|If there is technological advance without social advance, there is, almost automatically, an increase in human misery. - Michael Harrington|
No. 59, 25 March 1994
RUSSIA SHOKHIN BECOMES DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER. Economics Minister Aleksandr Shokhin, a moderate reformer, has been appointed to the post of Deputy Prime Minister, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 March. He will now become the chief architect of economic reform in the government of Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. Shokhin belongs to the Party of Russian Unity and Concord led by Sergei Shakhrai. He was formerly a member of Egor Gaidars team of young academics which started market reforms in Russia immediately after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Later, however, Shokhin distanced himself from the team because he rejected Gaidars focus on monetaristic reforms, favoring a more socially-oriented economic policy. His appointment suggests that Chernomyrdin wants to continue with reforms, although more cautiously. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc. SHOKHINS BLUEPRINT FOR 1994. At the weekly cabinet meeting on 24 March, Shokhin presented four options for future economic strategy, prepared by his ministry, ITAR-TASS reported. The first provided for a continuation of the current policy. The second featured a strict monetary course leading to low inflation but a sharp drop in output. The third envisaged a major shakeup, resulting in higher inflation and financial imbalance. His own preference, the fourth, settled for active economic stabilization, together with a moderately strict monetary policy. This should yield, in 1994, a fall in GNP of 8 percent; a drop of 12 percent in industrial output; an unemployment rate of 5-6 percent, translating into about 3 million unemployed; an annual inflation rate of around 500 percent, with monthly inflation falling to 7-9 percent by the end of the year. This fourth variant was approved. Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc. SHOKHIN ON FOREIGN DEBT RESCHEDULING. Before his new appointment was announced, Shokhin told Interfax on 23 March that he hopes for a major restructuring of Russias foreign debt, which is believed to total more than $80 billion. An estimated $28 billion of this matures in 1994, and there is little prospect of much of this sum being repaid this year. The agreement with the IMF should, in Shokhins view, facilitate the restructuring. Shokhin also disclosed at a news conference on 23 March that revenues in the current draft of the federal budget for 1994 include foreign credits totalling $2.1 billion. This figure presumably refers to the IMF second tranche of $1.5 billion, and the World Bank rehabilitation deal amounting to $600 million. Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc. PROPOSED REVAMP OF RUSSIAN BANKS. A high-ranking source in the Ministry of Finance told Interfax on 23 March that the World Bank and the EBRD are considering investing nearly $400 million to improve the operation and technical modernization of selected commercial banks in Russia. Successful candidates will have to submit to annual audits by leading international accounting companies. Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc. SAKHALIN OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS PROJECT. A consortium of Western companies and the Russian government have agreed in principle to develop a major deposit of oil and gas off the island of Sakhalin, The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal reported on 24 March. The consortium includes Marathon Oil Company, The Royal Dutch/Shell Group, McDermott International Inc., Mitsui & Co., and Mitsubishi Corporation. Minister of Fuel and Energy Yurii Shafranik told a news conference on 23 March that the deal could bring $10 billion in new investment and that, under the terms of the 25-year production-sharing deal, Russia would receive more than 50 percent of the profits. The contract has to be approved by the Russian government and by members of the consortium. Work on the project will commence only after Russias parliament has taken appropriate action. This last proviso may refer to the provision of better safeguards for foreign investment, improvements in contract law, and, perhaps, a more benign tax regime. Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA PROPOSES NORTH KOREA CONFERENCE. Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin on 24 March proposed that an international conference be held to discuss the standoff on nuclear weapons inspections in North Korea. Western press agencies reported that the conference would include both North and South Korea, Japan, Russia, the US, and representatives of the IAEA. Churkin proposed discussing the issue of denuclearization of the Korean peninsula (the US has already withdrawn its tactical weapons from South Korea) as well as the inspection issue and security guarantees for the two Koreas. The US response to the proposal was cool, with a State Department spokesman noting that the UN remains the most appropriate forum to solve this matter, according to AFP. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL Inc. NEW RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPING CONTINGENT INCLUDES MOSLEMS. Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin told reporters in Moscow on 24 March that 100 Russian peacekeepers would leave the next day for Sarajevo, Interfax reported. Churkin said that the new contingent included Moslems as well as Orthodox believers. This is a vivid illustration of our unbiased position in this conflict. We reject accusations of pro-Serb or any other position, he was quoted as saying. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. PLANS FOR WITHDRAWAL FROM KURILS DENIED . . . Interfax reported on 24 March that both a regional administration official from Sakhalin and the command of the Far Eastern Military District have denied receiving instructions ordering a withdrawal of military forces from the disputed Kuril Islands. On 23 March the chairman of the Dumas security committee, Viktor Ilyukhin, claimed that a secret order had been issued for the withdrawal, and he linked it to a planned return of the islands to Japan. According to General Viktor Ovcharov, a full military withdrawal from the Kurils has never been considered by the Far Eastern command; he estimated that such an operation would take a year to carry out. Meanwhile, Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin on 24 March said that, in any event, the issue of reducing the number of troops on the islands is an internal Russian affair and has never been linked by Moscow to the signing of a peace treaty between Russia and Japan. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. . . . BUT POLEMICS CONTINUE. Despite such denials, the Chairman of the Duma Committee on Geopolitics, Viktor Ustinov, suggested that the earlier withdrawal of an aviation unit from the islands demonstrated that some politicians continue to pursue the aim of playing the Kuril card and selling the islands to Japan. Ustinov, who is a member of Vladimir Zhirinovskys Liberal Democratic Party, also charged that, if the islands were transferred to Japan, there would be no need for Russia to keep the Pacific Fleet because it will have no access to the ocean. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. RENEWED DUMPING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES? In what could be another blow to Japanese-Russian relations, an official of the Russian maritime territory told Interfax on 24 March that Russia may resume the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes into the Sea of Japan. According to Evgenii Stomatyuk, a ban on dumping, imposed earlier by the Russian government, was not accompanied by measures necessary to assure the safe storage of such radioactive materials. Stomatyuk declared that if the Russian government does not solve the problem of storage and reprocessing, the local administration may be forced to adopt an independent decision and resume the dumping. The issue was first raised in October of last year following Boris Yeltsins visit to Japan. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. MISSILE TROOPS SHOOTING INCIDENT. A guard in the Strategic Rocket Forces shot and killed his commanding officer and several other servicemen on 10 March, according to a report by ITAR-TASS on 24 March. TASS attributed the report to the newspaper Altaiskaya pravda, which claimed that the serviceman fired in the direction of the missile installation. The shooting took place at a base near Barnaul, probably the Aleysk SS-18 base. (The missiles would therefore presumably all be in silos and safe from small-arms fire. Another base in the region, near Novosibirsk, deploys more vulnerable SS-25 mobile missiles.) The Russian military has not confirmed the incident, which was reportedly covered up by the local commander. John Lepingwell RUSSIAN SUBS COLLIDE. Two Russian nuclear submarines collided with each other on 23 March in the Barents Sea during exercises, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 March. Damage to the vessels was apparently light and there were no injuries. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL Inc. MORE ON THE OUSTER OF THE VLADIVOSTOK MAYOR. The special commission of the State Duma set up to investigate the ouster of the first democratically-elected mayor of Vladivostok completed its work on 24 March, Russian TV newscasts reported. The commission concluded that the case could not be adjudicated by the local authorities and called for greater involvement by the office of the Russian Prosecutor-General and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The report of the commission is to be sent to President Yeltsin. The commission pointed out that it was not interested in the charge of corruption that had served as a pretext to remove the mayor on 17 March, but only in the political fallout. The mayor of Vladivostok, Viktor Cherepkov, was forced from his office by the police, who were acting on behalf of the head of the Primorskii krai administration, Evgenii Nazdratenko. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. CANDIDATES FOR CONSTITUTIONAL COURT. According to Ostankino TVs Novosti, the Third All-Russian Congress of Judges opened in Moscow on 24 March. They were expected to recommend new members of the Constitutional Court. There are now at least six vacancies and another slot will be freed if former chairman Valerii Zorkin resigns as expected. Over twenty names have been put forward by various regional conferences of judges held earlier this year. The Congress makes recommendations, but the final nominations are made by the president and submitted for parliamentary approval. Julia Wishnevsky CIS CIS MILITARY HOLDS EXERCISES NEAR TAJIK BORDER. Interfax and Ostankino TV reported on 24 March that the CIS military command has held its first set of joint exercises just a few kilometers from Tajikistan-Afghanistan border. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev observed the exercises, which included a battalion from Tajikistan, a company from Uzbekistan, and elements of Russias 201st motorized rifle division and border guards. According to Interfax, the exercises mock attacker deployed attack aircraft, tanks, and helicopters, and penetrated 15-20 kilometers into Tajik territory. This description is surprising, since the primary threat in the area is from Tajik rebels who do not have air and armor support. Ostankino TV reports on the exercises showed only a small force, and specifically dismissed suggestions that the exercise was meant to intimidate Afghanistan. John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA NEW FIGHTING IN ABKHAZIA. Contingents of Georgian troops invaded Abkhaz territory in two places on 24 March and clashed with Abkhaz forces, according to Abkhaz spokesmen quoted by Interfax and ITAR-TASS. Two battalions of Georgian troops supported by a tank and two armored vehicles crossed through the Kodori canyon into Gulripsh raion, and a second contingent of 100 Georgians crossed the frontier near the village of Otobaya. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc. AZERBAIJANI OPPOSITION PARTIES UNITE. Five Azerbaijani opposition parties, including the Azerbaijan Popular Front and the Musavat Party, have joined forces to create the Democratic Congress bloc, Interfax reported on 24 March. The blocs program identifies as its top priorities the defense of Azerbaijans territorial integrity and the establishment of a civil society founded on democratic principles. Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN SERBS REJECT MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. On 25 March Borba, Politika, and Western media report on events which took place in the assembly of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb republic on 24 March. After discussing the possibility of joining with the Muslim-Croat federation, the representatives voted on and rejected the idea outright. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic stressed to the assembly that it would simply be improper for Bosnian Serbs to join with Muslims and Croats after two years of fighting. Following the vote, the assembly produced a statement which was critical of the manner in which the framework of the Muslim-Croat federation was achieved, noting that the Bosnian Serb side had been shut out of the process. Karadzic did, however, suggest that the refusal to join the federation would not necessarily preclude the possibility of establishing ties or relations with it. The Bosnian Serb leader stressed that the goal for Bosnian Serbs would be to join with the rump Yugoslavia, while the assembly also endorsed the notion of refraining from negotiations designed to conclude a general cease-fire for Bosnia until such time as the sanctions imposed against the rump Yugoslavia are lifted. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. TURKISH PEACE KEEPERS FOR BOSNIA MET WITH OPPOSITION. On 24 March Reuters reported that Turkish Foreign Minister Hikmet Cetin has announced, during his visit to Romania, that Turkey would send a total of 2,700 peace keepers to Bosnia. The Turkish contingent would reportedly consist of 1,200 infantrymen, 500 engineers, and a logistics team of 1,000. Paving the way for the arrival of the Turkish peace keepers is a UN Security Council decision of 23 March, accepting the Turkish offer of peace keepers. Yet the presence of the Turkish forces may continue to generate opposition. To date, Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev has cautioned the UN against sending Turkish troops to Bosnia. According to Bulgarian Radio on 24 March, Zhelev has repeated his fear that the sending of Turkish troops to Bosnia may reactivate regional disputes grounded in historical experiences, and lead to an intensifying rather than a calming of tensions. Zhelev has reportedly outlined his position in full to UN Secretary Boutros Boutros-Ghali in a letter. Earlier, Athens articulated its opposition to the sending of the peace keepers, and recently has thought of offering its own soldiers for peacekeeping duties, Reuters reported on 24 March. Meanwhile, on 25 March Borba reports that Radovan Karadzic continues to voice his opposition to the Turkish peace keepers, and has reportedly said that if the Turkish forces are deployed, the Bosnian Serb side will feel compelled to ask for the presence of the rump Yugoslav army. In other news, both AFP and Reuters reported on 24 March that Russia expects to send another 100 soldiers to Sarajevo on 25 March. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL Inc. CZECH JEWS PROTEST RESTITUTION LAW SETBACK. On 24 March spokesmen for Jewish organizations in the Czech Republic reacted bitterly to the Czech governments decision on 23 March to turn down a draft law providing for the return of Jewish property confiscated by Nazi Germany and retained by Czechoslovakias communist governments, Czech and international media report. In February, the Czech parliament rejected another draft law, following last-minute amendments by Prime Minister Vaclav Klauss Civic Democratic Party restricting the scope of restitution--changes unacceptable to the CDPs coalition allies. Following the February vote, Klauss government promised to decree the return of all Jewish property owned currently by the state but said it could only plead with municipalities to return the Jewish property that had been transferred to them. The latest draft law was reportedly unacceptable to the government because it could set a precedent for returning property confiscated before the communist putsch on 25 February 1948. Following the government decision, a spokesman for Jewish organizations said: The government and parliament do not want us. They simply do not want to return the property and they are doing everything possible to prevent it. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. OFFICIALS OF SLOVAKIAS AUDITING OFFICE RECALLED. On 24 March, the Slovak Parliament voted out of office the chairman and the vice-chairman of the Highest Auditing Office, Marian Vanko and Peter Sokol, respectively. The vote was preceded by a heated debate, during which the recently ousted government of Vladimir Meciar was accused of having misused the Highest Auditing Office for its political objectives. Slovak media report that the parliament also elected Marian Jusko as new vice-governor of the Slovak National Bank. Jusko will replace Marian Tkac who was ousted on 23 March. Several thousand Meciar supporters demonstrated in Bratislava on 24 March against what they termed purges by the new ruling coalition. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. SLOVAK DEFENSE MINISTER IN ISRAEL. Pavol Kanis arrived in Israel on 23 March on a three-day visit. He is to meet Israeli Defense Minister Itzak Rabin and Foreign Minister Simon Peres. Slovak media report that the trip was prepared by the recently ousted Meciar government; it is the first official visit by a Slovak defense minister to Israel. Kanis is to discuss mainly arms production cooperation. Some observers have suggested that the talks will focus on possible assistance by Israel in making Slovakias Russian-made MIG-29 fighter planes compatible with those of NATO. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. HUNGARIAN WEEKLY FINED. On 24 March the Budapest Central District Court found the chief editor of Heti Szuper Pszt! guilty of publicly offending an official and ordered that he pay a fine of 75,000 forint ($750), MTI reports. According to the court, the 7 August 1992 issue of the magazine tarnished Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszkys reputation and offended his human dignity by publishing an article with the title Jeszenszky was a Double Spy?! The court pointed out that the freedom of the media could not be interpreted as a right to be licentious. The court ruled that the 38,000 copies of the magazine with the offending article which had been seized be confiscated. It was then Interior Minister Peter Boross who had filed in the name of the government the charges against the gossip weekly. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL Inc. CONTROVERSY OVER ROMANIAN MINISTERS OUSTER CONTINUES. On 24 March an RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest reported new developments in the controversy over the recent replacement of Defense Minister Lt. Gen. Nicolae Spiroiu. The report quoted Alexandru Nicolae, a deputy for the opposition Democratic Party-National Salvation Front, as saying that Spiroiu had favored buying Western and Israeli military equipment. Nicolae also said that the ministers ouster was forced by those who wanted Romania to buy Russian equipment. Nicolae is a member of a parliamentary panel investigating Spiroius role in arms purchases. A spokesman for the Defense Minister announced on the same day that Spiroiu had been appointed an adviser to his successor, Gheorghe Tinca. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. POLL SAYS ILIESCU WOULD LOSE NEXT ELECTIONS. A recent poll by the Romanian independent polling institute IRSOP shows that President Ion Iliescus popularity has slumped because of plummeting living standards. According to a Reuters report from Bucharest, the centrist Democratic Convention would beat Iliescu and his Party of Social Democracy in Romania in new presidential and general elections. The IRSOP results, released on 24 March, mark a dramatic public opinion shift. Iliescu has led Romania since the end of Nicolae Ceausescus regime in December 1989. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIAN LAWYERS CONTINUE PROTESTS. Several hundred lawyers in a number of Romanian counties, including Iasi, Suceava and Mehedinti, continue to boycott the countrys legal system in an attempt to obtain legalization of private practices. The lawyers, who refuse to sign arrest warrants and attend trials, accuse the Chamber of Deputies of dragging its feet over legislation to permit them to open private law offices, which had been forbidden under the Communists. The chairman of the parliaments legal commission rejected the charges, saying that the lawyers had been misinformed by the leadership of their national association. The Ministry of Justice also denounced the strike as detrimental to the citizens interests. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. KRAVCHUK ATTENDS MILITARY EXERCISES. On 23 March the Commander-in-Chief of the Ukrainian Armed Forces, President Leonid Kravchuk, and Defense Minister Vitalii Radetsky attended military exercises in the Lviv training center of the Carpathian military district, Ukrainian radio reported. The exercises were also attended by the military attaches of foreign embassies accredited to Ukraine. Following the exercises Kravchuk answered a number of questions posed by journalists. He stressed that the state would do everything possible to provide the armed forces with adequate equipment and training, as well as providing for the daily needs of servicemen and their families. Some 1,700 servicemen from motorized infantry regiments participated in the exercise, as well as a number of auxiliary units. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc. MORE ON RUSSIAN-BELARUSIAN MONETARY UNION. It appears the optimistic statement by Belarusian government spokesman Uladzimir Zamyatalin on 23 March that an agreement on monetary union between Russia and Belarus on terms favorable to Belarus would soon be signed was premature. The agreement is now being debated by the RussianDuma and the terms announced by Zamyatalin have not been favorably received in Moscow (see RFE/RL Daily Report of 24 March). ITAR-TASS reported on 24 March that the Russian deputy minister of economics, Sergei Ignyatev, said that a monetary union between the two countries cannot take place on equal terms for the two. According to Ignyatev, the official currency (the Russian ruble) can only have one master. Belarus would therefore have to voluntarily cede sovereignty over its monetary and credit policy, as well as its overall economic policy. He also said that Belarus would have to give up some political sovereignty. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc. LUKASHENKA CHARGES CORRUPTION IN BELARUS. Interfax reported on 24 March that the head of the Belarusian parliaments interim anti-corruption commission, Aleksandr Lukashenka, intends to announce a list on 29 March of the top 50 state officials who have abused their positions and broken the law. Among them are deputy premiers Mikola Kastikau and Stanislau Bril, the foreign minister Piotr Krauchanka, defense minister Paval Kazlouski, foreign economic relations minister Uladzimir Radkevich, and the chairman of the national bank Stanislau Bahdankevich. Kastikau is a close associate of the prime minister, Vyacheslau Kebich. According to Lukashenka, abuses in the top echelons of power have been done with Kebichs consent, and if Kebich fails to become president, he and many of his teammates will have to go to prison. Lukashenka reportedly gained some popularity after he charged the former chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, with corruption which led to his removal from office and it has been reported that Lukashenka intends to run for the presidency himself in the coming elections. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc. BELARUSIAN MAJORITY FAVORS RESTORATION OF USSR. An opinion poll conducted by the Independent Institute of Socioeconomic and Political Research jointly with the International Center for Promoting Entrepreneurship (a US organization), reported that over 55% of Belarusian citizens favor the restoration of the USSR, 22.3% were opposed to the idea, and 22.6% were undecided, Interfax reported on 21 March. The survey was taken in November-December 1993. Of the 1,148 respondents some 63.3% said Belarus and Russia should form a single state, while 17.9% opposed the idea. On the question of language, 65.5% said Russian should be given the status of the second national language in Belarus, while 19.9% opposed the prospect. About 41% of the respondents stated that Belarus was best suited for socialism, while 31.6% supported capitalism. On the question of market economy, 54.1% favored the market, while 43% preferred a planned economy. The polls error margin was reportedly 5%. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL Inc. LITHUANIA SENDS TWO DELEGATIONS TO KALININGRAD. On 24 March Lithuanian Deputy Foreign Minister Vladislovas Domarkas traveled to Kaliningrad to discuss terms of transit by car and rail through Lithuania for Kaliningrad residents, Radio Lithuania reports. Kaliningrad Oblast administrator Yurii Matochkin told Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius in Vilnius on 23 March that the region was technically unprepared to issue the passport inserts needed for travel to Lithuania and urged at least a three month postponement in the implementation of the transit rules. Another delegation from the Construction and Urban Planning Ministry also went to Kaliningrad to discuss with local officials the continued building of apartments for military personnel after the detention of the president of the association that was constructing them. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIA GIVES ESTONIA LISTS OF MILITARY PERSONNEL IN PALDISKI. On 24 March, after long delays, the Russian garrison in Paldiski finally gave Estonia a list of 891 military personnel living and working in the town, BNS reports. About 600 of them should be required to leave Estonia by 31 August while the rest are specialists sent to help with the dismantling of the two nuclear reactors at the base. Registration of Paldiski residents will last until 26 March and they will be given special stamps in their passports to allow free passage through Paldiski during the dismantling. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. FOURTH ROUND OF PRIVATIZATION SALES IN ESTONIA. On 24 March the Estonian Privatization Agency published in the Estonian and international press a list of 49 large companies that would be privatized, BNS reports. Bids for the companies that include 14 forestry and woodworking firms, four transport companies including Estonias largest bus company, RAS Motor, six bakeries, and four fuel depots would be accepted until 26 May. The turnover of the companies range from a few million to 98 million kroons. Differences from the previous rounds include the possibility of accepting lower bids if proposing higher investments, the state retaining part of the properties for possible future public sale of shares, and allowing Estonian capital to pay by installments at a 15% annual interest rate. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. RUSSIAN ARMY OWES LATVIA $17 MILLION. The Latvian Control Office for Russian army withdrawal announced that the army owes Latvia 9,865,000 lats ($17 million) for electricity, different taxes and services, BNS reported on 24 March. It noted that there were nearly 7,000 Russian troops in Latvia, organized into 190 units stationed at 242 military sites. The offices head, Ilgonis Upmalis, told a press conference that the Russian army had disbanded 400 units in Latvia without informing the Latvian authorities whether the units officers and their families had left the republic or still remained. He also noted that the Russian Northwest Army Unit refused to make known its withdrawal schedule, making it unilateral without any consideration for Latvian interests. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Stan Markotich The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. .
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