|True heroism consists not in fighting under a flag but in not fighting at all. - Freidrich Nietzsche|
No. 54, 18 March 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIA READY TO JOIN NATO PARTNERSHIP? Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev indicated to US Defense Secretary William Perry on 17 March that Russia is prepared to join NATO's Partnership for Peace Program by the end of this month, Western newspapers reported. Moscow, which has see-sawed on the issue, apparently first informed NATO of its latest intentions through diplomatic channels, NATO officials told Reuters on 16 March. In Moscow, remarks by Grachev to the effect that Russia would soon announce its "basic conditions" for joining the partnership were reported to have alarmed Czech and Ukrainian officials, who oppose giving Russia any sort of "special status." Russia has insisted increasingly of late that it be recognized as the region's dominant power. The Washington Post reported that opposition to the partnership had already been voiced in the Russian parliament, with former ambassador to the US Vladimir Lukin comparing it to a "rape" of Russia. Russian Defense and Foreign Ministry officials were said to have supported the program, however, suggesting that NATO was likely to expand in any event and that participation by Russia was one way to insure that Moscow continued to influence developments. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. CHERNOMYRDIN ON PAYMENTS ARREARS PROBLEM. In his report to the Federation Council on 17 March, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin set out the scale of the payments arrears crisis and outlined his proposals for resolving the problem, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. At 1 March, the credit indebtedness of enterprises was 25 trillion and the debit indebtedness 32 trillion rubles [in the context of a 1994 GDP projected at some 740 trillion rubles]. Arrears in wage payments amounted to 2 trillion and delayed payments to the state budget totaled 3 trillion rubles. Chernomyrdin promised not to take the "easy" way out by issuing soft credits and by netting out debts. The state debt would be met by granting promissory notes and by tax reductions for the creditor enterprises. Controls would be tightened on bank accounts and the implementation of bankruptcy procedures expedited. The upper house did not pass any resolution on the prime minister's proposals. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. CHERNOMYRDIN ON 1994 BUDGET. The prime minister also elaborated on the draft consolidated budget for 1994. He repeated the claim that the projected deficit, at 62.4 trillion rubles or less than 9% of GDP, was within the approved guidelines although, as the Financial Times of 17 March pointed out, if IMF methodology is used, the deficit is closer to 16-17% of GDP. To boost revenues, Chernomyrdin vowed to crack down on tax evasion and to restore the state monopoly of the production and marketing of alcoholic beverages. As revenues built up, the state would start to pay off its arrears from 1993 and from the current quarter [4.7 trillion rubles], with priority being given to the agricultural sector, the coal industry, and to the military-industrial complex. As if to illustrate the pressures on government spending plans, on the same day Defense Minister Grachev expressed hope that his budget will be increased, and the chairman of Rosugol announced that state subsidies to the coal industry had been raised by 2 trillion to 7.6 trillion rubles. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. ACTING PROSECUTOR GENERAL WANTS TO REVERSE AMNESTY. Russia's new acting Prosecutor-General, Aleksei Ilyushenko, said he hoped it would be possible to reverse the amnesty of the 1991 coup leaders and of the organizers of the October 1993 disturbances passed by the State Duma last month. Ilyushenko made his comment in the latest issue of Moscow News. The official said he hoped the Constitutional Court would take another look at the amnesty. Ilyushenko added that if the court rules the amnesty illegal, proceedings would be reopened against the organizers of the October 1993 disturbances. However, the court is not functioning at present, pending the adoption of a new law defining its rights. Ilyushenko took over as prosecutor general from Aleksei Kazannik who resigned in disagreement with Yeltsin's administration over the amnesty. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. DEMONSTRATION IN MOSCOW TO MARK MARCH 1991 REFERENDUM. Thousands of people demonstrated in the center of Moscow on 17 March to mark the anniversary of the referendum on the preservation of the USSR held on this day in 1991, Russian Television reported. (The majority of participants in the referendum voted for the preservation of the Soviet Union.) The demonstrators demanded the recreation of the USSR, arguing that leaders of the former Union republics who proclaimed independence had violated the will of the people. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. FORCED REMOVAL OF ELECTED MAYOR IN VLADIVOSTOK. The lead story of Russian TV newscasts virtually all day on 17 March was the removal of the popularly-elected mayor of Vladivostok by the police, acting on behalf of the Primorsky Krai administration, whose head is a Yeltsin appointee. The mayor, Viktor Cherepkov, had been charged with corruption. However, many liberal journalists in Moscow believe the charge to have been fabricated. The newscasts broadcast footage of rallies in Vladivostok, showing people carrying slogans in defense of Cherepkov, and then cited a local official as claiming that the population applauded Cherepkov's removal. Later that day, the newscasts quoted Sergei Filatov, Yeltsin's chief of staff, as calling the reports on the rallies "an unjustified kindling of passions." According to the latest reports, the acting Russian Prosecutor-General Aleksei Ilyushenko, has taken the case against Cherepkov out of the hands of local officials and assigned one of his senior investigators to deal with it. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. LEADERS OF ACCORD FOR RUSSIA HOLD PRESS CONFERENCE. Leaders of the new opposition movement, Accord for Russia, held a press conference in Moscow on 17 March, saying the movement intended to become an alliance of Russians angered by the government's economic policy. Every major opposition party, including the Russian Communist Party and the People's Party of Free Russia, but not Vladimir Zhirinovsky's Liberal Democrats, has joined the new movement, Interfax reported. Former Vice President Aleksandr Rutksoi has also added his name to the list of the movement's leaders. The communist leader, Gennadii Zyuganov, said Zhirinovsky would have to drop his expansionist program if he wanted to join. Another leader of the movement, former Constitutional Court chairman, Valerii Zorkin, said that Accord for Russia was not an alternative to the accord charter initiated by President Yeltsin earlier this month. Zorkin said the new movement was consistent with Yeltsin's call for civic peace and closer cooperation between the parliament and the executive branch. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV TO KALININGRAD; ON MILITARY BUDGET. Arriving in the Russian Baltic enclave on 17 March to begin a three-day inspection tour, Grachev announced Moscow's intention to create a special defense area in Western Kaliningrad that will be based on units from the Baltic Fleet and the 11th Guards Army stationed there. ITAR-TASS quoted Grachev as saying that "the mobile grouping to be formed here is designed to ensure reliable protection of this territory against military threats from both sea and land." Estimates of the number of Russian military personnel in the oblast generally start at 100,000. Grachev, who promised that there would be no sweeping reductions in the officer corps, also suggested that consultations with Prime Minister Chernomyrdin and First Vice Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets had convinced him that Russia's military budget might still be increased. On 16 March Grachev had sharply criticized the defense allocations in the draft 1994 state budget. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. ...ON DRAFT AND STAFFING LEVELS. Krasnaya zvezda on 17 March reported Grachev as saying that the military leadership now wanted to fix the size of the Russian armed forces at 1.9 million men and women. That figure would appear to be a compromise; Russia's Law on Defense had originally mandated an army of approximately 1.5 million, but in the aftermath of last year's October events Grachev had insisted that the statutory strength of the army should be set at over two million. Grachev also said that the latest military conscription plan (presumably from the fall of 1993) has now been 88% fulfilled, and that by the end of March it was hoped that that figure could be raised to 95%. Finally, Grachev suggested that one means of raising funding to augment state defense allocations would be for the Defense Ministry to increase the sale of surplus military hardware. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. PLUTONIUM REACTOR SHUTDOWN AGREED. Western press agencies reported on 17 March that the US and Russia have reached an agreement on the cessation of weapons-grade plutonium production. Despite plans to dismantle over 10,000 warheads, Russia has continued to run three plutonium production reactors in Siberia because they also provide heat to neighboring towns. Under the agreement, signed by the heads of the US Department of Energy and the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy, the US will help Russia to find financing for replacement heating plants, although it appears the US may not fund them directly. The reactors will remain in operation, and plutonium from them will continue to be reprocessed, until the replacement heating plants are ready, probably several years hence. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA KAZAKHSTAN ELECTION RESULTS. Final results of the 7 March parliamentary election have been issued in Kazakhstan, ITAR-TASS reported on 17 March. Of the 176 deputies elected, 105 are Kazakhs and 49 are Russians. The remainder are Ukrainians (10), Germans (3), Jews (3), and one Uzbek, one Tatar, one Ingush, one Korean, one Pole and one Uigur. Before the election, spokesmen for Russian groups in Kazakhstan warned that the country's Russian population would be greatly underrepresented in the new parliament. As the official results indicate, 28% of the deputies are Russians, while their share of the population is estimated at about 38%. The Kazakhs, with 42% of the population, have 60% of the seats in the legislature. These results are likely to fuel further interethnic tensions. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. TALKS BETWEEN TAJIK GOVERNMENT AND OPPOSITION DEFERRED. According to the 17 March issue of Izvestiya, talks scheduled to open in Moscow on 16 March between representatives of Tajikistan's government and opposition on have been put off indefinitely. Russian authorities are trying not only to get the two sides in the ongoing conflict in Tajikistan to talk to each other, but are pressing for elections in which the opposition would participate, the article reports. Tajikistan's head of state Imomali Rakhmonov and the present government are said not to be too interested in elections because they would almost certainly lose, as would the opposition, in the view of the Izvestiya correspondent. Winners of a free election would likely be members of the Leninabad clan that ran Tajikistan for decades under Soviet rule. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATS AND MUSLIMS TO SIGN BOSNIAN AGREEMENT. On 18 March Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and his Bosnian counterpart Alija Izetbegovic are slated to endorse a new Bosnian federal constitution in Washington at a ceremony hosted by US President Bill Clinton. International media note that the document sets up a Swiss-style cantonal system with traditionally Yugoslav shared powers and rotating offices. Newsday points out, however, that borders have been the stumbling block to peace in the past, and that no map of the new cantons has apparently been produced. The paper also notes that critics charge that the new arrangement "rewards aggression," since it concedes some of the Bosnian Serbs conquests to them. The Serbs are not part of the agreement, although they were invited to the ceremony. Vjesnik says that the next step on the Americans' agenda is to include them in the constitutional process. The Serbs, however, are interested in links to Serbia, not to the Croats and Muslims. It is also unlikely that Washington will meet one of their preconditions for talks, namely the lifting of sanctions against rump Yugoslavia. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SERBS AND MUSLIMS SIGN "LIMITED MOVEMENT" AGREEMENT FOR SARAJEVO. The New York Times reports on 18 March that the two warring parties agreed the previous day to allow four access routes into Sarajevo. One Bosnian officer said "we won't have to go underground like rats anymore," in a reference to the tunnel under the airport runway that has been the city's main route to the outside world. A UN official added: "we've persuaded the three armies that they're not going to make any more gains militarily. The people don't want any more war. And the leaders have run out of people for their armies, and their economies are in ruins. They've reached the culminating point." It remains to be seen, however, whether the Serbs will really give up on their aims of partitioning Sarajevo and eliminating it as a symbol of harmonious multi-cultural life. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BELGRADE'S B 92 BROADCASTS. According to RFE/RL's Belgrade corespondent, Radio B 92 is managing to continue its broadcasts, despite being denied a license by government authorities. The independent station, which is critical of government policy and which never has been licensed, has found the means to stay operational for roughly five years by availing itself of other stations' frequencies. Problems with licensing and obtaining access to some frequencies has in the past temporarily forced the station off air. In other news, on 18 March both Borba and Politika report that economic problems continue to be the most daunting faced by Serbia's legislators. Borba observes that former Serbian Premier Nikola Sainovic has been involved with assisting federal authorities implement plans designed to lead to economic recovery. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. GERMANY SUPPORTS MACEDONIA. German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel stated on 17 March that he agreed with the Republic of Macedonia's refusal to enter negotiations with Greece until Greece lifts the trade blockade it imposed in February. The statement came after Kinkel met with Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov in Bonn that same day, Reuters reports. Gligorov noted that one cannot negotiate "with a rope around one's neck." At the same time, Kinkel expressed the hope that Macedonia document that it has no territorial aspirations regarding Greece. Macedonia amended its constitution in this regard in 1992; however, Athens seeks further changes. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. WHITE COLLAR CRIME IN MACEDONIA. In a news conference on 17 March, Minister of Internal Affairs Ljubomir Frckovski revealed that his deputy, Pavle Trajanov, uncovered substantial evidence of organized crime in Macedonia, involving highly placed people, according to Vecer. Frckovski said that criminal charges will be brought against all those implicated, no matter what their rank. He noted that companies in a neighboring country unsuccessfully sought to establish a money laundering scheme in Macedonia. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PARLIAMENT SETS DATE FOR EARLY ELECTIONS. The National Council of the Slovak Republic called early parliamentary elections for 30 September and 1 October, TASR reported on 17 March. All 149 deputies present at the session, including former Premier Vladimir Meciar, voted for those dates after three other proposals for earlier dates were turned down. It is expected that a new election law will be adopted sometime later this year. Controversy over the election dates was among the reasons for the downfall of Meciar's government; while his Movement for a Democratic Slovakia wanted elections in June, opposition parties argued that they needed more time to prepare their campaigns and blocked the plan. Slovak National Party Chairman Jan Slota, an opposition member, said his party had to support that date since the president had prevented Meciar's referendum from taking place. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc. MORAVCIK OUTLINES HIS GOVERNMENT'S POLICY... On 17 March new Slovak Premier Jozef Moravcik outlined his policy in a short speech to the parliament, Slovak TV reported. He said that the overriding goal must be to restore public confidence in the state by introducing order into public affairs and increasing the public's feelings of security. He added that improvements in the legal system will help to bring about these changes. Moravcik also announced that his government will reemphasize the privatization process and place individual responsibility for social welfare above state intervention. As for Slovakia's foreign policy, Moravcik stressed that his government will continue to move toward integration into Western European structures. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc. ...BRINGING A POSITIVE RESPONSE FROM HUNGARY. Hungarian radio reported a statement by the Hungarian Foreign Ministry on 17 March in which Hungary welcomed Moravcik's address. The Foreign Ministry's statement especially appreciated Moravcik's point that "everybody who was born in Slovakia and considers Slovakia his homeland is a loyal citizen of the state" and that "the government will protect his freedom and democratic rights, including the right to criticize the government." Another point which was welcomed by Hungary was that the new Slovak government aims to "accentuate our interest in good neighborly relations with the neighbors of Slovakia." Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAKIA TO IMPROVE RELATIONS WITH ITS NEIGHBORS. New Foreign Minister Eduard Kukan said at a press conference on 17 March that he will increase efforts to boost relations with Slovakia's immediate neighbors, TASR reported. In the presence of Hungarian Ambassador to Slovakia Jeno Boros, Kukan said that he will seek a dialogue with Hungary to improve bilateral relations, saying that cooperation with Slovakia's southern neighbor is crucial because of the large Hungarian minority in Slovakia. Concerning Czech-Slovak relations, Kukan said that his country's relations with the Czech Republic are good but "could be better" and that an improvement could be achieved by completing the division of former Czechoslovak property. Kukan also stressed that good relations with Russia, Ukraine and other eastern countries are important and said that he plans "no conceptual changes" in Slovakia's foreign policy. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW SLOVAK GOVERNMENT FIRES POLICE DIRECTOR. One of the first decisions of the new Slovak government was the dismissal of Slovak Police Director Frantisek Krajca, TASR reported on 16 March. Krajca was ousted for the inactivity of the police during a pro-Meciar demonstration on 14 March, where four reporters, including three RFE/RL correspondents, were attacked by an angry mob. Although police officers were present, they reportedly refused to help the journalists after they were identified as RFE/RL correspondents. Shortly after the incident, TASR quoted outgoing Interior Ministry spokesman Peter Kuchar as saying that "in doing their job, journalists must consider the risks and act accordingly." Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc. SEJM SET TO VOTE ON NEW WAGE CONTROLS BILL. The Polish government's bill on wage structuring and funding in some 6,000 enterprises, in which the state owns not less than 80% of the shares, received its second reading in the Sejm on 17 March. The bill provides three options for wage structuring in enterprises whose finances are in order and one for those enterprises which still lack a realistic reform plan. Enterprises that exceed the permitted wage growth ceilings will be penalized to the tune of 150% of the excess amount. PAP reports that the opposition Democratic Union is likely to join the government coalition parties in voting for the bill, which would secure its passage in voting on 18 March. Meanwhile, the Solidarity union is continuing its nationwide strikes begun last week, and pickets demonstrated outside the Sejm on 17 March against the government's economic policies. Solidarity Chairman Marian Krzaklewski is due to meet with Premier Waldemar Pawlak later today. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. WALESA WANTS LOCAL GOVERNMENT ELECTIONS DELAYED. President Lech Walesa's Council on Local Government proposed on 16 March that the term of office of the local government authorities, which expires at the end of May, be extended, pending legislative proposals to be submitted by the president, PAP reports. The council, which is only an advisory body with no anchorage in law, argued that the visible trend toward recentralization in Poland would leave local government authorities at the mercy of the central administration, and that the president's proposals would "tidy up" the affairs of local government. Although there is objectively much scope for improvement in matters of local government financing, its territorial organization, and its sphere of jurisdiction, some observers suspect that postponing the elections would be in Walesa's interest insofar as he would be in a better position to promote his own chances of reelection as president while the parties are tied up with local government election campaigns. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN PRAGUE. Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko and other Ukrainian officials met with Czech officials in Prague on 17 March to discuss bilateral relations and sign agreements on economic cooperation. After his meeting with Zlenko, Czech Premier Vaclav Klaus told journalists that the Czech Republic is ready to meet Zlenko's request to send economic experts to Ukraine after the new government "has settled in following the upcoming Ukrainian elections." Klaus said Prague is "very much interested in economic cooperation with Ukraine." During a meeting between Zlenko and Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec, both ministers rejected the idea that Russia should be given special status when it joins NATO's Partnership for Peace program. Zlenko argued that nobody deserves special rights within the program. Zieleniec said the program does not need changing. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN AND ESTONIAN PRESIDENTS ON RIGHTS OF DOMESTIC RUSSIANS. At a news conference on 17 March at the end of Estonian President Lennart Meri's visit to Kiev, he and his Ukrainian counterpart, Leonid Kravchuk, were asked about Russia's claim to a right to defend Russians living beyond its borders, Ukrainian TV reported. Meri commented "that the question of human rights is being used by some Russian politicians in a very cynical form as a political form of pressure." He said he hoped that Russian politicians "for whom human rights are so important will find time to work on these rights in Russia itself." For his part, Kravchuk said he did not think that there were any grounds for being concerned about the rights of Russians in Ukraine; they account for 22.4% of the population, but 43% of the country's schools teach in Russian, and "there are more Russians in the army than Ukrainians." Meanwhile, the 600,000 Ukrainians living in Crimea (the only region of Ukraine where Russians are a majority) have one school and not a single Ukrainian-language newspaper. Both presidents agreed that the issue of dual citizenship was being exploited for political purposes. Kravchuk also warned the Crimean president not to take the road to "confrontation" by insisting on a holding a consultative referendum on the peninsula's status on 27 March. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. FIRE AT UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR POWER PLANT. On 16 March a fire broke out at the Khmelnytsky nuclear power plant 300 kilometers west of Kiev, Ukrainian radio and Reuters reported on 17 March. The fire was the latest in a series of incidents at Ukraine's five nuclear power stations that supply approximately 40% of the country's energy. Last week a fire broke out at the Zaporizhzhya plant, the largest nuclear power station in Europe. In addition, two fires were reported last year at Chornobyl. The Chornobyl plant is still functioning following the parliament's decision to keep the plant running because of the country's energy crisis. No increase in radiation was reported as a result of this latest incident, but the reactor had to be shut down. The chief engineer at the power plant, Oleksander Ishchenko, said he hoped the reactor could be restarted in a few days. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA TO PHASE OUT URANIUM PRODUCTION. On 17 March BTA reported that the Bulgarian government announced that the nation's uranium production will be gradually phased out by 1996. According to the report, the first uranium mine will close on 1 June 1994, while the production of uranium concentrate will be stopped in 1996. Reuters adds that Bulgarian officials have acknowledged that the cost of producing a single kilogram of uranium concentrate in Bulgaria exceeds world prices by a factor of roughly four. Bulgaria supplied the Soviet Union with uranium for its first atomic bomb. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN OPPOSITION DEMANDS PROBE ON DEFENSE MINISTER. The opposition Democratic Party-National Salvation Front on 17 March demanded an investigation into press reports that the newly appointed Defense Minister Gheorghe Tinca had ties with the communist political police Securitate. Reuters quoted DPNSF Vice-president Adrian Severin as saying that his party had urged parliament's defense and security commissions to investigate the case. Tinca, who was appointed minister in a cabinet reshuffle on 6 March, had been a career diplomat under Nicolae Ceausescu. In a separate development, on 17 March Tinca and Ukrainian Defense Minister Vitalii Radetsky signed in Bucharest a military cooperation agreement between the two countries. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIA ARRESTS FORMER KGB CHIEF. On 16 March Latvian police arrested Alfons Noviks, who headed the prewar republic's Interior Ministry and later served as KGB chief until 1956, on charges of orchestrating mass-scale tortures, executions, and deportations after World War II, Reuters reported on 17 March. Prosecutor-General Uldis Strelis, who formally filed the charges last year, said that if found guilty, the 86-year-old Noviks would face a prison term ranging from 3 to 15 years. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUSIAN DISARMAMENT. Izvestiya reported on 17 March that the removal of nuclear weapons from Belarus is proceeding apace. Two divisions encompassing eight regiments of strategic rocket forces were located at the Lida and Mozyr bases in Belarus guarding the country's SS-25 missiles. The first of these regiments was removed to Russia during the summer of 1993. Four more regiments will leave the republic in 1994, and the remainder will be relocated in 1995. By the middle of 1996 the Lida and Mozyr units will no longer have any functions in Belarus. At that time Belarus will be the first of the former Soviet republics which inherited nuclear weapons to be nuclear-free. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUSIAN FOREIGN CURRENCY DECREE. The chairman of the National Bank of Belarus, Stanislau Bahdankevich, criticized the government for its measures to raise cash to pay off the country's energy debt. Last week the parliamentary budget commission presented the parliament with a proposal to requisition all hard currency earnings from company accounts for March as well as 20% of all other currency holdings. The proposal sent the Belarusian rubel plummeting against the dollar; on 16 March the rubel was trading at 13,000 to the dollar, while it had stood at 8,000 to the dollar just the week before. This prompted the government to issue a decree closing the Belarusian currency exchange until 1 April in an attempt to stem the slide of the Belarusian rubel. The rubel devaluation has also been attributed to parliament's decision to allocate 2,800 billion rubels ($270 million) of credit to the farm sector. Bahdankevich personally repealed the order to turn over foreign currency earnings to the government and said trading on the Minsk currency exchange should resume on 17 March, Interfax reported on 16 March. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ann Sheehy and Sharon Fisher (END) The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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