|The greatest of faults, I should say, is to be conscious of none. - Thomas Carlyle 1975-1881|
No. 57, 23 March 1994
RUSSIA CONDITIONAL AGREEMENT REACHED WITH IMF. Late on 22 March, it was announced in Moscow that the International Monetary Fund and the government had reached agreement in principle on the granting of the second tranche ($1.5 billion) of the systemic transformation facility, Russian and Western agencies reported. The agreement has now to be approved by the IMF's board of directors, and some unspecified conditions are attached--including, presumably, commitments on the Russian side to enhance tax collection, raise certain tax rates, curb soft credits, and to maintain a firm ceiling on budgetary expenditures. The agreement opens the way to a future extension of up to $4 billion in stand-by credits. It may also be seen as a huge act of faith on the part of the IMF in the ability of the Russian government to deliver, or as the IMF's capitulation to pressure from the G-7. Many observers doubt whether the projected 1994 budget deficit can be limited to 9 percent of GDP by Russian measures and 15-16 percent of GDP by IMF methodology: even Economics Minister Aleksandr Shokhin recently called the revenue part "patently overstated" and the expenditure side unrealistic (Ostankino TV, 12 March). Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. FILATOV: YELTSIN'S HEALTH IS FINE. Sergei Filatov, the head of the presidential administration, appeared in a ten-minute interview broadcast on Russian TV on 22 March during which he sought to dismiss the continuing rumors concerning President Boris Yeltsin's health. According to Filatov, Yeltsin has signed 81 decrees and instructions during his working vacation, although they have not yet been published. The persistent coup rumors were attributed by Filatov to those who are trying to weaken Yeltsin's authority. While he also asserted that Yeltsin was fit and had been playing tennis, the short video clip shown on Russian TV on 21 March briefly showed Yeltsin walking slowly, and sitting, while talking to Chernomyrdin. The ambiguous nature of the video appears not to have dispelled the concerns over Yeltsin's health but instead increased them. Yeltsin is reportedly scheduled to return to Moscow at the end of the week, and will meet with Kazakhstani President Nursultan Nazarbaev at the end of the month. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. CONTINUING CONFUSION OVER THE ALLEGED COUP ATTEMPT. On 22 March, TV's "Vesti" quoted Interfax as reporting that the Russian Counterintelligence Service had received "signals" concerning the preparations of a coup against President Yeltsin long before the media started reporting about it on 16 March. "Vesti" also quoted Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets as saying that he has never protested about allegations in the media identifying him as one of the coup leaders. Soskovets' statement contradicted the claim made by the office of the Russian Prosecutor-General that Soskovets' testimony was the basis for their formal investigation. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. ZHIRINOVSKY ATTACKS RUTSKOI. The struggle between the head of the nationalist Liberal-Democratic Party, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, and former Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi over the leadership of "patriotic" forces has come out into the open. Zhirinovsky has criticized attempts by Rutskoi and other right-wing forces to form the new movement "Concord In the Name of Russia," Nezavisimoe TV's "Itogi" reported on 20 March. He said that the new organization was "an agony' of certain political forces which want to remain on the political stage." He stated that the movement has "no future" and that it is being formed "by those forces, which had humiliated Russia . . . whose hands are full of blood." Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. DEPUTY DEFENSE MINISTER ON PEACEKEEPING PLANS. The Russian military commander responsible for "peacekeeping" operations, Col. Gen. Georgii Kondratev, told reporters on 22 March that the military was training more peacekeeping troops because Russian forces were the only ones capable of "separating warring factions" in the region. According to Reuters and Ostankino Television, Kondratev reiterated that Russia would seek an international mandate--and financing--for such activities on the territory of the former Soviet Union. He also said that Moscow currently has over 9,000 peacekeepers deployed in that region: 6,000 in Tajikistan, 2,000 in Moldova's Dniester region, and 1,500 in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and that two more fully-equipped motor rifle divisions were being trained for peacekeeping operations. Kondratev, who said that another battalion of Russian forces would be sent to Sarajevo at the end of March, also claimed that the Defense Ministry had spent 26 billion rubles out of its own budget in 1993 to finance peacekeeping operations. According to Interfax, he said that Russia had to protect the estimated 25 million Russians living in other former Soviet republics. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV DENIES AIR DEFENSE FORCES TO BE ABOLISHED. Radio Mayak and Komsomolskaya pravda on 22 March quoted Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev as denying published reports that Russia's Air Defense Forces would be drastically cut or abolished. Grachev said that while some consolidation might take place, the forces would actually be strengthened by the addition of new aircraft. On 17 March Moskovsky komsomolets had reported that the Defense Ministry Collegium would soon discuss a proposal calling for the Air Defense units to be cut by 50% and for the remaining components of the current Air Defense Forces then to be distributed among the Air Forces and other services. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. ON BUDGET, BALTIC FLEET, AND KALININGRAD. Komsomolskaya pravda of 22 March reported that Grachev's recent trip to Kaliningrad Oblast was occasioned at least in part by the fact that reductions in the military budget have forced military leaders to consider whether Russia can still afford to maintain its Baltic Fleet. Two options are reportedly being considered: one that would maintain the structure and command of the fleet essentially as is; the other calls for dissolution of the fleet and the reconstitution of a "division" of warships, subordinated to the general military command, on the basis of the current Baltic Fleet and the Leningrad Naval Base. The newspaper also reported in greater detail on the Defense Ministry's plans for creating a "special defense region" in Kaliningrad Oblast, saying that it would be comprised of large groupings of ground forces, military aviation, air defense forces, and naval units. These forces would interact with Border Troops and, possibly, with Internal Ministry Forces. The special force would reportedly be subordinated directly to the Defense Ministry and General Staff. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. ROW OVER HIGHER IMPORT DUTIES. The mayors of Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Yekaterinburg have asked President Yeltsin to repeal the higher import tax on foodstuffs, an RFE/RL Moscow correspondent reported on 21 March. [Higher import duties on certain foodstuffs, as well as other goods such as clothing and toiletries, came into effect on 10 March.] The mayors claimed that the higher duties would result in higher retail prices for foodstuffs in their cities. At a news conference on 22 March, Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Zaveryukha and Agricultural Minister Viktor Khlystun defended the higher duties, saying that they were needed to prevent an onslaught of imports that was partly responsible for the sorry plight of the domestic agricultural sector. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. OIL PRICE FROZEN. Russia's largest oil concern, Lukoil, has announced that it will freeze the domestic wholesale price of its crude oil at 70,000 rubles (about $40) a ton during the second quarter of 1994, The Journal of Commerce reported on 22 March. The move was attributed to low domestic demand and to nonpayments by consumers. Consumer insolvency has led Lukoil to close down thousands of wells during the past year and it has been left with 1.5 million tons of crude oil that it cannot sell. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. ADAMISHIN ON CIS. First Deputy Foreign Minister Anatolii Adamishin told a meeting of Russian and French journalists on 21 March that Russia supports the political independence of other CIS states, particularly Ukraine, ITAR-TASS reported. He emphasized the need for economic integration within the CIS. Adamishin said that Russia has neither the intention nor the power to conduct an imperialistic policy. He rejected such statements as "the worse the situation in Ukraine, the better it is for Russia" and stated that if Ukraine as a state breaks apart, that would have grave consequences for Russia as well. He added that Russia is trying to prevent such a development "by all means." He asserted that the Crimea should remain part of Ukraine and that Russia has no territorial claims against Ukraine. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA ON NORTH KOREA. Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigoriy Karasin told reporters in Moscow on 22 March that Russia favors North Korea's "honoring its obligations" under the nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT), Interfax reported. He suggested however that the international response to North Korea's refusal to allow full International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspection of its nuclear facilities should involve political responses. It appears that the Foreign Ministry does not yet support immediate sanctions against North Korea, first wishing to increase political pressure. Russia has been maintaining a fairly tough stand towards North Korea on the proliferation issue. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. PLANE CRASH IN SIBERIA. Western and Russian press agencies reported on 22-23 March that an Aeroflot Airbus crashed during a flight from Moscow to Hong Kong killing all 75 people on board. The Airbus A-310 was reportedly leased from a German company, and was some 3750 km east of Moscow when the crash occurred. Russian air traffic control had been maintaining radio contact with the aircraft and there was apparently no distress signal from it before the crash, suggesting a sudden accident or explosion took place. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA NAZARBAEV IN LONDON. Addressing a news conference on 22 March--the second day of his official visit to Britain--Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev argued that increased Western investment to help stabilize Kazakhstan's new currency would constitute the most effective safeguard for his country's sovereignty, Reuters reported. Nazarbaev ruled out a return to the ruble zone. In a speech to the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Nazarbaev advocated modifying the Commonwealth of Independent States to form a smaller grouping, for which he proposed the name "Euro-Asiatic Union", that would serve as a "belt of stability and security", and from which countries engaged in military conflicts would be excluded. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA, KAZAKHSTAN NEAR BAIKONUR AGREEMENT. AFP reported on 22 March that Russia and Kazakhstan are close to completing an agreement on the leasing of the Baikonur launch site. Kazakhstani Deputy Prime Minister Galim Abilsitov traveled to Moscow on 22 March to finalize the agreement which may be signed by presidents Yeltsin and Nazarbaev at a summit scheduled for next week. The two sides had been stuck over the amount of rent Russia was to pay, with Russia offering $3 billion per year compared with Kazakhstan's demand for $7 billion. The Kazakhstani side has apparently agreed to Russia's call for a long-term lease of approximately 30 years. Russian TV news on 22 March, however, featured an item on plans for creating a new spaceport at Svobodniy, in the Far East. It showed a delegation visiting the former ICBM site headed by the commander of the Russian Military Space Forces and claimed that new-generation boosters could be launched from the site within a few years. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE LITTLE COMMON GROUND IN KRAJINA TALKS. On 23 March international media report that talks between Croatian officials and representatives from the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina produced almost no agreement. The 22 March talks, which took place in the Russian embassy in Zagreb, were aimed at producing a permanent cease-fire between Croatia and the rebel Krajina Serb side, as well as resolving the dispute over the status of Krajina, which consists of about a third of Croatia's territory. On 23 March AFP reports that the nearly 13 hours of talks evoked mainly disagreements, as the RSK negotiators reiterated their stand that Krajina would never submit to Zagreb's authority, while Zagreb outlined its position that Krajina is an integral part of Croatia. In a press conference reported by Vecernji list on 23 March, Croatian President Franjo Tudjman observed that talks between the two sides should continue, but only as long as any prospect for achieving some agreement seems a possibility. Meanwhile, on 22 March RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported that about 150 ethnic Croats demonstrated in front of the Russian embassy during the talks, urging Zagreb to halt meetings with "war criminals." Both the Croat and RSK sides are slated to meet again on 29 March. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. TUZLA AIRPORT REOPENED. On 22 March Reuters reported that Tuzla airport, closed for about two years, had been reopened as a UN flight bringing special envoy Yasushi Akashi and 22 tonnes of aid touched down. Yet on the same day Tanjug reported that Momcilo Krajisnik, head of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb parliament, denied that the airport could be reopened on a permanent basis, despite the arrival of the UN flight, until such time as the Serb and Muslim sides could agree on procedures for cargo inspection. In the past, the Serb side has alleged that the reopening of the airport could become a means for shipping arms to the Muslim side. In other news, on 23 March AFP and Reuters report that the reopening of a bridge and other key routes in the city of Sarajevo has been delayed by disagreements between the Serb and Muslim sides. Finally, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali has recommended that Turkish forces be allowed to assume peacekeeping duties in the former Yugoslavia. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. ATHENS "CATEGORICALLY OPPOSES" TURKISH BLUE HELMETS IN BOSNIA. In a letter to United Nations Security Council President Jean-Bernard Merimee, Greek Foreign Minister Karolos Papoulias has reiterated Athens' "categorical opposition" to the deployment of a Turkish contingent in Bosnia. Greek TV reported on 22 March that in the letter Papoulias called on the UN to continue to observe the principle that no bordering states or such which have historic links to the parties involved in the Bosnian war should participate in peace-keeping operations. Earlier on that day, a UN spokesman in New York had revealed that UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali has had problems mustering enough troops required to enforce the peace agreement underway, and therefore might ask the Security Council to turn to Turkey. The Athens News Agency quoted UN officials as saying that the idea would be to deploy some 1,000 Turkish soldiers exclusively in the Croatian areas of Bosnia, thus reducing the possibility for tensions with Serbs. In another development, Greece's European Affairs Minister Theodoros Pangalos deplored that "no one" abroad understands the country's tough stance against the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia--including the recently imposed trade blockade--and said it would be better for the Greeks to adopt a policy which "leads somewhere." Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. ILLEGAL WEAPONS IN MACEDONIA. On 18 March Internal Affairs Minister Ljubomir Frckovski announced at a meeting of "moderate" Party for Democratic Prosperity delegates, in Tetovo, the arrest of 14 ethnic Albanians for possession of illegal weapons. According to Nova Makedonija on 23 March, 67 automatic rifles were seized from those arrested. Flaka e Vllazerimit reported on 20 March that the problem of illegal possession of weapons in Macedonia is widespread and not simply confined to the Albanian community, although it is acute in Gostivar, on the border with Albania. Frckovski noted that there was no connection between these arrests and the All Albanian Army uncovered in November 1993. Ismije Beshiri and Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. POLICE CORRUPTION IN POLAND. The Ministry of Internal Affairs confirmed yesterday press reports about widespread corruption in the police department in the city of Poznan. The police abuses were first reported on 5 March by Gazeta Wyborcza, which noted that police officials systematically accepted bribes from local businessmen and criminals in return for leniency. Some of the businessmen have become official sponsors of the police force, offering equipment or funds for modernization. On 23 March Gazeta Wyborcza alleged that the ministry admitted in a preliminary report presented to its Political Advisory Committee yesterday the existence of widespread abuses by the Poznan police, although stopped short of blaming top police officials there. The ministry also refrained from accepting resignations from the head of the national police and his deputy, who were reportedly involved in the corruption scandal. The ministry hinted, however, that private sponsorship of local police operations would end. The investigation of the case is to be continued by the office of prosecuting attorney in the city of Katowice. Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. TRADE UNION PROTEST IN PRAGUE. Czech and Western media report that more than 20,000 people demonstrated in Prague on 22 March against proposed changes in labor and pension laws. The demonstration was organized by the Bohemian and Moravian Trade Union Chamber. The trade unionists protested an amendment that would ban trade unions in state services and allow employers to hire on short-term contracts as well as plans to raise the retirement age. Labor and Social Affairs Minister Jindrich Vodicka tried to address the demonstrators but the rally's organizers prevented him from doing so. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. DUTCH QUEEN VISITS CZECH REPUBLIC. Queen Beatrix arrived in Prague on 22 March for a three-day visit at the invitation of President Vaclav Havel, who met with the Queen and her husband Prince Claus to discuss bilateral relations. CTK reports that Havel also gave the Queens a sightseeing tour of Prague. The Queen will also visit Northern Bohemia, a region devastated by ecological neglect under the communist regime. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. AIR FRANCE AGREES TO SELL ITS CSA SHARE. On 22 March, after negotiations involving Air France, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the Czech government's National Property Fund, the French airline agreed to sell its 19.1% share in the Czechoslovak Airlines (CSA) to the Czech Konsolidacni Bank. Air France bought 19.1% of CSA in 1992 for $30 million. Under the agreement, the Czech Konsolidacni Bank will pay Air France $27 million for its share. The sale will end a rocky partnership between the French airline and the Czech government, which along with the EBRD became CSA's owners in 1992. CSA suffered a $40.6 million financial loss in 1993; it has been plagued by problems which Air France has not been able to remedy. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT VOTES TO PURSUE EU MEMBERSHIP. On 22 March parliament voted by 233 to 0 and with three abstentions to authorize the Hungarian government to submit Hungary's application for full membership in the European Union, MTI reports. Prime Minister Peter Boross told parliament that integration into Western Europe was demanded by the times, and stressed that Hungary was not entering but returning to Europe. He said that Hungary sought to ensure its long-term security and economic development through full membership in the EU. Boross expressed the hope that the EU's legal system would provide guarantees for the minority rights of ethnic Hungarians in neighboring countries. He acknowledged that EU membership posed serious challenges for Hungary, which will have to bring its economy up to EU standards and its domestic legislation in line with EU norms. Hungary's application to join the EU would be the first by a former Warsaw Pact country. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN BILL EXCLUDES MANY TRANSYLVANIAN HUNGARIANS. On 22 March Romania's Senate approved, by a 100 to 2 vote, a veterans pension bill that excludes many ethnic Hungarians from Transylvania. The law, which stipulates the rights of war veterans and widows, was amended in accordance with a proposal made by the ultra nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity to deny state benefits to Romanian citizens who had fought against the Romanian army. This mainly covers Transylvanian Hungarians active in the Hungarian army during World War II. Radio Bucharest reported that the representatives of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania left the Senate session after being denied permission to read a statement saying that the law contradicted Romania's Constitution and violated international regulations. The HDFR argues that, between 1940 and 1945, Hungarians in northern Transylvania had been subject to mandatory drafting into the Hungarian army since that region was under Hungarian administration. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. TOP BSP POLITICIAN CLAIMS TURKS ARE ARMING THEMSELVES. A member of the Executive Bureau of the Bulgarian Socialist Party and a parliamentary deputy, Krasimiar Premyanov, has over the past few days managed to stir up considerable controversy with allegations that Bulgarian Turks are in the process of arming themselves, according to Demokratsiya and Trud on 23 March. Premyanov originally made the allegations at a press conference in Varna on 21 March, saying he had reliable information that ethnic Turks in the northeast and south central parts of the country have begun building up substantial arsenals. He also argued that this was evidence that a "Bosnian scenario" is being prepared in Bulgaria. Premyanov's claims were nonetheless denied by Interior Ministry officials as well as local police authorities, who said they had no such information. After a meeting of the BSP's Executive Bureau on 22 March, Premyanov noted that the views expressed had been his own, while at the same time complaining that journalists had misinterpreted his statements. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA: 50 LEVA FOR A DOLLAR. Pari of 23 March reports that the Bulgarian National Bank has now set the official exchange rate at 50.737 per one US dollar. In the meantime, the BNB is struggling to halt the rapid devaluation of the Bulgarian currency. On 22 March the Board of Governors ordered banks to increase their cash reserves, raised the interest rate on short-term deposits (from 51% to 57%), postponed a scheduled sale of one billion leva, and requested an inquiry into whether major financial institutions have observed the country's currency regulations in larger deals over the past months. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. PERRY TOURS ICBM SITE. On 22 March, US Secretary of Defense William Perry toured the Pervomaisk ICBM site in Ukraine and watched a Ukrainian missile crew conduct a training exercise, according to Reuters and other Western press agencies. Perry viewed SS-24 ICBMs that have had their warheads removed. According to Ukrainian officials warheads have been removed from 30 of the 46 SS-24 ICBMs in Ukraine. The New York Times reports on 23 March that Perry had asserted that difficulties concerning the delivery of Russian nuclear reactor fuel to Ukraine would be resolved within a week to ten days. ITAR-TASS reported on 22 March that the nuclear fuel shipments are being delayed while a comprehensive document governing the implementation of the trilateral agreement is being drawn up in the Russian council of ministers. Nuclear fuel cannot be transferred to Ukraine until the document is signed, but ITAR-TASS's sources could not say when that would occur. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE TO JOIN EUROPEAN UNION. An agreement on partnership and cooperation between Ukraine and the European Union has been prepared and is expected to be signed in Brussels by Ukraine's foreign minister Anatolii Zlenko on 23 March, Interfax reported on 22 March. According to deputy foreign minister, Oleksander Makarenko, the agreement would remove virtually all trade restrictions by the EU on Ukraine, with the exception of products from the textile and metallurgy industries, and nuclear components. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. GOVERNMENT REORGANIZATION AND PRESIDENTIAL NEWS FROM BELARUS. On 22 March Interfax reported that Premier Vyacheslau Kebich has abolished a number of ministries and departments in the Belarusian government. At the same time several state committees were transformed into ministries. These included: the committee on foreign trade; economics and planning; environmental protection; state property and privatization. In addition, the government staff is to be cut by 12% by 20 May, and the regional executive committees and city executive in Minsk are to be cut by 10%. In other news, Interfax reported that the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Mechyslau Hryb, has said that he was unsure of whether he would run in the coming presidential elections. In the meantime, Henadz Kazlau, the coordinator of parliament's largest faction, the conservative "Belarus," has said that the faction is planning to bring a motion before parliament that presidential candidates provide a certificate of health. The measure is meant to avert any speculation about the future president's condition including his mental faculties. Kazlau also proposes that candidates declare their income to avoid any accusations of abusing the office for financial gains if elected. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIA, RUSSIA INITIAL AGREEMENT ON BORDER CROSSINGS. On 22 March, after two days of talks in Moscow, Lithuanian and Russian negotiators initialed an agreement on border crossings, Radio Lithuania reports. Lithuania presented a list of debts to enterprises not paid by the withdrawn Russian troops and urged Russia to ratify the most favored trade status agreement signed in November 1993. In Vilnius, Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius told Russian Baltic Fleet commander Admiral Vladimir Egorov and Kaliningrad Oblast administrator Yurii Matochkin that the arrest of the head of the company building apartments for Russian troops in Kaliningrad would not affect construction. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIANS CONVICTED IN EUROPE-WIDE DRUG RING. On 22 March, after a three-month trial, a Latvian court convicted Ilmars Penke, former director of the state-owned Latvbiofarm, his deputy Vyacheslav Kukikov, and Central Laboratory chief Janis Osis and pronounced prison sentences ranging from 7 1/2 to 3 years with confiscation of property, Diena reports. The three had been arrested in December 1992 after German police in Frankfurt seized 3 tons of amphetamines disguised as flu medicine and having a street value of $18 million. Three people were also arrested in Slovakia for involvement in the drug operation that had sold the drugs in Belgium and the Netherlands as well. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. FIRST RUSSIAN JOINS ESTONIAN PARLIAMENT. On 22 March Social Democratic Party member Sergei Zonov began working as a deputy in the Estonian parliament, BNS reports. Zonov, the first and only Russian in the parliament, replaced Ardo Ojasalu who had to resign after being appointed the head of the country's Tax Department. Zonov said that he would aim his activities in the parliament toward the adoption of laws that would contribute to the integration of Russian-speakers into Estonia's life, stressing the need for the rapid withdrawal of Russian troops to ease potential tensions. He said that he was ready to work closely with Estonia's Russian-speakers' organizations, but stressed he would not be manipulated by them. He said that he knew people in all the parliament's factions during his previous work in the Estonian Popular Front and the Council of Estonian Citizens. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Stan Markotich The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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