|We have to understand the world can only be grasped by action, not by comtemplation. The hand is more important than the eye....The hand is the cutting edge of the mind. - J. Bronowski|
No. 60, 28 March 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN'S INTERVIEW. Shortly before his return from vacation, President Boris Yeltsin reiterated in an interview with Izvestiya on 26 March that the decision of December 1991 to break up the Soviet Union was right. He said that the former Soviet Union was held together by the potential of the Russian economy and that other former soviet republics cannot expect Russia to return to the previous soviet model. Asked about presidential elections, Yeltsin stated that he expects them to take place in 1996. He said he is studying potential candidates and has experienced disappointments but also "positive surprises." He added that the parliamentary elections last December "have taught all of us a lesson." He said that he believes that in 1996, the Russian people will elect a "decent statesman" as president. Yeltsin also stated that the present political situation in Russia is polarized. Some forces advocate a quantum leap backwards, others--into the future. He emphasized that he favors a middle position, but warned against halting reforms. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. STATE DUMA DEBATES NATO PARTNERSHIP . . . Russian Foreign and Defense Ministry representatives on 25 March defended the NATO "Partnership for Peace" program, but a number of parliamentary leaders expressed reservations. Reuters quoted Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin as saying that the program imposed no "obligations or limitations" on Russia and that it would lead to "an energetic and bold role for Russia in European affairs." According to ITAR-TASS, First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin also defended participation but, reflecting a growing Russian concern, stressed that association with NATO should not harm Russian arms producers. Several deputies were not so positive: nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky reportedly denounced the plan as "pro-American, pro-Zionist, [and] pro-Israeli;" the Party of Russian Unity and Concord warned that participation would "water down the special role and responsibility of Russia in the near abroad,'" Interfax reported. Meanwhile, the speaker of the State Duma, Ivan Rybkin, said in a 26 March interview with Krasnaya zvezda that Russia is "not a common participant in the international process" and that its participation in the NATO program should reflect its status. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . DEFENSE AND FOREIGN MINISTERS STRESS COOPERATION. Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, speaking to military commanders in Moscow on 25 March, characterized the NATO partnership plan as a phase in the establishment of a new collective defense system in Europe but, according to Interfax, he stressed that Russia would cooperate rather than integrate with NATO military structures. Speaking in Murmansk on 26 March, Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev had a similar message. While suggesting that Russia might join a restructured NATO at some point in the more distant future, he said that the partnership program embodied a form of cooperation that could be employed in the near term. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. GERMANY HOPES TO DRAW RUSSIA INTO EUROPE. German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel, just back from an official visit to Moscow, told reporters on 25 March that after it assumes the EU presidency in July, Germany intends to use its influence to draw Russia closer to the European Union. According to an RFE/RL correspondent in Bonn, German officials said that during its six month EU presidency Germany hoped to increase cooperation between the EU and the new democracies of Eastern Europe and the FSU. They were quoted as saying that "as long as Russia says yes' to Europe, then we won't say no' to Moscow." But the officials also emphasized that Bonn seeks "equally intense relations with all eastern states" and that it had no interest in a "German-Russian axis" or special relationship with Russia. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV CALLS FOR COOPERATION WITH EU. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 26 March as saying that Russia was striving for full-scale cooperation with the EU. Kozyrev's remarks came during talks in Murmansk with Norwegian Foreign Minister Bjorn Tore Godal. Kozyrev reportedly welcomed the fact that Norway had recently concluded an agreement to join the EU, saying that he hoped that association would help attract investment to the Barents Sea and Murmansk region, a development that would also benefit Russia. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. MOSCOW: NO DUMPING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES. Nikolai Shapovalenko, head of a Russian agency overseeing safety in atomic plants, has denied a report that local authorities in Russia's Far East may resume dumping liquid radioactive wastes into the Sea of Japan. According to Interfax on 25 March, Shapovalenko said that only the central government has the authority to make such a decision. Meanwhile, the same report quoted a senior Russian naval officer as saying that the situation surrounding the storage of liquid nuclear wastes in the Far East is "appalling and calls for urgent measures." He suggested that local authorities would have to act if Moscow failed to take action. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. CONFUSION ON ALLEGED KURIL ISLANDS WITHDRAWAL. Interfax quoted Defense Ministry spokeswoman Elena Agapova on 25 March as denying media reports of a planned secret military withdrawal from the disputed Kuril Islands. One day later, however, Radio Rossii, quoting the newspaper Novaya ezhednevnaya gazeta, claimed that defense ministry sources had confirmed the existence of a secret order issued by Yeltsin that called for the withdrawal of one division from the islands. On 25 March, the liberal chairman of the State Duma Committee on Defense, Sergei Yushenkov, said that a secret order did exist, but that it provides for a reduction of troops--tied to broader forces cuts in the Russian army--rather than to a withdrawal; he said that the reductions would in no way diminish Russian defense capabilities. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RATIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION QUESTIONED. The State Duma held hearings on 24 March on the Chemical Weapons Convention signed in 1993, marking the first movement in that body to consider a major arms control accord. According to ITAR-TASS and Interfax reports, Major General Yuri Tarasevich, deputy commander of the chemical weapons troops, testified that destruction of the weapons was feasible, but that insufficient funding had been provided for the research and development of destruction methods. Chemical weapons scientist Vil Mirzayanov, against whom all charges concerned with "disclosure of state secrets" were recently dropped, also testified. He warned that previous destruction efforts had been environmentally damaging and called for prolonging the destruction period from 10 to 25-30 years to allow for safe disposal. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE WORK CONTINUES? The Times reported on 27 March that the Russian defense ministry has continued work on biological weapons, in defiance of Yeltsin's order that all such work be stopped. According to the article, apparently based on defectors' reports, US and British intelligence sources believe that Yeltsin may have been misled by the Russian military concerning the status of the program. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. PAYMENTS ARREARS AND THE RAILWAYS. By the end of 1993, total payments arrears throughout the economy had risen to an estimated 47 trillion rubles, i.e., equivalent to nearly one-quarter of the GDP. Nonpayment of arrears is a major contributing factor in the ongoing recession, but successive administrations have yet to come up with viable solutions to this problem. Russia's railwaymen may soon initiate the first movement in a seeming logjam. The chairman of the independent trade union of railway and construction workers told a news conference on 24 March that, starting 1 April, the railways will refuse to carry the goods of debtors, Interfax reported. Arrears totalling 1.8 trillion rubles have meant that railway workers have not been paid for months. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. FEDOROV AGAINST QUICK DISBURSEMENT OF IMF CREDIT. Former Russian deputy prime minister and finance minister Boris Fedorov is very critical of Western policy towards his country in The Financial Times of 28 March. He sees the recent conditional granting by the International Monetary Fund of the second tranche of the systemic transformation facility as a reward for the past three months when "not a single reform or even a simple economic policy measure has been enacted . . . The idea is to abandon Western-type economic policies with Western approval." He urges that further Western aid be delayed until a responsible budget is approved by parliament and until the new government's track record is examined. Fedorov reminds his readers of the three-or four-month time lag between credit policies and the inflation resulting from them. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS YELTSIN, NAZARBAEV MEET. Russian President Yeltsin appeared in public on 28 March for the first time since his vacation to greet President Nursultan Nazarbaev of Kazakhstan. The two are to attempt to complete negotiations over the lease of the Baikonur launch site. Russia's space program remains heavily dependent upon the Baikonur site, on which Russia is seeking a 30-year lease. On 25 March Russia signed an agreement with the Chinese space agency calling for cooperation in space research, ITAR-TASS reported. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. US BLAMED FOR NUCLEAR FUEL DELAY. Interfax reported on 25 March that Vladislav Petrov, a spokesman for the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy criticized the US for not providing a $60 million advance payment to Russia for nuclear fuel that Russia is to ship to Ukraine in exchange for nuclear warheads. Ukraine has criticized Russia for failing to deliver the fuel, and has warned that it may halt warhead shipments if it is not delivered. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ABKHAZ SITUATION DETERIORATES. On 25 March Abkhaz forces drove Georgian troops out of the village of Nizhnaya Lata east of Sukhumi and issued an ultimatum to Georgian troops elsewhere in Abkhazia to surrender, Interfax reported. The Abkhaz continued their offensive on 26-27 March, occupying two villages in Svaneti, outside Abkhazia, and shelling Georgian villages in Gali raion. Meanwhile on 25 March the UN Security Council extended until 30 June the 22-man UN observer mission in Abkhazia and called upon the two sides to resume deadlocked negotiations. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. AZERBAIJAN PROTESTS ARMENIAN DECISION ON NUCLEAR POWER STATION. On 25 March the Azerbaijani Presidential Press Service issued a statement appealing to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to examine the ecological, political and military implications of the Armenian authorities' decision to restart by the end of this year, with Russian technical assistance, the mothballed nuclear power station at Medzamor, AFP reported quoting ITAR-TASS. The statement implied that the plant could be used to manufacture nuclear material for military purposes. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROAT-MUSLIM PACT FALLING INTO PLACE. International media reported on 27 March that the Bosnian cabinet endorsed the agreement signed on 18 March in Washington and advised parliament to follow suit during its 28 March session. On 26 March the Croats' assembly in Mostar also approved the agreement, and their leader, Kresimir Zubak, is expected to succeed Alija Izetbegovic soon as rotating president of the new republic. Izetbegovic was reelected head of his party on 27 March in a move that would apparently preclude his also continuing as head of state in a federation with the Croats. The two sides have, moreover, set up a joint military command until a combined army can be established. In Sarajevo, meanwhile, a non-elected assembly of moderate Serbs backed the new federation, but said that Serbs must be involved as equals. The main Bosnian Serb parliament, however, rejected the plan, and its president added that the Serbs would not cede any of the territory they hold around Sarajevo. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BRITISH TROOPS DESTROY BOSNIAN SERB BUNKER. The BBC said on 26 March that a British UNPROFOR unit shelled a Serb bunker near Maglaj after the Serbs fired on them. The New York Times added that there were five incidents the previous day involving attacks on UN forces. That paper followed up on 27 March with a report on wild-west conditions in Serb-held Banja Luka, where the remaining Muslims and Croats are subjected to frequent and often arbitrary violence. Meanwhile in Zagreb, US Ambassador to Croatia Peter Galbraith told Serb rebels that "the United States along with Russia and all the members of the international community consider . . . that there is no possibility of a political arrangement under which the Krajina would either be independent or become part of Serbia." AFP ran the report on 28 March. Finally, Radio Serbia said on 27 March that, by committing troops to UNPROFOR, Turkey is trying not only to restore an Ottoman sphere of influence in the Balkans but is also acting as Washington's agent. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. TUDJMAN MOVES TO PURGE PROGRESSIVE RIVAL. The Croatian papers on 26 and 28 March concentrate heavily on the political fate and future of upper house speaker Josip Manolic, who was stripped of his top offices in the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) late last week. Manolic rejected the moves and is resisting President Franjo Tudjman's efforts to oust him from the speaker's job as well. The two men have been feuding openly for months over Tudjman's autocratic style and his various policies. These include the president's well-known antipathy toward the Muslims, and Manolic and other moderates might have expected to benefit politically from Zagreb's policy reversal on Bosnia in March. Tudjman, however, seems to be following Tito's time-honored formula for often Rube Goldberg-like purges and restructurings to prevent possible rivals from acquiring too much power. Instead, at a press conference last week he said that hard-line anti-Muslim Defense Minister Gojko Susak's job was not in danger, although many observers had expected Susak and fellow members of the "Herzegovinian lobby" to get the political ax in the wake of the Croat-Muslim agreements. In any event, it seems that what could prove to be a long political drama has only just begun. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. EU TELLS GREECE TO LIFT EMBARGO ON MACEDONIA. Meeting in Ioannina, Greece, on 27 March, EU foreign ministers pressed Greece to end its trade blockade of the Republic of Macedonia or face a law suit in the European Court of Justice, according to Reuters. Greece's EU partners argue that the embargo, begun in February 1994 as a means to force Macedonia into meeting Greek demands concerning changing the new state's name, constitution, and symbols, is neither acceptable nor legal under the Maastricht Treaty. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. WALESA REFUSES TO NAME FINANCE MINISTER. Striving to reassert his waning political influence and drive a wedge between the two ruling parties, President Lech Walesa rejected the government's candidate for finance minister and deputy prime minister, Dariusz Rosati, on 25 March. The posts, allotted to the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) under the coalition agreement, have been vacant since Marek Borowski resigned in early February. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak formally nominated Rosati; the constitution says that the president "may" approve cabinet changes proposed by the prime minister. The president's pretexts were Rosati's three-year absence from the country and his seat on the supervisory board for FOZZ, the shadowy, corruption-rife body set up to repurchase Poland's foreign debt in the mid-1980s. Walesa said his decision is final but the SLD stood by its nominee and asserted that Pawlak did the same. Walesa indicated on 27 March that he would support Leslaw Paga, the chairman of the Polish Securities Commission, for the vacant posts. The president's efforts to elbow his way back into politics may compromise efforts to maintain economic continuity. Walesa hinted on 27 March that he may not sign the 1994 budget. The Sejm approved the final version of the budget on 25 March, voting down a proposal by the Senate to relieve the defense ministry of the obligation to spend 300 billion zloty ($14 million) on Polish-made military aircraft. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. PAWLAK PLAYING DOUBLE GAME? Although the SLD tried to present Walesa's decision as a "no-confidence vote" in Pawlak, the SLD's liberal leaders are the real target. The president and the prime minister share an interest in undermining SLD leader Aleksander Kwasniewski, who now leads the opinion polls for the 1995 presidential elections. The government's press office issued a statement on 25 March expressing continued support for the Rosati nomination. But Pawlak's position remains ambiguous; he himself has never publicly endorsed Rosati. Before meeting with Walesa on 25 March, moreover, Pawlak demoted the veteran deputy finance minister responsible for taxation, Witold Modzelewski, and appointed Jan Kubik from the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) to take his place. Kubik, the head of the Cracow tax office, told Polish TV that Pawlak had not consulted him in advance of the appointment. The coalition agreed early on that the PSL should have its representatives in the finance ministry, but the timing of the appointment suggests that Pawlak intends both to extend his own control over the ministry and to curb the SLD. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. KLAUS RETURNS FROM FINLAND. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus concluded a three-day visit of Finland on 27 March, CTK reports. During his visit, Klaus discussed with Finnish leaders their experiences with integrating Finland into the European Union and Czech plans to join the EU. Klaus repeatedly expressed the opinion that the Czech Republic will be the next member of the EU. Speaking at a press conference in Helsinki on 25 March, Klaus said that Finland's experience shows that EU membership does not bring only advantages and that negotiating EU membership is a complicated process "for which we have to start training specialists." Klaus also said he was worried about insufficient reform in Russia and rejected criticism by Poland that the Czech Republic is trying to get into the EU ahead of the other Visegrad countries (Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia). Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. PARTY CONGRESSES IN SLOVAKIA. Vladimir Meciar, the recently ousted premier of Slovakia, was reelected chairman of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia at the MDS congress in Presov on 26 and 27 March. In a letter approved at the congress and sent to President Michal Kovac, the MDS says it can no longer support Kovac's presidency. Slovak media report that the letter criticizes Kovac for the way he performs his duties, for what it says were his attempts to split the MDS, and for what it calls "groundless insults" against Meciar. Kovac earlier sent a letter to the congress, saying that his dispute with Meciar had been political, rather than personal. MDS vice-chairman Sergej Kozlik told journalists that the MDS wants to be "the party of the pragmatic center." On 26 March, the constituent congress of the National Democratic Party/New Alternative took place in Zvolen. The NDP/NA split away from the Slovak National Party in January 1994. Party chairman Ludovit Cernak told journalists that his party will pursue a conservative program. Cernak also revealed that the NDP/NA will not merge with Milan Knazko's Alliance of Democrats and with the Democratic Union of Slovakia of Prime Minister Jozef Moravcik, but that the three groups will form an election coalition called the Centrist Bloc. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. BAVARIAN INTERIOR MINISTER IN BUDAPEST. On 25 March Bavarian Interior Minister Gunther Beckstein paid an official visit to Hungary in order to discuss the implementation of a government level agreement signed by Hungary and Germany three years ago, MTI reports. During his meeting with Hungarian Interior Minister Imre Konya, he discussed means of cooperation between Bavaria and Hungary on questions relating to migration. In a press conference following their meeting, the two ministers revealed that the text of an agreement dealing with the cooperation of the Hungarian and Bavarian police forces and the border guard has been prepared for signing. The two institutions plan to exchange information regularly in order to curb illegal migration and to stop criminals at the borders. Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc. ILIESCU PARDONS COMMUNISTS, CUTS HUNGARIAN SENTENCES. President Ion Iliescu pardoned eight former communist party officials and reduced the sentences of seven ethnic Hungarians, an RFE/RL correspondent and Radio Bucharest reported on 25 March. The eight communists pardoned were convicted of conspiracy, involving attempted murder. Their pardon has long been demanded by the extreme nationalist Greater Romania Party. Among them are Stefan Andrei, Susana Gadea, Constantin Radu and Ion Stoian. Only one of those sentenced in connection with the December 1989 events, Ion Dinca, is still in prison. Those pardoned on 25 March had been released on health grounds some time ago. The seven Hungarian ethnics whose sentences were reduced were convicted of murdering two policemen during the 1989 uprising. The Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania had long campaigned for their release, stating that they had received longer sentences than ethnic Romanians would have received. Presidential spokesmen Train Chebeleu said on the same day that the HDFR demands had been supported by one of the two rapporteurs for the Council of Europe. The two rapporteurs are about to begin a visit to Romania. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. HIGHER TURNOUT THAN EXPECTED IN UKRAINIAN ELECTIONS. Participation in Ukraine's parliamentary elections on 27 March was higher than had been generally expected, Ukrainian and Western media report. According to the Central Electoral Commission voter turnout averaged about 67% throughout the country, reaching between 92% to 84% in the Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv and Poltava oblasts, and only 50.6% in Crimea (where President Meshkov had called for a boycott). Although no results had been announced by lunch time on 28 March, the high number of candidates competing for each parliamentary seat was expected to necessitate run-offs on 10 April in many constituencies. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. MESHKOV STEERING CRIMEA TOWARDS CONFRONTATION WITH UKRAINE? Crimea's President Yurii Meshkov returned to a more confrontational tone towards Ukraine on the eve of the elections in Crimea, where voting was simultaneously to elect deputies to the Ukrainian parliament and the Crimean legislature, Ukrainian and Western agencies reported. Appearing on Crimean TV on the evening of 25 March he urged voters to boycott the elections to the Ukrainian parliament by leaving polling booths with their ballot papers in their pockets. Reuters reported on 27 March that Meshkov "pointedly refused to put his vote in the ballot box for the election to the Ukrainian parliament." Just before the elections, Meshkov had ordered clocks in Crimea to be put forward two hours, rather than one as in the rest of Ukraine, in order that the peninsula be on Moscow time. Last week the Crimean president also issued an order for local army recruits to perform their military service in the peninsula. For his part, Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk told journalists in Kiev as he cast his own vote that "not much effort is required to move a clock forward" and reminded Crimeans that they depended on Ukraine for much of their resources. "Crimea lives together with Ukraine and I do not think residents of Crimea are irresponsible," he commented. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE'S DEFENSE MINISTRY RESCINDS ORDER OF CRIMEAN PRESIDENT. Ukrainian television reported on 24 March that the press service of the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense issued a statement that the order of the Crimean president, Yurii Meshkov, that Crimean conscripts serve only on Crimean territory, is not legal. On 26 March Interfax reported that deputy defense minister, Ivan Bizhan, said Crimean authorities did not have the right to make decisions on drafts to Ukraine's armed forces. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. KEBICH TO RUN FOR PRESIDENCY, LUKASHENKA ACCUSED OF CONDUCTING SLANDER CAMPAIGN. The first deputy premier, Mikhail Myasnikovich, said at a meeting in Brest on 24 March that the premier, Vyacheslau Kebich, would run in the country's presidential elections, Radiofakt reported on 25 March. The same day Interfax reported that government spokesman, Uladzimir Zamyatalin, accused the head of the interim anti-corruption commission, Aleksandr Lukashenka, of using dirty tricks in his election campaign. Lukashenka had announced that on 29 March he would make public a list of leading officials who have abused their offices. According to Zamyatalin, Lukashenka would resort to the most despicable means in an effort to win the presidency. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. MEETING OF BALTIC PRESIDENTS IN LITHUANIA. On 25 March Algirdas Brazauskas hosted his Estonian and Latvian counterparts Lennart Meri and Guntis Ulmanis in Palanga, Radio Lithuania reports. The presidents issued three statements. The first praised the greater cooperation between the three states and called for closer ties with the Nordic Council and Visegrad States. In the second the presidents decided that they should meet at least two times a year with the location determined on a rotating basis. The third noted the success of the states' cooperation in the Council of the Baltic Sea States and the need to have a common policy towards the European Union and NATO. It stressed the importance of President Clinton's recent decision to lift the embargo on arms sales to their countries. Particular attention was also given to the importance of Ukraine in ensuring stability and security in Europe. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. FRENCH CONSTITUTIONAL COURT CHAIRMAN IN BALTIC STATES. On 22 March Robert Badinter began a two-day visit to Lithuania by holding talks with President Algirdas Brazauskas, Radio Lithuania reports. The talks focused on the CSCE arbitration court whose creation was decided at the 1992 Stockholm Convention. The convention was signed by 31 member states, but will go into effect only after it is ratified by 12 member states. It is planned that the court will begin work in February 1995 in Geneva. Brazauskas told Badinter that he would support the convention's ratification in the Lithuanian parliament. Badinter then traveled to Riga where he met with Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs and Justice Minister Egils Levits. Badinter suggested that judges of the yet to be established Latvian Constitutional Court visit France. On 25 March Badinter held similar talks with Estonian President Lennart Meri in Tallinn. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. SUMMIT MEETING OF ESTONIAN POLITICAL PARTIES. On 26 March the Center Party organized a meeting of the leaders of 14 political parties in Tallinn, BNS reports. At a press conference after the meeting, its participants described it as necessary and fruitful. In future, similar meetings will be held devoted to specific issues. The Assembly Party and Center Party will prepare the next meeting that will focus on fighting crime. The Rural Center Party and Social Democratic Party will prepare a meeting to discuss a draft law on political parties. Entrepreneurs Party leader Tiit Made noted that the participants concluded that Estonia did not need so many small parties and that only three or four large parties would be preferable in the future. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Liz Carlson and Stan Markotich The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. 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