|One must learn by doing the thing; though you think you know it, you have no certainty until you try. - Sophocles|
No. 46, 8 March 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN SUBMITS LIST OF PROPOSED BILLS TO DUMA. President Boris Yeltsin has sent the State Duma a list of the bills that he plans to submit for parliamentary consideration during the course of 1994. ITAR-TASS reported on 6 March that these would include draft civil and criminal codes and new laws on land and banking. Other draft laws planned will cover the state administration in Russia's regions and republics and the general principles of local government. Presidential aide Georgii Satarov told Interfax that Yeltsin will submit 50 draft laws in all to the Duma. Satarov predicted that a planned law on political parties will prove the most controversial. He said that the large number of parties in Russia today is a "destabilizing factor" and that Yeltsin's legislation will seek to reduce the number. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. POSTPONEMENT OF LOCAL ELECTIONS EXPECTED. Within the next few days President Yeltsin will sign a decree extending the deadline for holding local government elections from April until June, Ekho Moskvy reported on 6 March. The head of Yeltsin's administration, Sergei Filatov, was quoted as saying the reason for the extension was that the necessary legislative framework is not yet in place. Russia's new constitution is vague on the subject, as were the decrees on local government that Yeltsin issued last year. In fact, some regions have not waited for Yeltsin's decree: Krasnodar Krai has already announced that it will hold its elections on 12 June (Rossiiskie vesti, 11 February) and other regions are likely to follow suit. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN CREATES NEW INFORMATION DEPARTMENT. President Yeltsin issued a decree on 4 March setting up a new presidential information department, Russian and Western agencies reported that day. The decree says the department is to provide the public in Russia and abroad with "objective information on Russian government policy." Petr Filippov, who formerly headed the analytical center attached to Yeltsin's administration, is to head the new body. The move seems to be part of an ongoing reorganization of the presidential apparatus aimed at expanding Yeltsin's policy-making powers and his control over the government. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT SEEKS WAYS TO PAY MINERS. The Russian government is trying to find the money to pay overdue wages to workers in the coalmining, engineering, gas and oil industries, RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent reported on 7 March. The government is anxious to ward off a wave of strikes threatened in these industries at the end of March. Yeltsin told a cabinet meeting on 4 March that coalminers must be paid as a matter of urgency, but the presidential press service told RFE/RL's correspondent that no resolution of the problem of where the money was to come from had yet been found. Meanwhile, miners in Vorkuta remain on strike. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. MEDIA QUESTIONS APPOINTMENT OF NEW PROSECUTOR-GENERAL. Russian newspapers of different political persuasions--Sovetskaya Rossiya (26 February), Nezavisimaya gazeta (4 March) and Kommersant-Daily (5 March) have published articles casting doubts on the integrity of Aleksei Ilyushenko, the newly appointed Acting Russian Prosecutor-General. In his capacity as chairman of the presidential Commission for Combating Crime and Corruption, Ilyushenko made highly publicized accusations against Yeltsin's opponents, including former vice-president Aleksandr Rutskoi, of corruption and other grave crimes. In January 1994 the Moscow prosecutor dismissed a corruption charge against Rutskoi that had been raised by the commission; the prosecutor's office raised a countercharge against Ilyushenko and others of having slandered Rutskoi. The recent articles questioned the wisdom of appointing Ilyushenko to a post in which he will be supervising the case against himself. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN'S WOMEN'S DAY SPEECH CALLS FOR STRONGER RUSSIA. In his women's day speech broadcast on Russian TV on 7 March, President Yeltsin called, among other things, for strengthening Russia and putting an end to political intolerance dividing the nation. He said all political opponents must remember that they share a common ground and called for more consensus in the coming year. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. MONTHLY INFLATION RATE DOWN. The government's Center for Market Research told Interfax on 5 March that consumer prices in February rose by 9.9%, after a 22% increase in January. This will be welcomed by a government that has pledged to reduce the annual inflation rate to some 400% in 1994, from about 940% in 1993. However, inflationary pressures are already building up. The expanded cabinet meeting on 4 March adopted a draft budget for 1994 which envisages, inter alia, the repayment of debts in March to the agricultural sector, the defense industry, and to budget organizations, Interfax reported on 4 March. These claimants are thought to account for all or most of the nearly 8 trillion rubles in government liabilities transferred from the last quarter of 1993 to the first quarter of 1994. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS GAS TRADE UPDATE. A Gazprom official told Interfax on 7 March that Russia will maintain its reduced daily flow of 40 million cubic meters of natural gas to Ukraine at least until 10 March, when negotiations over Ukraine's arrears will resume. The same official charged that Ukraine was siphoning off a further 40 million cubic meters of gas a day from supplies destined for Western Europe along a pipeline running through Ukrainian territory. According to Reuters of 5 March, Russian gas supplies to Belarus were being kept at 40 million cubic meters a day, down from 52 million before the restrictions were applied, as Belarus had initiated payment of some of its outstanding debt. Moldova would continue to receive 11 million cubic meters a day, because it had started to pay off its arrears to Russia in kind--mostly with agricultural products. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIANS GRUMBLE ABOUT UKRAINIAN TROOPS IN CRIMEA. In an alarmist article published in the Russian military newspaper Krasnaya zvezda on 1 March, the disposition of Ukrainian troops in Crimea is detailed. According to the two authors, Ukraine has been strengthening its military presence in Crimea, especially with units comprised of troops recruited from Western Ukraine that are intended for internal security missions. The implication of the article is that Ukraine is preparing for an armed crackdown in Crimea, and it warns that the situation is explosive and might be detonated by Ukrainian or Tatar extremists. The article follows calls by the pro-Russian Crimean president Yurii Meshkov, for the removal of all Ukrainian troops from the peninsula, although the Black Sea Fleet would remain. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. BLACK SEA FLEET STATUS UNCERTAIN AGAIN. In response to calls for the pullout of Ukrainian troops from Crimea, a report from Interfax on 5 March cited a "Black Sea Fleet officer" as stating that the fleet would be able to ensure Crimea's security in the event of such a withdrawal. This assertion is unlikely to reassure Kiev concerning the Fleet's neutrality or Crimea's security. On a related theme, Ukrainian Navy commander Volodymyr Bezkorovainy told Interfax on 28 February that an independent naval base should be created at Sevastopol; presumably it would host both the Fleet and the Ukrainian Navy. According to the New York Times of 8 March, Bezkorovainy has also argued that the Massandra agreement specifying that Ukraine cede its share of the Fleet to Russia in exchange for debt relief is no longer valid. He implied that the earlier plan to divide the fleet in half was the current basis for discussion. There appears to have been no movement on this issue in recent months, despite reports of deteriorating conditions in the fleet and increasing tensions in Crimea as a whole. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA SHEVARDNADZE IN WASHINGTON. Following a meeting on 7 March at the White House with Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze, US President Bill Clinton told reporters that he endorsed the proposal to dispatch a UN peacekeeping force to Abkhazia on condition that substantial progress is made towards a political settlement of the Abkhaz conflict, Western agencies reported. The proposed peacekeeping force would include only a limited Russian contingent, and no US troops. The deadlocked UN-sponsored negotiations on conditions for the return of Georgian refugees to Abkhazia and the region's future political status are due to resume in New York on 8 March. President Clinton also announced that the US would provide Georgia $70 million in humanitarian aid for 1994 in order to avert what Shevardnadze termed the danger of famine. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. ELECTION IN KAZAKHSTAN. Despite reports of widespread voter apathy, 73.8% of the electorate turned out for the 7 March parliamentary election in Kazakhstan, according to the national Election Commission, RFE/RL has learned. Despite bad weather in parts of the country, the commission reported that every oblast achieved a voting rate higher than the 50% turnout needed to validate the election. The AFP reported that some of the foreign observers monitoring the voting expressed concern about apparent irregularities and in one village near Almaty election officials admitted having violated the election law by allowing one person to vote for all members of his family. Preliminary results are expected on 10 March and the official outcome of the election is to be published on 14 March. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. TAJIK OPPOSITION LEADER CONFIRMS WILLINGNESS TO NEGOTIATE. The former chief Muslim clergyman of Tajikistan, Supreme Judge (kazi) Akbar Turadzhonzoda, has confirmed earlier reports that the Tajik opposition in exile is willing to negotiate with representatives of the Tajik government in order to end the fighting between government troops and opposition forces based in Afghanistan and inside Tajikistan itself, Interfax reported on 7 March. The opposition agreement was obtained by Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Anatolii Adamishin during a meeting with Tajik opposition leaders in Tehran. Moscow has been offered as a venue for the talks, and the Russian government has promised to ensure the safety of the exile participants. Turadzhonzoda was quoted as saying that he had requested observers from the UN, Russia, Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan at the talks, which Adamishin suggested could begin on 16 March. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATS AND MUSLIMS MOVE TOWARDS PEACE . . . On 8 March international media report that both the Bosnian Muslim and Croatian sides continued to pull back their heavy weapons throughout central Bosnia on 7 March. Meanwhile, on 7 March, AFP reported that Croatian President Franjo Tudjman announced that Croatian voters should decide on the fate of a confederation between Croatia and a federal Bosnian Muslim and Croatian state by referendum; he also said that even if voters approve the confederation no agreement will be signed until the status of the Bosnian Serbs is defined. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . WHILE SERBS BREAK CALM IN MAGLAJ. Despite the relative calm throughout Bosnia, Borba on 8 March reports that Serbian shells pounded the Muslim city Maglaj. Western agencies note that the Serbian side, acting in violation of a Muslim-Serb ceasefire, has caused at least four deaths. Also, on 8 March Politika reports that UN troops have established control over the airport near the Muslim-controlled town of Tuzla. Reuters adds that 120 peacekeepers arrived to take control of the airport from Muslim forces, and that preparations are being made to re-open the airstrip to humanitarian aid shipments. International agencies report that several countries, including Britain, France, and the Nordic states may be leaning towards increasing their peacekeeping contingents in Bosnia in order to help monitor the Sarajevo ceasefire and assist with aid efforts. On 7 March Hurriyet reports that Ankara has also said that 5,000 Turkish soldiers can be readied for service in about two weeks if called by the UN and ordered by the Turkish government; however, the Bosnian Serb side has objected to the presence of a Turkish contingent, arguing that it would be too pro-Muslim. Stan Markotich and Yalcin Tokgozoglu, RFE/RL, Inc. TUDJMAN SAYS SERBS MUST GIVE UP KRAJINA. On 7 March Tanjug reported that Croatian President Franjo Tudjman publicly reiterated his position that Serb rebels will have to give up control of Krajina, an area consisting of about one third of Croatia's territory. Zagreb's official position has been that Krajina is an integral part of Croatia, and Tudjman's statement broke no new policy ground. However, the president did emphasize that an overall normalization in Croatian-Serb relations remained impossible as long as Krajina was outside of Zagreb's jurisdiction. In addition, Western reports on 7 March stated that renewed fighting has flared between Croat and Serb forces in northwest Krajina. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. SOFIA ASKS SERBIA TO RETURN DANUBE CONVOY. On 7 March Bulgaria requested that Serbian authorities return a convoy which on the previous day breached UN sanctions against rump Yugoslavia, presumably carrying 6,000 tons of fuel oil. Quoting a foreign ministry statement, AFP said Sofia demanded that Serbia hand back the Bulgarian convoy and asked for the arrest of the "presumed terrorists" who refused to respect the embargo. Bulgarian customs officials said they saw armed men pointing guns at the tugboat crew, but indicated that the scene could have been posed. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. BREAK-THROUGH IN GREEK-MACEDONIAN STALEMATE? Greek Premier Andreas Papandreou may be ready to discuss resolving Greece's running dispute with the Republic of Macedonia, Greek television station ET-1 and MIC reported on 5 and 8 March, respectively. Under a draft plan, special UN mediator Cyrus Vance will be charged with preparing an agreement which would include the lifting of the Greek trade blockade, easing trade restrictions on Macedonia's use of the Greek port of Thessaloniki, and halting the obstruction of Macedonia's admission to international organizations like the CSCE. For its part, Macedonia would change its flag, guarantee borders, and alter its constitution. The question of what to call the new republic officially would be arbitrated by an international body. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW FINANCE MINISTER FOR POLAND? The Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) on 7 March officially proposed Dariusz Rosati, a professor at Warsaw's Main School of Commerce, as its candidate for finance minister and deputy prime minister for economic policy, PAP reports. Poland's coalition agreement grants the SLD control over both posts, which have been vacant since the resignation of Marek Borowski on 4 February. Rosati, a 47-year-old former communist party member, was an adviser to Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski in 1989 and now works at the UN. He told Polish TV that, if appointed, his priority will be to promote growth by increasing investment and exports. Rosati still must be formally nominated by the prime minister and named by the president. There has been concern within the SLD that Walesa may refuse to appoint the coalition's nominee in retaliation against the Sejm's rejection of his constitutional proposals. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. SOLIDARITY ORGANIZES STRIKE WAVE. Scattered Polish firms staged protests on 7 March, as Solidarity began an "escalating" strike designed to steadily increase pressure on the government. The union demands an end to wage controls, the rescinding of energy price hikes, and increased social spending. A two-hour strike by steel workers is planned for 8 March; miners and railway workers are to strike on 10 March, PAP reports. Condemning the strikes as "political," officials charged they are designed ultimately to overthrow the government. Premier Waldemar Pawlak criticized Solidarity on 5 March for planning strikes in subsidized industries where wages remain relatively high. Poland's "strike geography does not match the geography of poverty," he said. Much of the opposition shares Pawlak's reservations. Right-wing leader Aleksander Hall told Zycie Warszawy on 8 March that Solidarity's goal is "socialism realized by anticommunists." Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND'S LOT, BRITISH AIRWAYS END CONFLICT. Direct flights between Warsaw and London will be restored on 13 March, PAP reports. The dispute between national carriers LOT and BA that had halted direct air traffic for four months was settled on 4 March. The agreement allows BA to offer several additional flights weekly, provided departures from Warsaw take place after 11:00 a.m. BA initially demanded earlier take-off times, but LOT refused, fearing this traffic would cut into its profitable transatlantic business. Both sides welcomed the agreement. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. CALM RETURNS TO WARSAW EXCHANGE. The Rafako boiler company had an uncontroversial debut on the stock exchange on 7 March, PAP reports. Share value was only 25% higher than the issue price, leading Privatization Minister Wieslaw Kaczmarek to conclude that "the exchange has returned to normal." The previous debut of Bank Slaski caused a government crisis when share values rose 1350% on the first day of trading. The feverish demand for Polish stocks led Kaczmarek to raise Rafako's issue price from 700,000 to 1,200,000 zloty only three days before shares went on sale. Kaczmarek announced that issue prices will no longer be set by the government but instead determined by supply and demand on the exchange. In other business news, the Dutch beer giant Heineken agreed on 3 March to purchase a 24.9% share in Poland's Zywiec brewery for $40 million, PAP reports. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH LEADERS IN THE VATICAN, GREAT BRITAIN. Czech President Vaclav Havel, on a one-day visit to Rome and the Vatican, met with Pope John Paul II and Italian President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro on 7 March. International media report that the Pope urged Havel to use his influence to speed up the restitution of Church and Jewish property in the Czech Republic. The leaders also discussed the situation in the former Yugoslavia. Speaking to reporters after the meeting, Havel said that Western nations have been too slow to integrate the countries of the former Eastern bloc. Havel praised the NATO's Partnership for Peace plan but said it "came two years too late." Havel also said that the Czech Republic wants good relations with Russia but warned that Moscow cannot decide "which international organizations we want to join." Also on 7 March, Czech Premier Vaclav Klaus began a two-day visit of Great Britain by meeting with his British counterpart John Major, who asked Klaus to send peacekeeping troops to Bosnia. Speaking at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Klaus said that Eastern Europe's integration into the world economy is proving to be more difficult than anticipated. Klaus warned that the current unfavorable business cycle and West European protectionism pose a grave threat to the transition of former communist countries into market economies. "While Eastern Europe has been criticized for its nationalism, let me remind you that protectionism is also a form of nationalism," said Klaus. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. DETAILS ON BULGARIAN DEBT DEAL AGREED. A team of Bulgarian negotiators and representatives of some 300 creditor banks and financial institutions on 4 March completed a two-day meeting aimed at reaching a preliminary debt agreement on the country's $9.3 billion commercial debt. Ventsislav Antonov, Director of Bulgaria's Agency for Economic Development and Planning, said on his return from London that the talks were useful in hammering out further details of the tentative deal, which envisages a substantial debt reduction. Antonov told BTA that proposals for the financial side of the agreement are to be made by 10 March, after which the separate creditors will be approached. He also said the deal requires Bulgaria to pay a $10 million monthly interest installment until the deal is concluded and that total payments in 1994 may amount to $800-850 million. Sofia is counting on the IMF and the World Bank to provide fresh credits to cover a substantial part of that sum. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. BOEING SIGNS DEAL WITH ROMANIA. The US Boeing company has signed a deal with Romania worth $11 million, making Romania a manufacturer of spare parts for the world's biggest aircraft manufacturer, Radio Bucharest announced on 4 March. Under the six-year contract, the state-owned Romaero company will produce wing parts and landing gear for Boeing 737 and 757 planes. A spokesman for Romaero said the deal was the first instance of American-Romanian cooperation in airplane manufacturing and will secure jobs for Romanian specialists, as well as grant them access to the most advanced know-how in aeronautics. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVAN-ROMANIAN ACRIMONY. In a statement released on 4 March, Moldova's Foreign Ministry described the Romanian Senate's reaction (see RFE/RL Daily Report, 4 March) to Moldova's parliamentary elections as "insulting and hostile, designed to throw doubt on the election results . . . and in fact attacking the legitimacy of Moldova's statehood." The Moldovan statement noted that the Western observers, who pronounced the election free and equitable, and the West in general were also attacked in the Romanian Senate for allegedly supporting Chisinau, Tiraspol, and "the expansion of bolshevism". The election, held on 27 February, resulted in a heavy defeat for the pro-Romanian parties. Dumitru Motpan, chairman of the Agrarian Party, which won the election, was cited by Basapress on 5 March as saying that future Moldovan-Romanian relations would be "difficult though not impossible." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. UNLAWFUL RUSSIAN CONSCRIPTION IN MOLDOVA. In an interview in Krasnaya Zvezda of 4 March, otherwise highly critical of the current "Dniester" leadership, Lt.-General Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, said that his army has grown to 85% of its statutory number--"a very high level by today's standards" [in Russia's armed forces]. The 14th Army has achieved this result by recruiting soldiers on contract in Russia and locally, Lebed said, with the local recruits coming mostly from among the sons of the nearly 100,000 military veterans from Russia settled in Tiraspol alone. "Local recruits become citizens of the Russian Federation and take both the Russian military oath and a pledge to obey Russian law," Lebed said. The recruitment described by Lebed violates international laws prohibiting conscription of local residents by armies in foreign territories, the introduction of troops by one state into the other without the latter's consent, and the unilateral grant of citizenship by a state to residents of another. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUSIAN PARLIAMENT DELAYS DEBATING CONSTITUTION. The Belarusian parliament has pushed back the debate on the new constitution to 15 March, Belarusian TV reported on 4 March. The motion to delay the debate was put forward after the prosecutor general, Vasil Shaladonau, (who is in charge of the commission drawing up the constitution), told the parliament that some suggestions on amending the constitution had been raised at the last minute and thus, not all of the details have been worked out. The majority of deputies did not believe it was possible to adopt the constitution until it was in its final form and thus rescheduled the debate. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. ILIESCU VISIT TO LITHUANIA. On 7 March Romanian President Ion Iliescu, accompanied by a large delegation that included Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu, Trade Minister Christian Ionescu, and Communications Minister Andrei Chirika, arrived in Vilnius for a two-day visit, Radio Lithuania reports. After being welcomed at the airport by President Algirdas Brazauskas and other Lithuanian ministers, Iliescu went directly to the Antakalnis Cemetery to pay respects to those killed in restoring Lithuania's independence. Iliescu later held talks with Brazauskas and with Seimas chairman Ceslovas Jursenas. On 8 March the Romanians visited Trakai, and the two presidents signed a friendship and cooperation treaty and several other agreements. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. SURVEYS IN BALTIC STATES. The latest public opinion surveys conducted in the Baltic States indicate the extent of the economic difficulties, BNS reported on 7 March. Respondents in Estonia were the most optimistic; 20% were satisfied with the current economic situation, while corresponding numbers in Lithuania and Latvia were 14% and 9%, respectively. A high 47% of Estonians expected the economic situation to improve in the near future, compared with only 33% of Latvians and 23% of Lithuanians. Lithuanians had the lowest level of trust in their president and premier (42% and 27%, respectively), while these figures were 75% and 38% for the Latvian leaders and 57% and 39% for the Estonian leaders. Only 16% of Latvians, 20% of Lithuanians, and 38% of Estonians were satisfied with the work of their parliaments. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. EUROPEAN LEADERS REITERATE CALL FOR RUSSIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL. At a 7 March meeting in Stockholm with their Baltic counterparts, the prime ministers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Iceland once again called for a "rapid, ordered, and complete" withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia and Latvia by 31 August 1994, Western agencies reported. That same day Britain's Foreign Office spokesman expressed his government's concern over the stalled Estonian-Russian talks and stressed that the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltics is essential to Europe's stability. German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel wrote in Die Welt of 5 March that there is no justification for the stationing of foreign troops in another country without that country's permission and said that Germany welcomes Russia's pullout from Lithuania and its readiness to do the same in Estonia and Latvia by 31 August 1994. Meanwhile, in a 5 March meeting, the Estonian cabinet of ministers decided not to suspend participation in the Estonian-Russian talks as a consequence of Moscow's backing away from 31 August 1994 as the date for the complete withdrawal of its troops from Estonia. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN PRESIDENT ANSWERS YELTSIN'S LETTER. Diena reported on 4 March that Latvia's President Guntis Ulmanis transmitted to the Russian ambassador in Riga his reply to the letter sent by Russian President Boris Yeltsin on 21 February. Ulmanis said he was ready to meet with his Russian counterpart to discuss the entire spectrum of problems pertaining to Latvian-Russian relations and pointed out that many draft agreements concerning the pullout of Russian troops from Latvia and the temporary operation of the Skrunda radar could be signed at the next round Latvian-Russian talks, scheduled for 14 March. Ulmanis urged Yeltsin to join the search for mutually acceptable solutions and said that the pullout of Russian troops would create more favorable conditions for bilateral economic and humanitarian cooperation. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Sharon Fisher The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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