|Forty is the old age of youth; fifty, the youth of old age. - Victor Hugo|
No. 61, 29 March 1994
CIS AGREEMENT ON BAIKONUR SIGNED. On 28 March, the first day of an official visit to Moscow, Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev signed twenty-three agreements regulating relations between Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, among them an agreement on the future of the Baikonur space center, Russian and Western news agencies reported. Under the terms of the Baikonur agreement, Russia will lease the complex for twenty years for $115 million annually, with an option to prolong the lease for an additional ten years. The agreement provides for the cost of the lease to be deducted from Kazakhstan's debt to Russia. Russian military and civilian personnel employed at Baikonur will be subject to Russian law. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA LOCAL ELECTIONS FAVOR CONSERVATIVES. Interfax reported on 28 March that officials close to Boris Yeltsin expect pro-communist candidates to win the majority of votes cast in local elections held on 27 March. Initial results from the elections were being tallied on 28 March. According to Ostankino TV news broadcasts, turnout for the elections was low with approximately 30-40% of eligible voters casting votes. Turnout was reportedly highest in the more conservative rural areas. In Kemerovo oblast, the chairman of the local legislature, Aman Tuleev won reelection with 88.5% of the votes, and his supporters won a majority in the local parliament. Tuleev has been a champion of greater Siberian regional cooperation, and opposed Yeltsin in the 1991 presidential elections. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. CHUVASHIA REMAINS WITHOUT A PARLIAMENT. The second round of elections to the Chuvash parliament on 27 March filled a further 21 of the new legislature's 47 seats, in addition to the seven filled in the first round, Interfax reported. However, the total number of deputies elected so far falls short of the minimum of 32 necessary to make the new parliament's decisions valid. A spokesman for the Chuvash Central Electoral Commission said that, with the former parliament dissolved, Chuvashia will be without a legislature for an indefinite period. Legislative authority will be vested temporarily in the speaker of the previous parliament, Eduard Kubarev. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS OFFICER SLAMS PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. The Secretary of the Council of CIS Defense Ministers, Lieutenant General Leonid Ivashov (de facto, the head of the CIS joint staff) harshly criticized the NATO Partnership for Peace program in an interview published in Rossiiskaya gazeta on 25 March. Ivashov argued that the program is largely a screen for the expansion of NATO eastwards, to build up its infrastructure on Russia's borders. He derided the idea that Russia and NATO should participate in joint peacekeeping exercises, and asserted that the program conflicted with the Tashkent treaty on CIS collective security. While Ivashov does not hold a position of influence and has no military forces under his direct control, he also is not subordinate to the Russian Ministry of Defense, perhaps giving him greater freedom to articulate his views than other senior military officers. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. MINISTRY OF DEFENSE DEFENDS NATO PROGRAM. The official line of the Russian Defense Ministry is supportive of Partnership for Peace. In an Interfax report of 28 March, a "high ranking official" from the defense ministry argued that it was necessary to participate in the creation of a new security regime in Europe, but noted that one element of this regime should be "the official recognition by NATO partners of the special responsibility of Russia for maintaining peace in the CIS." If this is to be an explicit condition for Russian participation in the program, it may well prove to be a major stumbling block. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. SHAKE-UP AT DEFENSE MINISTRY? Moskovsky komsomolets reported on 25 March that Defense Minister Pavel Grachev intends in the near future to cut the number of Russian Deputy and First Deputy Defense Ministers from seven to four. The report singled out Boris Gromov (viewed by Grachev as a rival) and Vladimir Toporov as the two most likely to go. Gromov's official duties involve disarmament and the withdrawal of troops from abroad, and he has also been active as Russia's representative in various CIS security forums. Toporov is in charge of rear services and the quartering of troops. Valerii Mironov's dismissal was also said to be a possibility. Mironov oversees personnel policy in the Defense Ministry and, according to other reports, has been blamed by Grachev for the fact that Vladimir Zhirinovsky received a significant portion of the military vote in last December's elections. Interfax reported later on 25 March that Russian Defense Ministry spokeswoman Elena Agapova had denied that a shake-up was imminent. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS CHARGE DENIED. On 28 March the Russian Ministry of Defense denied a story published by The Times alleging that work on biological weapons had been conducted by the Soviet Union and Russia in violation of international treaties. According to ITAR-TASS, the ministry stated that it is neither developing nor producing biological weapons. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. DETAILS ON ROCKET FORCES SHOOTING. The Russian Ministry of Defense has confirmed that on 10 March a private in the Strategic Rocket Forces killed his patrol commander and one other soldier, and seriously wounded two others. Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported on 26 March that the private was taken into custody and that there was no threat to the nuclear weapons located at the base. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN CRITICIZES IMPORT TAX. Speaking to reporters before he left Sochi on 27 March, President Yeltsin volunteered the comment that the increase of import duties, effective 15 March, was a mistake and will be reviewed by the government, ITAR-TASS reported. The president added, intriguingly, that the raised import tax was one of a series of errors made by the government that must be corrected: he did not spell out the other mistakes. The measure has been deplored not only by the mayors of Russia's three largest cities, but also by the chairman of the antimonopoly committee, Leonid Bochin (Mayak Radio, 17 March) and, almost certainly, by the visiting IMF delegation. Its principal proponent, Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Zaveryukha, stoutly defended the imposition of import duties on foodstuffs in Rossiiskaya gazeta of 24 March on the grounds that this will protect Russian peasants and that it is scheduled to last only until 1 September. Zaveryukha conceded that he might not last long in charge of agriculture. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. TURKEY TO BUY MORE RUSSIAN GAS. Russian supplies of natural gas to Turkey in 1998 will be more than doubled from the originally agreed 2 Bn cubic meters to 4.5 Bn cubic meters, Interfax reported on 28 March. In addition, negotiations are proceeding on a long-term agreement whereby Russia will supply Turkey with coking coal and Turkey will help develop Russia's Black Sea ports. A draft agreement has been reached on the joint modernization of Russian oil refineries. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN-CHECHEN TALKS COME TO NAUGHT. Talks between Sergei Filatov, the head of the Russian president's administration, and Chechen State Secretary Aslanbek Akbulatov in Moscow on 25 March foundered when Chechnya rejected Moscow's demand that Chechnya acknowledge that it is part of Russia, Interfax reported. Filatov told the radio station Ekho Moskvy that he had made three stipulations for a start to negotiations: that Chechnya stop slandering Russia, that the talks be held on the basis of Chechnya being a republic of the Russian Federation, and that the Chechen side study the recent treaty between Russia and Tatarstan as a basis for negotiations. Following his return to Chechnya, Akbulatov told Interfax on 28 March that Chechnya was open to compromise but would insist on its sovereignty. He described his meeting with Filatov as useful, and expressed confidence that the negotiations would resume in the near future. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. KARACHAI-CHERKESS ELECTIONS POSTPONED. An emergency session of the Karachai-Cherkess parliament on 28 March decided to postpone the elections to the republic's People's Assembly and a referendum on the presidency scheduled for 24 April, Interfax reported. The agency gave no reason for the postponement of the elections, but stated that the decision had "caused a very negative reaction" among the republic's public movements and parties. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ABKHAZ TALKS TO RESUME. Following the renewal of hostilities in eastern Abkhazia in which, according to Georgian officials, at least ten people were killed, unofficial talks between Abkhaz and Georgian representatives are to take place in Moscow this week with the participation of Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Pastukhov, who mediated last July's ill-fated Abkhaz ceasefire, Interfax reported on 28 March. Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze likewise told Interfax that he welcomed the Russian government's offer of 26 March to resume formal mediation on a settlement of the Abkhaz conflict. Shevardnadze expressed bewilderment that the UN observers currently stationed in Abkhazia had made no comment on the renewed fighting. Georgian Foreign Minister Aleksandre Chikvaidze told Interfax that the swift deployment of a peacekeeping force, whether Russian or UN, was essential to prevent a further deterioration of the situation. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE RESULTS OF FIRST ROUND OF PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS IN UKRAINE. The voter turnout in Ukraine's parliamentary election on 27 March was greater than originally reported by the Central Election Commission and reached a surprisingly high average of about 75%, Ukrainian and Western media report. The results that became available on 28 March confirmed that runoffs will be necessary in the majority of the 450 constituencies. Just under 50 candidates are so far known to have been elected representing a broad mixture of national democrats, centrists and communists. Among those elected were: former prime minister Leonid Kuchma, the speaker of parliament Ivan Plyushch, Rukh leader Vyacheslav Chornovil, economic reformers Volodymyr Lanovy and Viktor Pynzenyk, democratic activists Serhii Holovaty and Les Tanyuk, radical nationalist Stepan Khmara, and Communist Party of Ukraine (CPU) leader Petro Symonenko. The CPU and its allies have won 14 seats so far but Chornovil told a press conference on 28 March that democratic candidates appeared to be doing better than expected. International observers from the CSCE announced that the elections had been generally successful despite some apparent minor irregularities. The high turnout, and the convincing victories by potential presidential candidates Kuchma and Plyushch, are being seen as a blow to Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk, who had anticipated voter apathy necessitating the postponement of the presidential elections scheduled for June. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. KIEV CHALLENGED BY RESULTS OF CRIMEAN AND DONBAS PLEBISCITES. Western media report that the non-binding plebiscites conducted in Crimea and the south eastern Ukrainian oblasts of Donetsk and Luhansk during the parliamentary elections have produced massive votes in favor, essentially, of maximizing Crimea's already considerable autonomy, closer ties with Russia and the CIS and limiting the gradual Ukrainianization of these regions as envisaged in the 1989 Law of Languages. The results are hardly a surprise; alarmed by the growth of centrifugal forces, the Kiev authorities had sought to ban the plebiscites, arguing that they were unconstitutional. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. BOSNIAN UPDATE. International media reported on 28 March that the Bosnian parliament has postponed for one day its vote on the new Croat-Muslim federation. Some Croat legislators were delayed on the way to Sarajevo but are expected in town by the 29th. Croatia's ambassador to Bosnia, Zdravko Sancevic, told parliament that "blood was shed by those who wanted to fight. But sizable proportions of the Croat and Muslim people in Bosnia never fought." Meanwhile in Belgrade, Borba on 29 March reports on the work of the group "To Live in Sarajevo," which is made up chiefly of Serbs pledged to maintaining Bosnia's multi-ethnic and multi-cultural way of life. The paper also runs a message from Serbian opposition leader Vuk Draskovic to the Serbs of Sarajevo who are committed to a multi-national society. He calls them "the greatest victims and heroes." Finally, Politika on 26 March included in its death notices one Ana Mladic, who appears to be the daughter of Bosnian Serb commander Ratko Mladic. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW YUGOSLAV-ORIENTED DAILY TO BE LAUNCHED. Some prominent professional journalists from the former Yugoslavia plan to begin publishing soon a new daily, Nova Politika, which will seek to promote intelligent and objective discussion of the situation in that area. Among the editors is Rajko Djuric, head of the Romany PEN Club, who now lives in exile in Berlin and plans to publish the paper in Frankfurt. Djuric was a long-time editor of Politika in Belgrade but was purged when Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic took control of the republic's media. He told RFE/RL that the new paper will seek constructive solutions to the region's problems and will firmly oppose nationalism and ethnic hatred. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVENIAN DEFENSE MINISTER SACKED. RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reports that the unruly Janez Jansa lost the defense portfolio in the Ljubljana government on 28 March following the mistreatment of some Slovenian citizens by his police. Jansa has been openly fighting with President Milan Kucan and his other superiors on a more or less permanent basis amid a string of political, economic, and military scandals that have plagued that republic since gaining independence in 1991. Slovenia has virtually none of the ethnically-rooted social and political problems that beset other former Yugoslav republics, but scandals and political in-fighting have offset the official portrayal of the country as "the sunny side of the Alps." Some Slovenes jokingly remark that the scandals indicate how far they have come in such a short time to being like their West European neighbors, Italy and Austria. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH STANDOFF CONTINUES. The Polish coalition's nominee for the vacant posts of finance minister and deputy prime minister, the economist Dariusz Rosati, told Polish TV on 28 March that he intends to withdraw his candidacy. President Lech Walesa rejected the nomination on 25 March. Rosati said he will first consult with Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak and Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) leader Aleksander Kwasniewski but added that the finance minister cannot work effectively if he is at odds with the president. Pawlak and Kwasniewski met on 28 March. Kwasniewski afterward said that Rosati remains the official candidate of both the prime minister and the SLD. Walesa's office announced that the president would present Pawlak with the reasons for his decision but stressed that he was within his constitutional rights and has no need to justify anything. The candidate Walesa has tipped for the finance ministry post, Securities Commission Chairman Leslaw Paga, told Polish TV that it was "always a pleasure for a state official to hear kind words about him from the president." Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. IMF APPROVES POLAND'S PERFORMANCE. On 25 March the IMF's executive council formally approved the fulfillment of Poland's stand-by arrangement from March 1993 to April 1994. This is the first of three such agreements that Poland has successfully implemented. IMF approval clears the way for a 20% reduction in Poland's $33 billion debt to foreign creditor governments, to take place on 1 April. The Paris Club reduced Poland's debt by 30% in 1991. Together with the agreement reached on 11 March with the London Club to reduce Poland's commercial debt of $13.2 billion by 45%, IMF approval goes a long way toward restoring Poland's international financial credibility and is expected to spur an investment boom. Acting finance minister Henryk Chmielak told reporters on 28 March that "the agreements Poland has reached with international financial organizations are convincing foreign businesses that Poland is a country with which they can cooperate and in which they can invest and develop trade." Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN PRESIDENT IN WARSAW. Polish and Hungarian officials stressed the complete harmony between the two countries on all issues on 28 March, the first day of a three-day visit to Poland by Hungarian President Arpad Goncz. The two presidents decorated each other with their respective country's highest order. They endorsed cooperation in the Visegrad group, and foreign ministry officials said the two countries plan to submit jointly their applications for membership in the EU. Talks focused on the need to dynamize Polish-Hungarian trade, which declined sharply with the collapse of the CMEA. Despite a slight rise in 1993, total annual turnover amounted to only $330 million, PAP reports. Goncz is to visit Poznan on 29 March, Polish TV reports. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV SIGNS TREATY IN ROMANIA. Visiting Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev and his Romanian counterpart, Gheorghe Tinca, signed on 28 March a military cooperation agreement, Radio Bucharest reported on the same day. Tinca described the treaty as a five-year "framework" accord that would cover exchanges of defense delegations and information, as well as other types of contacts. Romanian officials played down the significance of the agreement. Tinca stressed the agreement was not one between the two countries, but rather between the two defense ministries. He also said the accord was similar to those Romania had already signed with the other countries bordering it, naming Hungary, Ukraine and Bulgaria, and reflected Romania's wish to have good military relations with all its neighbors. In an interview with Radio Bucharest on 28 March Deputy Defense Minister Ioan Mircea Pascu obliquely dismissed a statement by a Grachev spokesman, according to which the agreement with Romania was "the first of its kind." Upon his arrival in Bucharest Grachev was asked about Romania's desire to join NATO and replied he did not think this would happen soon. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. COUNCIL OF EUROPE RAPPORTEURS IN ROMANIA. Friedrich Koenig and Gunnar Jannson, the two rapporteurs on Romania for the Council of Europe, began on 28 March their visit to Romania aimed at preparing a report on the country's fulfillment of obligations undertaken when Romania was admitted to the council six months ago, Radio Bucharest reported on the same day. They met representatives of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania, who complained about the non-fulfillment of several obligations and about the passing by parliament of legislation viewed by them as "discriminatory." Koenig and Jansson also met representatives of the Roma community and of the National Minorities Council, as well as members of the opposition parties. Later in the day they met with representatives of the extremist parties who criticized the HDFR positions, and with the chairmen of the parliament's two houses. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA, GERMANY SIGN MILITARY AGREEMENT. On 28 March DPA reported that Bulgarian Minister of Defense Valentin Alexandrov, and his German counterpart, Volker Ruehe, met in Sofia and signed a military cooperation agreement on 28 March. Reuters reports that the accord will permit both armies to exchange information and staff on a regular basis. Reuters also adds that Ruehe stressed that Germany could help Bulgaria foster closer ties with international organizations such as NATO. Ruehe, who arrived in Bulgaria on 28 March, continues his official three-day visit. In other news, international media report that Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev arrived in London on 28 March, where he is scheduled to meet with British Prime Minister John Major and Albanian President Sali Berisha. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIAN MEDIA PROTEST TAX. On 28 March RFE/RL's Bulgarian service reported that Bulgaria's major newspapers ceased publishing altogether on 28 March as a means of protesting a national 18% value-added tax, slated to go into effect on 1 April. The tax will apply to newspaper advertising and subscriptions which, newspaper officials contend, will do their industry financial harm. Meanwhile, on 28 March Reuters reported that six private radio stations throughout Sofia have taken part in the "media strike" in order to launch their own protest of the government tax. The radios stopped broadcasting on 28 March, and are expected to remain off the air for two days. Finally, Reuters also notes that theater operators are threatening to join the burgeoning tax revolt on 31 March by showing only pornographic films if mainstream cinema releases are not exempted from the 18% tax. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBANIA PROTESTS BORDER INCIDENT. According to Rilindja Demokratike on 29 March, the Albanian Foreign Ministry has protested a 21 March incident when an Albanian citizen was shot and killed by Greek border forces. The protest noted that the tragic act damaged Greek-Albanian relations and created unwarranted tension. Robert Austin, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBANIAN PRESIDENT IN LONDON. According to Rilindja Demokratike on 29 March, after arriving in London on 27 March, Albanian President Sali Berisha met with British Prime Minister John Major on 28 March. Talks focused on regional problems as well as trade and investment. According to Western reports, Berisha expressed to Major Tirana's desire to have international sanctions currently applied to the rump Yugoslavia also be tied to the question of autonomy for Kosovo. Sanctions were initially applied against Belgrade for its role in fomenting the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and on 28 March Danish Foreign Minister Niels Helveg Petersen announced during a Tirana press conference that the EU would consider supporting the easing of sanctions if Belgrade were to agree to territorial concessions in Bosnia, Reuters reports. Finally, Berisha is scheduled to meet with Queen Elizabeth on 29 March. Robert Austin and Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. MONTENEGRIN TOURISM MINISTER VISITS TIRANA. Montenegrin Tourism Minister Dragan Milic has met with his Albanian counterpart Edmond Spaho, Rilindja reported on 26 March. They talked about possible cooperation of hotels, travel agencies and enterprises, as well as about the transit of tourists through Albania and about an extension of tourism between both countries. A Mediterranean tourist fair is scheduled to take place in the Montenegrin town of Budva at the end of April. Nonetheless, Albania still observes the international trade embargo against rump-Yugoslavia. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUSIAN OFFICIALS TO CHARGE LUKASHENKA WITH LIBEL . . . Belarusian Defense Minister Paval Kazlouski has denied charges of corruption, Interfax reported on 28 March. The charges were leveled against him by the head of the interim anti-corruption committee, Aleksandr Lukashenka. According to Kazlouski, although some defense ministry officials have engaged in unlawful commercial activities, he personally was not guilty of such dealings. Kazlouski went on to say he planned to ask for a formal investigation into the corruption charges being raised by Lukashenka and file a libel suit if these turned out to be false. Government spokesman Uladzimir Zamyatalin said five other government officials are also planning to file libel suits against Lukashenka. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . WHILE LUKASHENKA RAISES MORE CHARGES. For his part, Lukashenka accused the prime minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, of using government funds to finance his own campaign for the presidency during an interview with Interfax on 26 March. According to Lukashenka, Kebich began an unofficial election campaign six weeks ago. At that time he agreed to grant local subsidies which he had previously suspended to regional administrators in exchange for promises to back his candidacy. Lukashenka, who is also running for the presidency, described himself as "the poorest presidential candidate" and said he wanted to address the nation for financial support. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE ON BELARUSIAN-RUSSIAN MONETARY UNION. As the debate over a Russian-Belarusian monetary union continues in the Russian State Duma, it is apparent that there are serious differences and expectations regarding the agreement between the two sides (see RFE/RL Daily Report of 24 and 25 March). According to Postfaktumradio on 24 March, representatives of Russia's central bank and officials from the Russian ministry of economic relations feel a monetary merger is possible only if there is a union between the two countries. Interfax reported on 25 March that the chairman of the State Duma's Committee for CIS Affairs, Konstantin Zatulin, said the delay in Russian-Belarusian talks on the unification of the monetary systems has had a negative impact on relations between these countries. He suggested that referendums might be held in Russia and Belarus to see how the publics felt about the issue. The leader of the Russia's Choice faction, Yegor Gaidar, said that an agreement on a customs union between Russia an Belarus is far more important than the unification of the monetary systems. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN FARMERS' UNION ELECTS NEW CHAIRMAN. On 26 March the Latvian Farmers' Union held its congress in Riga and elected Andris Rozentals, the party's parliamentary faction leader, as its chairman, replacing Aivars Berkis, the Saeima's deputy chairman, BNS reported on 28 March. Entrepreneur Ivars Bardins and deputy secretary of the Saeima presidium Zigurds Tomins were elected as deputy chairmen. The congress passed a resolution urging the government to ban the import of farm goods produced in Latvia. Farmers' Union is the partner with Latvia's Way in the current ruling coalition and some speakers even suggested ending the coalition if the situation in rural areas is not improved. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA ENDS OSTANKINO TV BROADCASTS. On 28 March Estonia ceased broadcasting Russia's Ostankino television programs, BNS reports. The sole exception will be the popular Mexican soap opera "Simply Maria" which will run until 31 March. Ostankino owes Estonian Telecom about 2.5 million kroons ($185,000) for the last quarter of 1993 and first quarter of 1994 for the transmissions. On 11 March, as a warning, Estonia reduced Ostankino broadcasts to four hours on weekdays and nine hours on weekends. Ostankino has even larger debts to Latvia and Lithuania who have also threatened to end its broadcasts if they are not paid. Ostankino is the only Russian language television in the Baltic States and its termination will likely be missed by the large numbers of Russians in Estonia and Latvia who have not learned the local languages. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIAN TRADE BALANCE IN FEBRUARY. Estonian customs officials announced that in February the country exported goods for 1,160.4 million kroons ($86 million) while importing goods for 1,311.7 million kroons, BNS reported on 28 March. Russia received 25.8% of the exports, Finland, 20.8%, and Sweden, 10.4%. Estonia's imports mainly came from Finland (39.0%), Sweden (12.2%), and Russia (10.0%.). Farming produce was both the leading export (25.1%) and import (18.1%) item. Garments (11.3%) and non-precious metals (8.8%) were the next most important exports with equipment (10.6%) and vehicles (10.5%) having a similar role for imports. The figures do not include oil and gas imports through pipelines or exports of electricity. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Liz Fuller and Stan Markotich The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.