|The only thing one knows about human nature is that it changes. - Oscar Wilde|
No. 67, 8 April 1994
RUSSIA CONFUSION IN MOSCOW ON MILITARY BASE DIRECTIVE. Officials from the Russian executive branch, as well as from the Foreign and Defense Ministries, on 7 April denied that Russia has any intention of establishing a military base in Latvia, and blamed the confusion surrounding a Yeltsin directive to that effect on an unexplained technical error in the text. The uproar in Moscow and Riga apparently began with a short ITAR-TASS report on 6 April that said that Yeltsin had issued a directive approving a Defense Ministry proposal for the establishment of 30 military bases in other CIS states and in Latvia. The text of the actual directive, which was dated 5 April and which contained two references to Latvia, appeared in Rossiiskie vesti on 7 April. Presidential spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov quickly affirmed that the Russian-controlled Skrunda radar station in Latvia did not have the status of a military base and that Moscows relations with Latvia in such matters continued to be based on a previously agreed to bilateral military withdrawal agreement. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. SOURCE, CONTENTS OF DIRECTIVE DISPUTED. In just one more sign of growing confusion within government circles, the source of the directive and the inclusion of the references to Latvia in it immediately became the object of suspicious speculation in Moscow. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev was quoted as saying we dont know where this order comes from nor with whom it was agreed. According to Radio Rossii, he compared its appearance to that of the mysterious version number 1, a document purportedly outlining a plot to overthrow the president. According to Izvestiya on 8 April, however, other diplomats rejected the possibility of such a subtext and attributed the errors in the document to the fact that the president was given an old and outdated document to sign. According to Mayak Radio, Sergei Zotov, the head of the Russian state delegation for talks with Latvia, placed blame for the confusion on illiterate work by individuals within the state apparatus. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. INCREASE IN DEFENSE EXPENDITURE PROPOSED. A key legislator has proposed an increase in the allocation to defense in the draft federal budget for 1994. In an interview with Interfax on 7 April, the deputy chairman of the parliamentary defense committee, Aleksandr Piskunov, claimed that the Defense Ministry had requested a total of 87 trillion rubles for 1994--slightly more than reported earlier--while the draft budget provides only 37.1 trillion rubles. This virtually means that we draft a man into the army and give him arms, but do not feed him. In order to maintain the defense industry at its 1993 level and to set aside 10 percent of defense expenditure for research and development, Piskunovs committee proposes to increase the defense vote by 4 trillion rubles. It is planned to offset the increase by savings on external economic activities, civil defense, pre-service preparation, and manned space flights. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. PROJECTION OF ARMS SALES. The director general of Rosvooruzheniye, the newly created umbrella organization for all arms sales, has predicted a substantial increase in the value of Russian military hardware sold on the world market. In an interview with Interfax on 7 April, Viktor Samoilov reckoned that cash sales could increase in 1994 by 100-150 percent over 1993 [i.e., to about $4-5 billion], while total sales for convertible currency, including purchases on credit, could reach $10-15 billion. He hinted that Russia may not adhere to existing embargoes on arms sales, but did not specify which countries he had in mind. He called for long-term planning for the defense industry and for arms sales and promised to curtail capital flight insofar as defense manufacturers were concerned. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. PROBLEMS WITH COCOM . . . US Undersecretary of State Lynn Davis told reporters on 7 April that Russian arms sales to Iran were one factor obstructing agreement on a new international export control regime. Members of COCOM (Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls) had recently agreed to eliminate most of the Cold War controls on exports of a number of hi-tech items to former Soviet bloc countries and China, and, following disbandment of the old organization, are attempting to establish a successor organization. The Clinton Administration and other member states hope to make Russian participation a cornerstone of the new regime, but, according to Davis, Moscow does not share precisely our view with respect to the dangers in sales to Iran. According to Reuters, Davis added, however, that Moscow still had not foreclosed the possibility that it would go along on the issue. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . CONCERNS OVER BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS. Despite repeated assurances from Boris Yeltsin, the Clinton Administration is convinced that Russia has not entirely shut down the production of biological weapons, The Washington Post reported on 8 April. The US allegation is reportedly based in part on recent US and British inspections of major biological research centers in Russia, and on what was described as a detailed account of secret Russian research on germ weapons obtained from a scientist who defected to the US in 1993. We have evidence that leads us to understand that there is still an offensive biological weapons program underway in Russia, a US official was quoted as saying; we are very concerned that large aspects of the program are continuing. The charges come following the dismissal by Boris Yeltsin of Anatolii Kuntsevich, the director of the Russian Committee on Problems of Chemical and Biological Disarmament. According to the same report, Kuntsevich was regarded by Washington as an obstacle to progress on the germ weapons issue. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. REPORT ON PRIVATIZATION. At the weekly cabinet meeting on 7 April, Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais presented a report on the progress to date of voucher privatization and outlined his plans for post-voucher privatization due to start on 1 July, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. By 4 April, 105 million Russians had invested their vouchers, and Chubais was confident that the remaining 45 million vouchers would be invested before mid-June. About 80 percent of the 20,000 eligible large-and medium-sized enterprise have already been converted into joint-stock companies. Among the features of the post-privatization program mentioned were the transfer of part of the funds derived from privatization to social security purposes, and the use of G-7 grants for supporting post-privatization operations. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN COUNTERINTELLIGENCE FEARS NEAR ABROAD. The deputy chief of the Administration for Counterintelligence Operations of the Federal Counterintelligence Service, Boris Miroshnikov, told ITAR-TASS on 6 April that countries of the so-called near abroad (former Soviet republics) have established their own intelligence centers. He said that these centers have taken over the jurisdiction of local state security structures of the former Soviet republics and have started active intelligence and subversive operations against Russia, exploiting the political instability in the hot regions of the Russian Federation. According to Miroshnikov, the intelligence services of the near abroad countries were using the Islamic factor and other forms of aggressive nationalism for their purposes. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. POLL ON PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. The All-Russia Center for the Study of Public Opinion conducted a poll of 1,600 Russian citizens to assess public attitudes toward Russian participation in NATOs Partnership for Peace program. According to the survey, 49 percent of Russians want their country to join the NATO program, 15 percent oppose it, and 36 percent were undecided. The high percentage of respondents indicating that they are undecided in this poll is paralleled by similar undecided responses in other polls on foreign policy issues. This ambivalence may suggest that the public considers other issues, such as the economy, more important and relevant to them. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. SHAKHRAI PROMOTED. Sergei Shakhrai, Minister for Nationalities and Regional Policy and leader of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, has been promoted to the post of Deputy Prime Minister, ITAR-TASS reported on 7 April. Shakhrai had occupied that position already from 1992 until January 1994. When President Boris Yeltsin decided to downsize the governments bureaucracy, Shakhrai lost that post and became an ordinary minister. His reappointment indicates his high standing in the hierarchy. Shakhrai has recently been criticized for his leading role in drafting the amnesty act of the State Duma which set free the organizers of the October 1993 armed rebellion. Shakhrai is regarded as a close associate of Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. DISARRAY IN RUSSIAS CHOICE. One of the co-founders of the Russian democratic movement and former State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis has quit the faction of Russias Choice, ITAR-TASS reported on 7 April. The leader of the faction, Egor Gaidar, said that one should not overdramatize that step. Gaidar and Burbulis had been for some time at odds over who should lead Russias Choice. Segodnya on 7 April reported that Gaidar plans to set up a coordinating council in order to harmonize the activities of his faction with two other reformist blocs in the parliament--the bloc of Grigorii Yavlinsky and former Finance Minister Boris Fedorovs Union of 12 December. The Union of 12 December has reportedly asked Russias Choice to lend it some of its deputies in order to be able to register officially as a faction in the State Duma. Fedorov categorically denied that. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. LOCAL ELECTIONS CONTINUE. Local government elections will take place in Sverdlovsk Oblast on 10 April, but 82 percent of the inhabitants of the regional capital, Yekaterinburg, do not understand the rules under which the elections are being held, Russian TV reported on 5 April. Voter apathy has been blamed for the low turnout in many local regions, but the chairman of the Committee on Local Government of the Russian State Duma, Anatolii Sliva, says in an article in Moscow News (No. 13) that the real reason is that local government still has no real power in Russia. Until more responsibility is devolved from the center to the regions, Sliva writes, Russia will never be able to build a democratic system. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA INTERETHNIC TENSIONS RISE IN KAZAKHSTAN. Tensions are continuing between Kazakhs and the inhabitants of two Cossack villages in Taldy-Kurgan Oblast, Interfax reported on 7 April. Taldy-Kurgan Kazakhs threatened to attack the two villages after Cossack residents designated them border outposts. Phone communications with the villages have been severed. Local police have prevented Cossacks from other areas from reaching the two settlements; six Cossacks who were detained earlier are reported to be on a hunger strike. The report quoted Cossack leaders and a spokesman of the Russian-speaking community of northern Kazakhstan as fearing an outbreak of violence that could prove contagious--the spokesman, Boris Supunok, compared the situation in Kazakhstan with that in the Transdniestrian region of Moldova. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE US WANTS QUICK DEPLOYMENT OF UN TROOPS TO GORAZDE. News agencies on 8 April quote Secretary of State Warren Christopher as saying that Washington would like quick deployment of the 1,000 Ukrainian peacekeepers waiting to be sent to the besieged east Bosnian Muslim enclave that has been under a renewed Serb attack for over a week. He pointed out that air power could then be used to protect the UN forces. CNN quotes a report from UN workers in the town critical of other UN officials who tried to play down the significance of the Serb assault. UN officials in Sarajevo have gotten verbal agreements from Serb and Muslim commanders for a 24-hour ceasefire throughout Bosnia, but this does not appear to have affected the situation in Gorazde. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. AMMUNITION DUMP EXPLODES IN ZAGREB. Vecernji list reports on 8 April that a fire the previous afternoon set off many shells at Croatias largest ammunition depot. The projectiles fell on several districts until 6 p.m., causing at least eight injuries and general chaos. Those living within 2.5 kilometers of the base were evacuated for the day, while those living farther out were told to take to their basements. Croatian Radio told listeners that the city was not under attack, but the cause of the fire has not yet been determined. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CROATIA TO SEND BACK REFUGEES. In Zagreb the authorities announced that 15,000 refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina must leave Croatia, Reuters reported on 6 April. The old, infirm, and homeless are excepted, but those living in relatively peaceful areas must now return, and the first group will consist of 8,000 from Mostar. Croatia plays host to some half a million refugees, whose support costs the government $62 million per month, the second largest item in the state budget after defense. About half of the refugees are from Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the presence of so many displaced persons has led to numerous social tensions. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBANIA AND TURKEY AGREE ON KOSOVO. On his visit to Turkey, Albanian President Sali Berisha met with his counterpart, Suleyman Demirel, and Prime Minister Tansu Ciller, Rilindja reported on 6 April. Demirel said that the visit will mean an even higher level of relations, which are already very good. They discussed improving political, economic, and military cooperation, and signed a trade agreement. In particular, Demirel promised to provide advice on matters regarding legislation and to help develop Albanian telecommunications. Ciller pledged to promote Turkish investments in Albania and the Turkish Agricultural Bank will soon open a branch in Tirana. According to Rilindja, both countries share a similar point of view on the Kosovo crisis, describing it in Demirels words as very delicate. Berisha was expected to meet with the leader of the opposition Motherland Party (ANAP) Mesut Yilmaz as well, Lajmi i Dites reported on 5 April. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND FILES FOR EU MEMBERSHIP. Poland submitted a formal application for membership in the European Union on 8 April, PAP reports. Informing the Sejm of the governments plans on 7 April, Polish Foreign Minister Andrzej Olechowski said that Polands road to the EU will be long and hard, with full integration possible only after 2000. He stressed, however, that Polands position is no worse than that of Greece, Portugal, or Spain when they applied for membership. In a rare display of unanimity, all the parties in the Sejm supported the application. Polands move comes in the wake of Hungarys application on 1 April; the two countries are striving to preserve the joint approach to Western institutions that was the guiding principle of the Visegrad group. Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec signaled his countrys disinclination to follow the same route in a lecture at Charles University on 7 April. The Czech Republic will not join the ranks of developed countries simply through a legal act, Zieleniec said. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH SEJM ACCEPTS WALESAS VETO. Despite an appeal from Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak, the Sejm failed on 7 April to muster the two-thirds majority necessary to override the presidents veto of the new wage control bill. The vote was 243 to 146 with 10 abstentions; 266 votes were needed to override. The bill is now dead; the finance ministry has indicated it will draft new wage-control legislation by 12 April. Supporting the veto were the OPZZ unionists in the ruling coalition and virtually the entire opposition, including the traditionally proreform Democratic Union (UD). The OPZZ opposes wage controls on principle, while the UD objected to the bills potential to penalize private as well as state firms. Coalition leaders urged deputies to support the bill in order to forestall a new surge of inflation and collect revenues planned in the 1994 budget. Pawlak told reporters after the vote that there is no need for panic and said he expects state firms and unions to exercise restraint. The vote has political as well as economic implications; it suggests that divisions in the ruling coalition have made it susceptible to presidential pressure. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. WALESA SETS POLITICAL CONDITIONS. After the Sejm vote, Sejm Speaker Jozef Oleksy, a Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) leader, met with President Lech Walesa. Oleksy urged Walesa to sign the 1994 budget. Signaling his intention to make further use of his veto power as leverage in his battle with the coalition for the upper hand, Walesa said he has not yet made up his mind about the budget or the amended law on local government elections. The president also refused to discuss the coalitions nominee for finance minister, Dariusz Rosati. Walesa agreed to consider a meeting with coalition leaders on the condition that they drop Rosatis candidacy. Walesa also indicated that the coalition parties will have to consult with him first on any candidate for the vacant ministerial post if they hope to win his agreement to the appointment. The constitution says that the president may make changes in the cabinet at the prime ministers request. Labor Minister Leszek Miller told Polish TV that the coalition has a new candidate for finance minister but refused to name any names. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. WALESAS OFFENSIVE LACKS PUBLIC SUPPORT. President Lech Walesas current offensive, however effective, does not seem to have earned him favor with the public. A Demoskop opinion poll reported by PAP on 6 April showed that 70% of respondents assessed Walesas performance in recent weeks as bad or very bad, while only 19% judged it good or very good. A CBOS poll reported on 7 April showed that only 5% believe that Walesa is the best candidate for president, whereas 17% prefer Democratic Left Alliance leader Aleksander Kwasniewski; 10% favor Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak; 8% support heart surgeon Zbigniew Religa; and 6% opt for, respectively, Zbigniew Brzezinski, former Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski, and current Foreign Minister Andrzej Olechowski. Walesas 5% ranking was matched by reform architect Leszek Balcerowicz, former Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka, and current Justice Minister Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz. Presidential elections are due to take place at the end of 1995. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH GOVERNMENT BLOCKS MILITARY TECHNOLOGY SALES TO IRAN. A trade ministry spokesman told journalists on 7 April that the Czech government had rejected a request by the RDP group, a consortium made up of 40 Czech arms and heavy machinery manufactures, to export military technology to Iran. The RDP group wanted to send to Iran repair technology for the Soviet-designed T-72 tank. Under Czech law, military technology exports must be approved by the trade, foreign, interior, and defense ministries on a case-by-case basis. All four ministries rejected the request. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. TWO CENTER PARTIES MERGE IN SLOVAKIA. On 7 April, Alliance of Democrats Chairman Milan Knazko announced his partys merger with the Democratic Union of Slovakia (formerly the Alternative of Political Realism), of which Premier Jozef Moravcik is a member. The new party, to be known as the Democratic Union of Slovakia, will hold its first congress on 23 April. The move was made in preparation for early parliamentary elections, which are planned for 30 September and 1 October. Also on 7 April, the extraparliamentary Democratic Party presented a formal offer of a preelection coalition to the Christian Democratic Movement. The CDM expressed interest in active cooperation but said it preferred to wait at least until June before choosing political partners. Meanwhile, the Green Party announced it will consider forming a coalition with the Party of the Democratic Left, the Social Democratic Party and the Movement of Peasants, TASR reported on 7 April. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAKIAS CRIME RATE CONTINUES TO GROW. On 6 April the Slovak police corps presented its report on crime in the first three months of 1994. During that period Slovakias crime rate grew by 30% in comparison with the same period of 1993. Although the number of murders and robberies declined, theft and property crime grew considerably. A total of 20 murders was reported, of which 18 were solved. There were 110 robberies, 43 sexual offenses, and 11,786 burglaries. Crime linked with privatization and tax evasion was also on the rise. During the first three months of 1994, the police collected 743 counterfeit bank notes, both of Slovak and foreign currencies, TASR reported. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT HOLDS LAST SESSION. On 7 April President Arpad Goncz and Prime Minister Peter Boross addressed the parliament to assess its four years in office, MTI reports. Recalling that the parliament had adopted over 400 laws, Goncz thanked the deputies for laying the foundations of the new democratic Hungarys political, legal, and economic institutional system. Goncz urged that the next parliament adopt as soon as possible important legislation on a human and minority rights ombudsman, media, and parliamentary representation for minorities, which the first post-communist parliament failed to pass. Boross told the deputies that their four-year term was characterized by a change in mentality and a change of regime and will be considered an epoch-making period in Hungarian history. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. WARNING STRIKE AT HUNGARIAN RADIO. On 7 April radio journalists staged a warning strike to protest the recent sacking of 129 broadcasters, MTI reports. Radio programs were shortened during a two-hour period in the morning and again in the afternoon. The strike was called by the Independent Radio Trade Union. Numerous trade unions expressed their solidarity with the strikers. Radio journalists and opposition parties charge that the dismissals were politically motivated while the radios management cites economic reasons. Radio deputy chairman Laszlo Csucs threatened those participating in the strike with disciplinary action should the courts rule the strike illegal. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. BEROV RESUMES OFFICE. After nearly four weeks in hospital where he underwent quadruple bypass surgery, Prime Minister Lyuben Berov chaired his first cabinet meeting. Government spokesman Raycho Raykov told Reuters that Berov has not yet been finally checked out from hospital, but nonetheless intends to preside over all cabinet meetings from now on. On the same day, the government issued a statement by Berov responding to criticism of his administration by President Zhelyu Zhelev who had declared in an interview on 2 April that he can no longer support the cabinet. Berov called Zhelevs remarks emotional, exaggerated, and one-sided. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. EXCOMMUNISTS AHEAD IN BULGARIAN POLL. The Bulgarian Socialist Party is currently the countrys strongest political force, according to an opinion survey published on 7 April. The poll, which is based on interviews with 1,103 Bulgarians, shows the BSP gaining 22% of the vote and the opposition UDF 20%. The Turkish MRF party, which in the October 1991 election became the third largest caucus, failed to get over the 4% parliamentary hurdle. Some 29% said they would abstain from voting. Reuters carried the report. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. FUEL AND ELECTRICITY PRICE HIKES IN ROMANIA. Romanias government announced massive price hikes for gasoline, natural gas, electricity and thermic energy beginning 7 April, Radio Bucharest reports. A liter of gasoline will cost 450 lei (about 27 cents), up from 400 (22 cents). The price for Diesel fuel increased from 290 to 350 (20 cents) per liter. Prices for electricity also increased by 42%, from 28 to 40 lei per kilowatt, while thermic energy will cost 12,000 per giga-calorie instead of 9,000. A cabinet spokesman predicted that the hikes will result in a general price increase of between 12 and 14%. Prices for train, tram and trolley-bus tickets are expected to rise soon, in line with the new energy prices. Although the new prices are still far below the Western European average, the increase is substantial by Romanian standards. The average monthly salary in Romania is about 106,000 lei ($63). Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR IN LATVIA APOLOGIZES. On 7 April Russias ambassador to Riga, Aleksandr Rannikh, apologized officially for the technical error in the published text of a presidential decree that included Latvia as a state with which Russia would negotiate for permanent military bases, ITAR-TASS reports. He said that the radar station at Skrunda was a military establishment, under civilian control, and cannot be regarded as a military base. Its future was determined by the agreement on Russian troop withdrawal initialed on 15 March. He expressed surprise that a copy of the decree reached the Latvian foreign ministry before it reached its Russian counterpart. Latvian Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs said on Latvian TV that verbal apologies are not enough and the agreement cannot be signed without additional talks and official revocation of the decree. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. FURTHER BALTIC COMMENTS ON RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA. On 7 April Lithuanian Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius told a press conference that President Algirdas Brazauskas had sent a note to Russian President Boris Yeltsin outlining the problems in Lithuanian-Russian cooperation, Radio Lithuania reports. Slezevicius said that he had not received any response to his letters and attempts to talk to his Russian counterpart Viktor Chernomyrdin about why Russia has not ratified the most favored nation trade agreement they had signed in Vilnius in November. Slezevicius said that the import regulations introduced by Russia on 15 March were bluntly discriminating and if they were not changed, Lithuania would respond with adequate measures in relation to the Kaliningrad Oblast. Estonian President Lennart Meri, Prime Minister Mart Laar, and parliament chairman Ulo Nugis issued a joint statement protesting Yeltsins decree on establishing a military base in Latvia, BNS reports. It also condemned Russias decision to retract on the date for the withdrawal of its troops from Estonia and link it to permanent residency for military retirees. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN PARLIAMENT CHAIRMAN VISITS ESTONIA. On 7 April Seimas Chairman Ceslovas Jursenas began a two-day visit to Tallinn, Radio Lithuania reports. He held talks with his Estonian counterpart Ulo Nugis, focusing on the Baltic States relations with Russia and the need for greater Baltic cooperation. Jursenas also met with the Estonian president and prime minister as well as deputy parliament chairmen Edgar Savissar and Tunne Kelam. On 8 April Jursenas will visit the National Library and the Estonian School of Diplomacy before returning to Vilnius in the evening. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. RUN-OFF ELECTIONS IN UKRAINE THIS WEEKEND. Run-off elections to the Ukrainian parliament will be held on 9 and 10 April for the majority of seats which were left unfilled after the voting on 27 March. Because of the way the new election law was designed, most of the candidates have stood as independent candidates and not nominees of political parties. At this stage it is still difficult to predict what the likely balance of forces will be in the new parliament, though the democrats and reformist are hoping to win a third of the 450 seats. As expected, national democrats have been winning in Western and central Ukraine, and Communists and Socialists doing well in Eastern Ukraine. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Suzanne Crow and Anna Swidlicka The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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