Жизнь - не те дни, что прошли, а те, что запомнились. - П.А. Павленко
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 62, 30 March 1994


RUSSIAN WARNING ON NORTH KOREA. Deputy Foreign Minister Aleksandr
Panov stated on 29 March that Russia would assist North Korea in
the event of "unprovoked aggression", according to ITAR-TASS and
Interfax. Panov pushed for acceptance of the Russian proposal to
hold a separate international conference to discuss the North
Korean nuclear weapons program. He suggested that preliminary
informal consultations could begin in Moscow, with the initial
conference meeting in Geneva, and then alternating between Seoul
and Pyongyang. In February 1993, Russia called for revision of the
1961 friendship treaty between the USSR and North Korea, under
which the Soviet Union committed itself to the defense of North
Korea. The treaty cannot be revised unilaterally, however, and
Russia's attempts to open discussions on this issue appear not to
have met with cooperation from North Korea. The treaty is up for
renewal in 1995.  John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.

Ministries on 29 March issued a joint statement rejecting
accusations that Russia has been using peacekeeping operations as
a means of pressuring neighboring countries and of interfering in
their internal affairs, Interfax reported. According to the
statement, Russia claims no special role in the former Soviet
Union--although it does not dodge its responsibilities in regions
that it considers crucial--and its peacekeeping activities are
directed only at ending armed clashes along its borders. It also
said that Russia's peacekeeping activities have come only at the
request of those countries involved and that Moscow would welcome
cooperation with the UN, the CSCE, and the world community in such
actions.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

KOZYREV WARNS BALTIC STATES. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei
Kozyrev met with the CSCE High Commissioner for National
Minorities Max van der Stoel on 29 March, and observed that Russia
would continue pressing for minority rights for Russian speakers
in the Baltic States. Interfax and ITAR-TASS report that Kozyrev
stated that whether an agreement on the withdrawal of troops from
Estonia is signed depends only on Estonia. Kozyrev expressed the
hope that Western states would support Russia's position on
minority rights, especially after Russian troops are withdrawn. He
called for the signing of the agreements with Latvia and beginning
a "new standard of relations" with that country.  John Lepingwell,
RFE/RL, Inc.

set up under the Russian president to study questions of
citizenship has produced a report intended to form the basis for
Russian policy towards Russian speakers in the "near abroad."
ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported on 29 March that the commission
calls for the support for Russians throughout the former USSR via
a system of bilateral treaties regulating their status and dual
citizenship. It also proposed an unspecified "special economic
policy" to assist in implementing the proposal, as well as
increased funding to Russian areas trying to integrate refugees
and large numbers of Russian-speaking immigrants. The proposal
appears to break little new ground, but should provide a basis for
the enunciation of a clear Russian policy on this issue that is
likely to prove disturbing to Russia's neighbors.  John
Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.

Yeltsin is reviewing a draft of an agreement on civil accord,
which he hopes all social and political groups in Russia will
sign, ITAR-TASS reported on 29 March. Presidential spokesman
Vyacheslav Kostikov said Yeltsin will add his comments and return
the draft to the working group that prepared it. Kostikov said
Yeltsin has discussed the draft with the chairman of the upper
chamber of the Russian parliament, Vladimir Shumeiko.  Elizabeth
Teague, RFE/RL, Inc.

COUP HOAX FALL-OUT. Reuters reports that Yeltsin met on 29 March
with Sergei Stepashin, head of Russian counterintelligence, to
discuss last week's publication, by the newspaper Obshchaya
gazeta, of a document detailing an alleged coup against his
leadership. The document later turned out to be a hoax. Addressing
a press conference in Moscow the same day, nationalist leader
Vladimir Zhirinovsky said that a coup was certainly in
preparation, but that it was one that would bring Zhirinovsky
himself to power by constitutional means.  Elizabeth Teague,
RFE/RL, Inc.

reported conflicting pronouncements by government officials on the
disputed introduction of import tariffs on foodstuffs and raised
duties on other goods effective 15 March. President Yeltsin was
said to have agreed with Prime Minister Chernomyrdin on "the need
for corrections . . . without dropping the principle of reasonable
protectionism." Chernomyrdin told visiting US Commerce Secretary
Ronald Brown that import duties on specific types of goods will be
revised in an ongoing process: new duties will be introduced on
some goods, while other tariffs will be changed. Duties on goods
already ordered will remain unchanged. Economics Minister
Aleksandr Shokhin supported the higher duties on the grounds that
these will invigorate domestic investment. He hinted at
differentiated rates of tariffs for imported foodstuffs for
various cities [which sounds like an open invitation to chaos and
corruption]. Minister of Foreign Economic Relations Oleg Davydov
spoke out against customs duties: "We should realize that if we
are moving towards an open society with an open economy, we should
also remove trade barriers." Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.

DEFENSE INDUSTRY WANTS MORE. In interviews on 29 March with
Interfax and Radio "Ekho," First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei
Kokoshin pushed the defense industry's claim for more money from
the 1994 federal budget. On 3 March, Acting Finance Minister
Sergei Dubinin had complained at a cabinet meeting that the
defense ministry had already placed orders for military hardware
for 1994 with the defense industry worth 28 trillion rubles,
although the budget had allocated only 5 trillion rubles for this
purpose. Kokoshin reiterated that the higher sum was essential.
The Defense Ministry would press its claim, especially through the
State Duma, he asserted, and "had appropriate instructions on this
score from the president and the prime minister." Kokoshin claimed
that defense production proper accounted for as little as 20
percent of the defense industry's output, and "there were no
customers for the remaining 80 percent." Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.

ARMY OFFICER ILLEGALLY ABDUCTED? The Swiss-based international
organization "The Geneva Initiative" has accused Russia's
intelligence service of kidnapping a Russian Army officer from the
Potsdam garrison in former East Germany and illegally imprisoning
him in a military psychiatric hospital near Moscow. According to
the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of 29 March, the officer,
identified as Major Shutnik, was charged with financial
improprieties, and has been in the hospital since 3 July 1993.
Shutnik has denied the charge and launched a hunger strike.
Meanwhile, an initiative by citizens of Potsdam to return the
Major to Germany for a fair trial has apparently been
unsuccessful; the Geneva Initiative has since appealed to Russia's
human rights monitor for action.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

President Kirsan Ilyumzhinov told Interfax on 29 March that he had
come under attack from both Kalmyk separatists and the leaders of
other republics following his recent proposal to abolish
Kalmykia's constitution. Ilyumzhinov claimed to have the support
of about 75 percent of Kalmyks for his proposal, and said he was
sure "all sensible politicians" from other republics would
likewise come to the conclusion that only a federal constitution
was necessary and that the Russian constitution provided adequate
guarantees of human rights. Ilyumzhinov has proposed that the
constitution be replaced by the old national legislation, the "Law
of the Steppe." Ilyumzhinov's proposal, which would deprive
Kalmykia of the status of republic, has aroused strong opposition
in Kalmykia, where a committee has been formed to defend the
constitution. The newspaper Novaya ezhednevnaya gazeta suggested
in its issues of 18 and 22 March that Ilyumzhinov had decided on
this move as a way of avoiding charges of corruption and of
reingratiating himself with Yeltsin after his anti-Yeltsin stance
in the events of September-October 1993, but the reaction of
Yeltsin's press secretary and others in Moscow indicates that,
while the leadership looks to the eventual abolition of the
republics, it regards such a move as premature at this juncture.
Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.


second day of his official visit to Moscow, Kazakhstan's President
Nursultan Nazarbaev repeated a proposal he had made in London on
23 March (see RFE/RL Daily Report of 23 March) that the
member-states of the CIS form a Eurasian Union, Russian news
agencies reported. The new union would contain structures that
would coordinate economic, military and foreign policies of its
members. If other CIS states are uninterested in creating such an
organization, Nazarbaev suggested that Kazakhstan and Russia could
form it on their own. The proposal for a new union, which
Nazarbaev denied would be a resurrection of the USSR, appears to
be an updating of his earlier proposals for a functioning CIS
economic union and effective CIS coordinating bodies.  Bess Brown,
RFE/RL, Inc.

the CIS Interparliamentary Assembly, Vladimir Shumeiko, was quoted
by ITAR-TASS on 29 March as saying the time has come to raise the
issue of closer integration within the Commonwealth. (The CIS
groups all the Soviet successor-states except the Baltic states.)
Shumeiko said what may be needed are additional "supranational
bodies" to turn the Commonwealth into "a sort of union." But, he
added, the union should not be similar to the Soviet Union and the
sovereignty and freedom of all member-states should be preserved.
Shumeiko spoke after meeting in Moscow with Kazakh President
Nazarbaev.  Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc.


ELECTIONS IN SOUTH OSSETIA. Seventy per cent of the 41 seats in
the new parliament of the disputed Georgian region of South
Ossetia were filled in elections on 27 March, Interfax reported.
Voter turnout in the elections, which are not recognized as legal
by the Georgian leadership in Tbilisi, was 80 percent. No voting
took place in five raions where the population is predominantly
ethnic Georgian, but deputies were elected from six raions in
North Ossetia populated by Ossetian refugees from Georgia. It is
not clear whether pre-election predictions that the Communist
Party would receive 90 per cent of the vote have proved accurate.
A second round of voting will take place on 10 April.  Liz Fuller,
RFE/RL, Inc.

IMF TEAM IN GEORGIA. Following talks in Tbilisi between an IMF
delegation and Georgian Prime Minister Otar Patsatsia, "informed
sources" told Interfax on 29 March that the IMF may make up to $60
million available to Georgia on condition that the political
situation in the country stabilizes, inflation is reduced and a
tougher credit policy introduced. A Georgian request to the IMF in
June, 1993, for urgent credits was rejected; the Georgian
government's subsequent failure to implement the IMF's
recommendations elicited a stern warning from the IMF.  Liz
Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

reported on 29 March that Albanian President Sali Berisha said on
a visit to London that Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic might
seek to "shift the conflict" to Kosovo if he loses ground in
Bosnia. Berisha warned that this could trigger a Balkan war,
especially as it would involve "ethnic cleansing" by the Serbs
against Kosovo's 90% Albanian majority. He told the BBC that
Kosovo's autonomy must be restored and that Tirana simply seeks
"democratic space for Albanians everywhere," not a greater
Albania. His goal is "integration into Europe," which would
produce "happy Albanians," regardless of which country they live
in. Berisha dismissed criticism on historical grounds of Turkey's
sending peace-keepers to Bosnia, saying that the Ottoman Empire
"died at the beginning of the century." He also told the BBC,
whose Albanian-language broadcasts have been widely criticized as
favoring the party of the ex-communists, not to expect broadcast
rights different from those of other Western radios in Albania.
Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

London, his foreign minister told reporters in Tirana on 29 March
that Kosovo must be included in any over-all Yugoslav settlement,
Reuters said. The Washington Post, meanwhile, suggested that a
trade-off may be in the works, with the Serbs giving up the 27% of
Croatian territory they hold in return for being allowed to keep
some of the land they have conquered in Bosnia. International
media also noted that Serbs and Croats have reached agreement on
demarcation lines in Serb-held Croatia, which is generally if
incorrectly known as Krajina. US Ambassador to Croatia Peter
Galbraith has been actively engaged in the peace process, and the
Boston Globe of 30 March quotes him as warning the Croats and
Serbs that "there is a train leaving the station, and the parties
want to be on it." Last weekend he visited Krajina's center at
Knin, and found the Serbs "reasonable" when he told them that they
would have to be content with broad autonomy within Croatia.
Finally, the Bosnian parliament meeting in Sarajevo is continuing
discussion on the Croat-Muslim federation proposal. The Chicago
Tribune says that no agreement was reached on 29 March because
Muslims objected to the presence of a Croat official, Jadranko
Prlic, whom they accused of "ethnic cleansing." Another Croat,
Mile Akmadzic, observed that "it's not ironic, it's life . . .
We're now trying to come back to peace." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL,

Kosovo Albanians from Germany, which might take place via Skopje
airport, have been criticized in the Macedonian press because they
might return to Macedonia "like a boomerang," Rilindja reported on
26 and 28 March. Macedonia was used as a transit country for
deporting would-be refugees or asylum-seekers to rump Yugoslavia
before, but what is new is that the scale of the planned measures
is thought to involve thousands of people. Romania refused to
transport the refugees through its territory. Meanwhile, German MP
Michael Glotz on a visit to Tirana and Skopje told his hosts that
the process of expulsions "has been stopped piecemeal," and that
Germany is in contact with Albanian President Sali Berisha as well
as with his Kosovar counterpart Ibrahim Rugova. The expulsions
have been criticized by several human rights groups in Germany and
abroad. Especially strong criticism has been leveled at the idea
of deporting draft-age men and members of ethnic minorities back
to Milosevic's Serbia. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc.

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Vecernji list of the previous
day report on the ouster of the feisty and controversial Janez
Jansa as the Alpine republic's defense minister. Prime Minister
Janez Drnovsek asked parliament to sack Jansa on 28 March
following the emergence of the "Smolnikar affair," in which a
former security agent, Milan Smolnikar, was attacked by masked
police of Jansa's department. The outgoing minister was repeatedly
linked to scandals, especially ones involving arms deals, while he
in turn claimed to be the victim of rivals who rose to prominence
under the communists. Jansa's supporters held a noisy "truth
meeting" to protest his dismissal, but parliament named as his
successor Kacin, who headed Slovenia's Information Ministry during
the country's brief victorious war with the invading
Serb-dominated army in 1991. To add to the confusion, Foreign
Minister Lojze Peterle said he would introduce a motion of
no-confidence in the shaky and divided coalition government.
Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

LITHUANIAN PREMIER IN SLOVENIA. On 28 March Adolfas Slezevicius,
accompanied by Industry and Trade Minister Kazimieras Klimasauskas
and Bank of Lithuania chairman Kazimieras Ratkevicius, traveled to
Ljubljana for a three-day visit. On 29 March Slezevicius signed an
agreement on economic cooperation and a protocol for a future free
trade agreement with his Slovenian counterpart Janez Drnovsek who
was also given Lithuanian proposals for a friendship and
cooperation treaty as well as agreements on tourism, cultural and
scientific cooperation. Slezevicius also met with Foreign Minister
Lojze Peterle, Radio Lithuania reports, while Klimasauskas met
with officials from the economics ministry and Ratkevicius talked
with representatives from the banking community.  Saulius Girnius,
RFE/RL, Inc.

POLAND TO REQUEST EU MEMBERSHIP. Meeting on 29 March, the Polish
government resolved to submit a formal application for full
membership in the European Union. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak
was empowered to submit the request. President Lech Walesa
attended the cabinet meeting. Foreign Minister Andrzej Olechowski
acknowledged that Poland will not likely gain membership before
2000; even then it will need an additional, 10-year adjustment
period. The government nonetheless expressed the hope that the EU
will consider Poland's application within the next two years.
Olechowski said that adapting Polish agriculture to EU conditions
will be the biggest challenge. A popular referendum would likely
be held on joining the EU, he added. Polish TV reports that 70% of
Poles support EU membership.  Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

STOCKS PLUNGE ON WARSAW EXCHANGE. Share values in all of the 24
firms quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange dropped on 29 March. The
average decline was 9.6%, with most shares dropping the full 10%
maximum possible per session. Volume was low. Share prices have
dropped an average of 22.7% since the market reached its
historical high on 8 March, Gazeta Wyborcza reports. Exchange
chairman Wieslaw Rozlucki advised circumspection and noted that
the financial outlook for both the Polish economy and the firms on
the exchange is very good. Seasoned traders attributed the decline
to the withdrawal of funds by small investors looking to take
advantage of numerous new public offerings. One trader told PAP
that "the moment of truth has arrived:" share prices might finally
begin to reflect the performance of individual firms, and
newcomers would taste defeat and learn to choose more carefully.
The Warsaw exchange reported gains of 1100% in 1993.  Louisa
Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

Force told the press on 29 March that the Czech Army will reduce
the number of military planes it has by 30% as part of a
restructuring. The official said this amounts to a reduction of
138 aircraft, including 77 fighter planes. The airforce will also
reduce the number of airports it uses to five. According to the
official, it would not be economical for the Czech Air force to
continue operating Soviet-made MIG-29 fighters; the Czech Army has
already decided not to buy any more aircraft equipment from any of
the former Soviet republics.  Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

launched a special monthly supplement on 29 March called
Stredoevropske Noviny (the Central European News). The supplement
is a joint venture of Lidove Noviny, Poland's Gazeta Wyborcza,
Hungary's Magyar Hirlap, and Slovakia's Sme. Stredoevropske Noviny
will serve as a forum for exchanging views on developments in the
four Visegrad countries.  Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

Slovak government abolished 13 out of the 45 privatization
projects that were hastily approved by the government of Vladimir
Meciar shortly before its ouster in early March. Privatization
Minister Milan Janicina told journalists on 29 March that the 13
projects were legally flawed. The government also recalled Rudolf
Krc from the post of the chairman of the Slovak Statistical Office
and replaced him with Stefan Condik; this decision must still be
approved by parliament. The government further recalled Meciar's
close associate, Anna Nagyova, from the post of the head of the
premier's secretariat. Finally, the government decided that Meciar
will be given police protection he was entitled to as premier for
three additional months, and will have to ask the premier for an
extension afterwards.  Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

that parliament passed, with 244 yes votes, one abstention, and no
votes against, a new law regulating the responsibilities and
limitations of the Hungarian police force. The law's passage
required two-thirds majority and a rare consensus of all
parliamentary parties made it possible. Interior Minister Imre
Konya praised the law pointing out that it will prevent police
violence against citizens, rules out political interference in
police operations and will create a professional force. Moreover,
it will require officers to identify themselves, providing shield
numbers or documents, when asked. Suspected criminals can be
detained for only 24 hours without charges.  Karoly Okolicsanyi,
RFE/RL, Inc.

Minister Pavel Grachev said on 29 March that his country and
Romania should enhance bilateral cooperation, an RFE/RL
correspondent reported. Grachev told reporters after talks with
President Ion Iliescu that cooperation had "unfortunately
stagnated" for the last few years. Grachev also said the
Partnership for Peace program should be based on the principle of
mutual respect and should not divide European countries into
"teachers and pupils, masters and servants." This, he added, was
the conclusion reached in the talks with Iliescu, emphasizing that
the Romanian president agreed. Radio Bucharest quoted Iliescu as
saying at the meeting with Grachev that "Romania wants closer
cooperation with Russia" and that he is looking forward to a
meeting, possibly to take place later this year, with President
Boris Yeltsin.  Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

Intelligence Service director, Virgil Magureanu, said on 29 March
the RIS had thrown out thousands of communist-era officers, an
RFE/RL correspondent, Radio Bucharest and Reuters reported on the
same day. The service, he said at a press conference, faces many
problems now, "and the main one is personnel." Magureanu said the
Ceausescu-era Securitate "did not leave us a rich stock of
professionalism" but since its setting up in 1990 the RIS "has
undergone changes, and our image will improve in the next few
months." Magureanu also said that only one third of the
Securitate's 15,000 active agents had been taken by RIS. That
number is "far too low in proportion to the population and we
should have many more employees." Furthermore, he claimed, in 1991
some 30% of the RIS agents were dismissed for lack of
professionalism, and later the same reason prompted the service to
replace 25% of its structure, following criticism by parliament.
Magureanu also said that accusations published by Greater Romania
Party leader Corneliu Vadim Tudor had done the RIS a "disservice"
and he came out in defense of opposition leader Corneliu Coposu,
who has been accused by the extreme nationalists of having been a
Securitate informer.  Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

European Union stated on 29 March that it will ask member states
to provide another $46 million--bringing the total figure up to
$172 million (150 million Ecu)--in balance of payments loans to
Bulgaria. The announcement came after a session of EU Commission
officials and representatives of the Group of 24 economically
developed nations in Brussels, at which the general policy on aid
to former communist states was considered. The International
Monetary Fund has proposed that G-24 countries jointly offer a
$345 million loan to help stabilize Bulgaria's finances. According
to Reuters, individual G-24 states have so far pledged to provide
$260 million. Meanwhile, in mid-April the IMF is scheduled to
decide on a revised stand-by arrangement, which could lead to the
release of some $157 million in previously agreed loans. Kjell
Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

from Ukraine's parliamentary elections have been emerging.
According to UNIAN, among incumbents who failed to get elected
were Dmytro Pavlychko, the chairman of the parliamentary foreign
affairs commission, and Valentym Lemish, the chairman of the
commission on defense and state security. The latter's potential
successor, former defense minister Kostyantyn Morozov, made it to
the run-offs in a Kiev constituency. The Ukrainian ultra-right
failed to do as well as had been predicted by many observers, with
the Ukrainian National Assembly and its paramilitary arm, the
Ukrainian Self-Defense [Organization] (UNA-UNSO) failing to
capture a single seat in its stronghold in Lviv, where democratic
candidates did well, taking six of the seats. Two candidates from
the UNA-UNSO in this region have, however, got through to the
run-offs, and in nearby Ternopil, the organization won one seat.
The big surprise, though, is that four candidates from the
UNA-UNSO appear to have reached the run-offs in Kiev, though it is
not clear if this is because of a protest vote or due to the
growing popularity of the ultra-nationalist organization in the
Ukrainian capital. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc.

at Gazprom have accused Ukraine of making no moves to implement
the 10 March agreement on the country's gas arrears, Interfax
reported on 29 March. The deal demands that Ukraine pay $100
million of its $900 million debt by 1 April, and that a joint
commission determine which pipelines, underground storage
facilities, refineries and logistics units would be of interest to
Gazprom so that the company may purchase 50% of the shares in
these. To date Ukraine has paid only $46 million and no progress
has been made regarding Gazprom's proposed purchase of shares in
Ukraine's stocks. Gazprom also accused Ukraine of continuing to
siphon off nearly 13 million cubic meters of gas daily meant for
western customers.  Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

Interfax reported on 29 March that the Belarusian government has
authorized the command of the country's border guards to use the
money earned from the sale of confiscated contraband weapons and
ammunition to build housing for their personnel. The commander of
the border guards, Lt. Gen. Evhen Bacharou, said that seized
contraband added over $2 million to the state budget in 1993. He
also said that many border guards came from outside of Belarus and
had no homes of their own there. While the government had allotted
over 10 billion rubels to the border guards for 1994, Bacharou
estimated that housing needs are at least 20 billion rubels.
Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

the International Migration Organization, is visiting Latvia to
discuss a cooperation program and probable financial help from
Nordic countries to implement it, BNS reported on 29 March. On 28
March he met with Justice Minister Egils Levits, Baltic and Nordic
Affairs Minister Gunars Meierovics, and Citizenship and
Immigration Department head Ints Zitars. On 29 March he held talks
with heads of parliamentary committees and various ministry
officials, as well as representatives of voluntary
migration-related groups. Opdalh said that the Swedish, Finnish,
and Norwegian governments plan to allocate $1.5 million for the
implementation of programs to provide training for Latvian
migration services' staff, forming a library, technical aid, and
help to draft Latvia's migration legislation.  Saulius Girnius,
RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Liz Fuller and Stan Markotich
The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research
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