Lennart Meri (Estonia) released a statement reported by BNS on 8 April. It welcomed the Russian governments press report that Latvia was mistakenly included in the Russian presidents decree of 5 April listing countries where Moscow seeks to establish military bases, but noted with concern the continuing consequences of such incidents for our countries, our relationship with the Russian Federation, and indeed the ability of all countries to work with the Moscow government. The presidents called on the Russian President to declare personally and publicly that Decree No. 174 was in error concerning Latvia and to reaffirm his own past commitments to a rapid and complete withdrawal of Russian forces from Estonia and Latvia. The statement said that the Baltic countries have always negotiated with the Russian Federation in good faith and will continue to do so, but there are obvious limits to our ability to continue in this direction. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN PRESIDENT POSTPONES VISIT TO MOSCOW. On 8 April Ulmanis told a meeting of local government officials in Kuldiga that he had indefinitely postponed his planned visit to Moscow on 20 April, BNS reports. The purpose of the visit was to sign the agreements on Russian troop withdrawal that were initialed on 15 March, but Ulmanis said they were incomplete and unfavorable for the Latvian side. Nobody had taken the trouble to explain the draft agreements to the people, he said, and there had been no nationwide discussion. On 10 April Ulmanis departed for France, Denmark, and Great Britain, where he will be sounding out Western leaders opinion on the latest problems in Baltic-Russian relations. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. HIGH INFLATION IN ESTONIA IN MARCH. The Estonian Statistics Department announced that the consumer price index in March rose by 8.9%, BNS reported on 8 April. The monthly increases in January and February had been 5.2% and 5.5%, respectively. The greatest increases were for housing--18.5%, milk and eggs--13.3%, transport and communications--9,7%, meat and fish--8.2%, and flour, fruits, and vegetables--8%. The cost of health care dropped a negligible 1.1%. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. PRELIMINARY UKRAINIAN ELECTION RESULTS. According to the preliminary results issued by the Central Electoral Commission and broadcast by Radio Ukraine, voter turnout was generally quite high again in this weekends runoff parliamentary elections. By the morning of 11 March a total of 312 deputies were known to have been elected to the 450-seat-legislature in the two rounds, and more results were pending. This means that, despite fears previously expressed by President Leonid Kravchuk, enough deputies have already been elected to make the new parliament quorate. Among the deputies so far known to have been elected in the second round are Acting Prime Minister Yefim Zvyahilsky, Deputy Prime Ministers Valentyn Landyk and Mykola Zhulynsky, Deputy Parliamentary Speaker Vasyl Durdynets, Economics Minister Roman Shpek, presidential foreign affairs advisor Anton Buteiko, Rukh leaders Ivan Zayets and Oleksandr Lavrynovych, and liberal-centrist Volodymyr Hrynov. The RFE/RL Research Institute has also learned that in Lviv, two members of the ultra-right paramilitary organization UNA-UNSO, including the commander of the UNSO, Oleh Vitovych, have been elected. In Crimea, despite calls for a boycott by Crimean President Yurii Meshkov, more than 50% of the voters cast their ballots. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. KRAVCHUKS COMMENTS AT THE POLLING BOOTH. After casting his ballot, President Kravchuk told journalists that although the new election law was a relic of the Soviet era, he was confident that a new parliament would be capable of working for reforms, democracy and independence. Asked whether he would seek reelection in June, he replied that the new parliament must resolve the issue of the division of powers between the president, government and parliament, and define the role of the president more clearly, before he would run for re-election. If the role of the president was to be reduced to that of a ceremonial figurehead, he saw no point in being a candidate. Responding to the strong showing by the Communists and their allies in eastern Ukraine, Kravchuk denounced their calls to halt privatization. That would mean moving backward, he said, and the attempted socialist revolution could lead to confrontation. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. CHERNOBYL TO SHUT DOWN? On 9 and 10 April various agencies reported that the Ukrainian government has agreed, in principle, to shut down the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. This follows a visit to the plant by US deputy energy secretary Bill White, who said the power plant was full of safety violations. The plant should have been shut down last year, but the Ukrainian parliament voted to keep it running because of the energy crisis in the country. Ukraine relies on nuclear energy for 30% of its energy needs and the Chernobyl plant supplies 7% of Ukraines electricity. No timetable for the closure has been specified and officials stressed that this could only be done when alternative energy supplies become available. According to White, the major industrialized countries, the World Bank and the European Bank will all need to participate in financing Ukraines energy needs. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUSIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION UPDATE. On 8 April Interfax reported an initiative of left-wing parties and movements to form a unified election bloc. The move was advanced by the new Socialist Party and is expected to be called Belarus. It will encompass five political parties, including the countrys largest party, the 70,000 strong Communist Party. According to left-wing representatives, the bloc would support the candidacy of prime minister Vyacheslau Kebich if he formally announced his candidacy. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVANS RATIFY CIS MEMBERSHIP, ECONOMIC UNION. On 8 April the Moldovan parliament ratified Moldovas membership of the CIS with certain reservations, and also the agreement on the CIS economic union, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. The parliament stated that Moldova would not participate in any military pacts or a ruble zone. The vote was 80 in favor and 18 against. Pre-term elections had been called after the previous parliament had failed by four votes to ratify CIS membership. Valerii Litskai, State Secretary of the self-proclaimed Transdniester Republic, told Interfax that ratification of CIS membership would enable talks between Kishinev and Tiraspol to be resumed at a completely new level. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. SNEGUR MEETS TRANSDNIESTRIAN LEADER. On 9 April Moldovan President Mircea Snegur had confidential talks with the leader of Transdniestria, Igor Smirnov, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. The meeting, which was held on Snegurs initiative, discussed the renewal of talks on determining the legal status of Transdniestria. It was agreed that the talks would be held with the mediation of the CSCE mission and Russia, and that they would be based on the CSCE missions report providing for broad autonomy for Transdniestria and a delimitation of powers between the central and Transdniestrian authorities. The two parties also discussed the resumption of contacts between the left and right banks of the Dniester, and decided that working groups should be set up to draw up the necessary documents. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Stephen Foye and Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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