Живя с людьми, не забывай того, что ты узнал в уединении. В уединении обдумывай то, что узнал из общения с людьми. - Л.Н.Толстой
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 41, 1 March 1994


RESPONSE TO NO-FLY ENFORCEMENT. Official Moscow's initial
hesitation in responding to NATO's shooting down of four Serbian
aircraft in the no-fly zone in Bosnia early in the morning of 28
February was replaced by studied responses after midday.  Careful
not to blame any one of the three sides, Foreign Minister Andrei
Kozyrev pointed out that Russia had been among the initiators of
the no-fly concept and continued to support both it and its
enforcement.  Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin, eager to
avoid blaming the Serbian side, said he could not understand why
the Bosnian Serbs would have combat aircraft over an area of
Moslem-Croat fighting and that there was "much to be clarified."
The Russian Foreign Ministry's official statement refrained from
discussing the identity of the aircraft and said merely that
"whichever side carried out the military sortie over
Bosnia-Herzegovina, violating the resolutions of the UN Security
Council relating to the no-fly zone, carries full responsibility
for what has happened," Russian agencies reported.  Suzanne Crow,
RFE/RL, Inc.

GRACHEV SUPPORTS NATO ACTION. Addressing reporters in Oslo during
an official visit to Norway, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev on 28
February expressed preliminary support for NATO's action. Grachev
was quoted as saying that "whoever violates the United Nations'
no-fly zone over Bosnia will be punished." Grachev reportedly
suggested, however, that he would reserve final judgment until
completion of a UN investigation into the incident. He again
proposed that additional UN peacekeeping contingents be deployed
in the former Yugoslavia.  During the same press conference,
Grachev said Moscow supported NATO's "Partnership for Peace"
program and was prepared to work with the Atlantic alliance on
the basis of mutual respect.  Grachev was in Oslo to discuss
proposals aimed at widening military cooperation between Russia
and Norway; his remarks were reported by the New York Times News
Service and ITAR-TASS.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

KARADZIC IN MOSCOW.  Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic
traveled to Moscow for consultations immediately after the
shoot-down, arriving with the words: "Russia will help us." On
the evening of 28 February, Karadzic had a 45-minute meeting with
Churkin, but little information emerged in the media on its
content. In contrast to the issue of NATO airstrikes around
Sarajevo, defending the Bosnian Serbs in the face of clear-cut
violation of UN resolutions would put Moscow in a difficult
position.  Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.

the Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK) was released from
his duties by President Boris Yeltsin on 28 February, and Sergei
Stepashin has taken over as acting director of the service,
Interfax reported. No official explanation was offered for the
change. There was speculation that Golushko was being punished
for releasing from Lefortovo Prison those of Yeltsin's foes who
have been amnestied by the State Duma, but an FSK spokesman told
RFE/RL that responsibility for oversight of the prison had
already been transferred from the FSK to the Ministry of Internal
Affairs (MVD). Stepashin, who will act as head of the FSK until a
permanent head is appointed, made his career in the KGB. Until
August 1991 he served as so-called political officer in the MVD;
after that he was appointed chief of the St. Petersburg
Administration of the Ministry of Security and Deputy Minister of
Security. At the same time, he headed the Committee for Defense
and Security in the Russian Supreme Soviet.  Most recently,
Stepashin has been Golushko's first deputy.  Victor Yasmann,
RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIA EXPELS US DIPLOMAT. Russia is expelling US diplomat James
Morris, described by Moscow as CIA station chief in Moscow, in
retaliation for Washington's expulsion of Russian intelligence
officer Aleksandr Lysenko, ITAR-TASS reported on 28 February.
Yurii Kobaladze, head of the press bureau of Russia's Foreign
Intelligence Service, complained that Lysenko's expulsion was
"unnecessary" since, he said, Lysenko had been officially
presented to the CIA as the intelligence officer responsible for
cooperation between two agencies.  Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc.

MINERS STRIKE.  Coalminers held a one-day warning strike
throughout Russia on 1 March, but the turnout and demands varied
from region to region. Ivan Mokhnachuk, deputy chairman of the
Russian Coalworkers' Union, told RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent
that about 75% of all coalmines in Russia were on strike.
Meanwhile, a spokesman for the Oil and Gas Industry Construction
Workers' Union told Reuters on 1 March that those workers would
decide later in the day whether to join the miners' strike.
Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc.

reelected president of Ingushetia on 27 February, receiving 94
percent of the votes cast in a turnout of some 70 percent,
ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported on 28 February.  This can be
regarded as a massive vote of confidence despite the fact that
virtually no progress has been made in returning Ingush refugees
to the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia. In a referendum held
the same day 97 percent of those who voted approved the
republic's first constitution which states that Ingushetia is a
democratic law-based secular state forming part of Russia on a
treaty basis. The results of the elections to the 27-deputy
Ingush parliament, also held on 27 February, will not be known
for another week or so.  Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.

Ministry sources, Reuters on 28 February reported that two deputy
finance ministers have offered to resign to protest plans for
monetary union with Belarus and delays in financial
stabilization.  The officials concerned are Sergei Aleksashenko,
who supervises macroeconomic policy, and Andrei Kazmin, who is in
charge of monetary and credit policy.  They are said to be among
the few reformers left in senior government positions. Keith
Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.

end of 1994, some 1,550 out of a total of 2,000 defense industry
enterprises will have been privatized, including all munitions
plants.  This was announced by a deputy chairman of the State
Property Committee, Alfred Koch, at a news conference on 28
February, Interfax reported. Koch, who is responsible for the
privatization of the military-industrial complex, said that 450
enterprises will remain exempt from privatization: these are
mostly R&D facilities "with guaranteed defense ministry
contracts." About 700 defense plants have already been
privatized.  Of the remaining 850, the state will retain a
majority share in 150 enterprises for three years and will
exercise veto powers over managerial decisions at 600 plants.
Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.

be held this spring in Russia's krais and oblasts were discussed
at a meeting of heads of administration of Russian cities, held
in Moscow on 28 February, ITAR-TASS reported. Participants
opposed suggestions that the elections might be postponed, saying
this would be a restriction of citizens' rights.  (The idea of
postponing the elections was floated after many former communists
were elected in recent elections in Tula Oblast.) Apathy on the
part of local electorates is another matter, however. Russian TV
said on 26 February that elections may have to be postponed in
Primorsky Krai since, as of that date, only six of the 182
hopeful candidates had managed to collect the requisite number of
signatures to qualify for registration.  The closing date for
registration was 27 February. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc.


Staff Chief Mikhail Kolesnikov said on 28 February that Moscow
expected to sign bilateral agreements allowing Russia to set up
about 30 military bases on the territory of other CIS states,
Interfax and AFP reported. Kolesnikov said that bases in
Tajikistan, Armenia, and Azerbaijan would be created from Russian
divisions already stationed there.  He claimed that nearly all
former Soviet republics were considering allowing Russia to
establish military bases, but said that none would be created in
Ukraine or the Baltic States.  According to ITAR-TASS, Kolesnikov
also said that the Russian armed forces would be subjected in the
near future to an internal reorganization aimed at reducing their
size. He admitted, however, that the Defense Ministry was not yet
"ready to bring all the arms of the forces into a single
integrated structure," and added that the military leadership
would not allow military reform to disrupt administration of the
army.  Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

Samsonov, Russia's chief of staff for coordinating military
action among CIS member states, told reporters on 28 February
that discussion of the Tajik-Afghan border situation dominated a
meeting of CIS Defense Ministers held in Moscow on 24-25
February. According to Russian TV and Interfax, Samsonov asserted
that the CIS forces now manning the border would be insufficient
to ward off the large-scale actions by Afghan forces that he
claimed are expected this spring and summer. Samsonov said other
CIS Defense Ministers shared this view and that nine of them,
excluding Ukraine, Belarus, and Moldova (Moldova did not send a
representative to the meeting), had signed a document saying that
each CIS member state should send peacekeeping troops to the
region.  Samsonov said the Defense Ministers agreed that
peacekeeping troops should stay in Tajikistan until the end of
1994; the agreements signed by the military delegations must
still be approved by the CIS Council of Heads of State.  Stephen
Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.


agencies reported on 28 February that Kazakhstan's President
Nursultan Nazarbaev has issued a decree reducing export duties on
a wide range of goods in order to encourage Kazakhstani exports,
and the State Property Committee has released a list of
state-owned enterprises that are to be offered for sale to
foreign investors in 1994.  The enterprises involved include
factories and mining concerns as well as a major Almaty
department store.  Economic reform has become a major issue in
the parliamentary election campaign, with some candidates
promising to seek a lessening of the hardships caused by the
reforms so far.  On 26 February the largely Russian Republican
Strike Committee organized a protest in Almaty to call for
compensation for those who have suffered as a result of the
depreciation of their savings and for deferral of the 7 March
election. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.

Baku headquarters of the Azerbaijan Popular Front on 28 February
after a search of the premises allegedly yielded quantities of
arms and ammunition, Interfax and Western agencies reported.
More than 100 members of the Azerbaijan Popular Front and the
Musavat Party were arrested. The offices of the Front's newspaper
Azadlyq were also searched.  Azerbaijan's procurator Ali Omarov
claimed that the Front had stockpiled weapons in order to launch
a coup on 5 March; a Front spokesman rejected the charge, arguing
that the Azerbaijani authorities were attempting to discredit the
opposition in order to distract attention from their own
inability to solve the country's problems.  Liz Fuller, RFE/RL,


media give extensive coverage to events of 28 February in which
four Bosnian Serb warplanes were shot down by two US F-16
fighters. The rump Yugoslav media cover the Bosnian Serb position
on the incident according to which it remains unclear as to whose
planes were shot down. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic
maintains in turn that the identity of the planes is in doubt.
Western media, however, report that the four planes were part of
a squadron of six Bosnian Serb craft on a bombing raid against a
Bosnian ammunition plant. Western agencies report that the US
pilots fired only after issuing several warnings, which were
ignored, for the planes to leave a UN no-fly zone. The New York
Times adds that the decision to strike down the planes was made
in Italy, by NATO commanders. Finally, the Times notes that the
four planes "were immediately destroyed" while the remaining two
headed to safety in Krajina, the Serb-occupied area of Croatia.
Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

TUDJMAN, SILAJDZIC REACT.  On 28 February HINA reported that
Croatian President Franjo Tudjman, while on a state visit to
Albania, addressed the matter of the four downed Bosnian Serb
planes. According to the report, Tudjman strongly defended the
NATO action and stressed that it showed the international
community's resolve to end what he termed as Serb aggression.
Meanwhile, in Washington Bosnian prime minister Haris Silajdzic
said that the downing of the planes will serve to speed up peace
efforts, and told reporters that the NATO action is "the best way
to make peace in Bosnia." Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

VIOLENCE IN BOSNIA. On 1 March, Borba reports that conditions
around Sarajevo are calm and improving. However, on 28 February
AFP and Reuters informed about several incidents of violence
throughout Bosnia. Tuzla, a Muslim-controlled city, reportedly
came under attack by Serb fighters. The Muslim town of Maglaj
also experienced heavy shelling on 28 February (the town has been
attacked by both Serb and Croat forces).  In addition, on 28
February Reuters said that Bosnian Serb forces around Sarajevo
had moved six or seven tanks out of the 20 kilometer zone around
the city, thereby violating the UN injunction against the
movement of heavy artillery. Finally, international media
reported on 28 February that talks between Bosnian Croat and
Muslim leaders will continue in Washington on 1 March.  Stan
Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc.

student groups have scheduled demonstrations for 2 March in
Warsaw and Cracow to protest the internal affairs ministry's
refusal to release secret police files on an opposition activist
murdered in 1977, PAP reports. The death of Stanislaw Pyjas was a
milestone in the Polish student resistance movement.  Police
officials claimed at the time that Pyjas died from injuries which
he suffered when falling down the stairs, but a new investigation
opened in 1991 showed he had been beaten to death. Prosecutors
closed the murder investigation on 16 February, after Internal
Affairs Minister Andrzej Milczanowski refused to provide them
with names of secret police collaborators who informed on Pyjas.
Milczanowski argued that informants played no role in the murder.
Poland's Supreme Court chairman criticized Milczanowski for
usurping judgments best left to the justice system. Student
leaders on 28 February condemned Milczanowski for "shielding
criminals." Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

that make up the larger of Poland's two right-wing coalitions
(Center Alliance, Christian National Union, Peasant Alliance,
Movement for the Republic, and Conservative Coalition) proposed
the formation of a "National Constitutional Council," to draft a
new constitution, PAP reports.  The proposed council would
include all parties and organizations that received at least 1%
of the vote in the September elections, regardless of whether
they won seats in the parliament or not.  (None of the right-wing
parties is represented in the Sejm.) Coalition leaders also
emphasized the need for a single right-wing candidate in the 1995
presidential elections.  Center Alliance leader Jaroslaw
Kaczynski told reporters on 28 February that "Lech Walesa will
never be the candidate of the Right." Christian National Union
leader Wieslaw Chrzanowski responded that "in politics, you can
never say never.'" "With respect to Walesa, you can," Kaczynski
replied.  Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

POLAND'S SEJM SPEAKER IN PRAGUE.  Jozef Oleksy, speaker of the
Sejm, the lower chamber of the Polish parliament, met with Czech
Premier Vaclav Klaus, President Vaclav Havel, and Foreign
Minister Jozef Zieleniec on 28 February, to discuss economic
issues, European security, and integration into European
structures.  Oleksy arrived in Prague on 27 February for a
three-day visit.  CTK reports that during his meeting with Klaus,
Oleksy proposed repaying some $65 million, which Poland owes to
the Czech Republic, in the form of coal deliveries. Klaus
rejected this idea, pointing out that the Czech Republic has
enough of its own coal.  Despite this discord, Klaus told
journalists after the meeting that he considers Czech-Polish
relations to be one of the Czech government's top foreign policy
priorities. Oleksy said that, unlike the Polish media, he does
not "consider Klaus to be an enemy of Czech-Polish relations."
Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.

not accept the resignations of Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik
and Deputy Premier Roman Kovac until a proposal by Premier
Vladimir Meciar for a new foreign minister is approved,
presidential spokesman Anton Bodis announced on 28 February.  On
16 February Meciar proposed that Moravcik be replaced by Deputy
Premier and Slovak National Party Honorary Chairman Jozef Prokes,
while Kovac's duties would be divided among other ministers, but
Bodis said the president had rejected the appointment of Prokes.
Kovac also demanded that a new candidate for privatization
minister be proposed, a post held by Meciar since Lubomir Dolgos
was dismissed in June. Meciar's efforts to name Ivan Lexa to the
post were twice rejected by Kovac.  Moravcik and Roman Kovac, who
have led a break-away faction of Meciar's Movement for a
Democratic Slovakia, handed in their resignations on 24 and 25
February, respectively. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

February TASR reported that the Movement for a Democratic
Slovakia had collected more than 406,000 signatures for a
referendum to be held on early elections and on the mandates of
parliamentary deputies who have left their parties.  Meciar, who
is MDS chairman, wants early elections to be held in June and
wants deputies who have left their parties to be expelled from
parliament.  Only 350,000 signatures are needed for organizing a
referendum.  Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc.

defense ministry spokesman would not comment on whether NATO had
an Airborne Warning and Control System plane over Hungary at the
time two US Air Force F-16 jets shot down four Serb planes,
Reuters reported. Banja Luka, where the incident occurred, is
about 125 km (78 miles) away from the Hungarian border. It was,
however, confirmed that AWACs based in Germany flew a patrol on
Monday. According to MTI, the spokesman emphasized that the
shot-down was not connected to the latest NATO ultimatum over
Sarajevo but to the UN April 1992 resolution. On 11 February,
Hungary asked NATO to discontinue AWAC flights in case of NATO
strikes on Serb artillery around Sarajevo. Karoly Okolicsanyi,
RFE/RL, Inc.

ROMANIAN STRIKES UPDATE. The RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest
and Radio Bucharest reported on 28 February that many economic
sectors had been affected by the strike called by the Cartel Alfa
and the Fratia trade union confederations. The Cartel Alfa
strike, which affects production in steel, electronics and
mining, as well as services, continues on 1 March as well.  The
organizers put the number of participants at 2.5 million, but the
figure included workers who participated in the strike only
symbolically, wearing strike-badges.  Western agencies reported
that the government's union negotiator, Octavian Partenie, said
the executive was willing to offer 58,000 lei (just under $37 at
the official exchange rate) as a minimum salary. The unions,
however, demand that the minimum wage be raised from 45,000 ($28)
to 69,000 ($43). Radio Bucharest reported that a court in Targu
Jiu on 28 February confirmed that the miners' last month strike
had been illegal.  A representative of the miners' union said
later the miners would resume their protest in a way that could
not be viewed as infringing on the law.  Another miners' union in
the Jiu valley decided to join on 1 March the Cartel Alfa strike
and said it would declare a general strike for an unlimited time
at a date still to be announced.  Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc.

February carried two letters by members of the Bulgarian minority
in Serbia reacting to an interview with rump Yugoslav acting
ambassador Rados Smilkovic published in the 29 January edition of
that daily. Dimitar Dimitrov and Marko Shukarev of the Democratic
Union of Bulgarians in Yugoslavia write that they strongly
disagree with Smilkovic's claim that Serbian Bulgarians have
always been able to promote freely their own culture in
Yugoslavia.  As evidence, Dimitrov refers to written protests
signed by nearly 40,000 Yugoslav citizens and quotes official
statistics confirming that the number of ethnic Bulgarians in
Yugoslavia dropped from 61,140 in 1948 to 25,214 in 1991. In
Kontinent of 28 February, Smilkovic seemed to acknowledge that
there are some tensions with the majority Serbs, but he said
Bulgarians "are bright and will therefore not allow individual
nationalists to push them into a ghetto." Kjell Engelbrekt,
RFE/RL, Inc.

Moldova's first multi-party legislative elections, held on 27
February, indicate that the Agrarian Democratic Party has won at
least 45% of the votes; the bloc of the Socialist Party and the
Interfront 20-25%; and the two main pro-Romanian parties a total
of some 15%. The votes of parties which failed to clear the 4%
parliamentary hurdle are to be apportioned among the successful
parties which will thus gain additional parliamentary seats.  The
crucial factors in assessing the elections' outcome are whether
the Agrarians will surpass or at least reach the 50% mark
enabling them to govern without resort to a coalition, and
whether the pivotal Social-Democrat Party (whose performance is
the great disappointment of these elections) will clear the 4%
hurdle. Observer teams from the CSCE, NATO's Parliamentary
Assembly, the Council of Europe, and the parliaments of a dozen
Western countries have pronounced the elections free and
equitable.  Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

dialogue on the situation of Russia's military, published in
Zavtra, (no. 7, February 1994), leading Russian
ultra-nationalists Aleksandr Nevzorov and Aleksandr Prokhanov
described the "Dniester republic" as "our favorite child" and
praised Lt.-Gen.  Aleksandr Lebed for having led Russia's 14th
Army in "masterful operations which threw out the Romanians [i.e.
Moldovans] from all their positions." Deploring the rift between
Lebed and the "Dniester" leadership, the discussants portrayed
Lebed as politically dangerous.  He is "unquestionably a great
soldier" but "unfortunately craving power more than Yeltsin, more
than Zhirinovski," "personifying the great Russian uncontrollable
impulses," able to please different audiences, and "lethally
cunning;" and he let down the anti-Yeltsin side in October 1993,
Nevzorov and Prokhanov said.  Yet Lebed "remains important and
dear to us." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.

elections less than one month away, Ukraine's officials are
reporting that a total of 5,833 candidates have been registered,
for an average of 13 candidates competing for office in each of
the country's 450 electoral districts. The contests will be
especially heated in Kiev, where 21 candidates per district is
the average. Only 11 percent of all candidates were put forth by
political parties.  Close to 27 percent were put forth by
"workers' collectives" and the remaining 62 percent by simple
groups of voters. In view of the high number of candidates per
seat, an important second round of elections is expected. Indeed,
some experts predict that the number of winners in the first
round, on March 27, will fall short of the 300 minimum legally
required for the new Supreme Council to begin its work.  Kathleen
Mihalisko, RFE/RL, Inc.

February Radio Ukraine aired a report from a correspondent in
Simferopol alleging that pro-Ukrainian journalists in Crimea are
being increasingly subjected to harassment by Russian
ultra-nationalist groups.  It cited examples of journalists being
spat upon, threatened with violence, and accused of collaborating
with "Ukrainian nationalism" and "American Zionism." In recent
days, there have been pickets outside the radio and TV building
in Sevastopol demanding "Russian TV for a Russian City" (Radio
Ukraine noted that Sevastopol's TV broadcasts are already aired
exclusively in Russian).  In Simferopol, protesters have demanded
the sacking of TV and radio journalists accused of not sharing
the pro-Russian views of newly elected Crimean president Yurii
Meshkov.  Meshkov had asked the president of the Crimean TV and
Radio Company, Valerii Astakhov, to resign but the latter has
refused to comply.  Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc.

broadcast live by Radio Lithuania on 28 February, Algirdas
Brazauskas commented on various aspects of Lithuania's foreign
policy. The draft treaty with Poland reflects their territorial
integrity with Vilnius and Warsaw as capitals and the
inviolability of borders. When asked about the return of property
to some Polish and Jewish organizations, he said that according
to Lithuanian laws persons getting their property back must be
Lithuanian citizens permanently living in the republic. He also
noted that he had not yet received any reply to his offer in June
to Israel and the Simon Wiesenthal Center to form a joint
commission to investigate genocide against Jews in Lithuania.  He
praised the government's efforts to find out why Russia has not
yet ratified the most favored nation trade agreement with
Lithuania signed in November and said that he had not yet had
time to read the Russian proposal on military transit through
Lithuania.  Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

SCHEDULED.  Recent statements from Russian officials suggest that
Moscow is shifting its emphasis on conditions for the withdrawal
of its troops from Estonia and Latvia this year. One such
condition has been "social guarantees" for the retired military
living in the two Baltic republics.  Moscow would prefer that
those retirees who would like to stay in the Baltics eventually
become citizens, or, at least permanent residents there, while
Tallinn and Riga would like to see as many of them as possible
leave since they fear the retirees could become a "fifth column."
As if backtracking on previously agreed points, Russian Foreign
Ministry official Aleksandr Udaltsev told Interfax on 28 February
that the claims that Russia has pledged to withdraw its troops
from Estonia before 31 August "are unfounded," and pointed out
that "the background against which the next round of
Russian-Estonian talks is not too favorable." These talks are to
resume in Tallinn on 1 March.  The Latvian-Russian talks on troop
pullouts have been rescheduled for 14 March. Dzintra Bungs,
RFE/RL, Inc.

ALBANIAN JOURNALISTS CONVICTED. On 28 February the trial against
two journalists from the independent daily Koha Jone and two
officers in the Albanian armed forces ended, Koha Jone and
Western media report.  Among the four accused of involvement in
publishing state secrets related to the defense ministry, three
were sentenced to prison. While reporter Martin Leka was
convicted to 18 months imprisonment, the chief editor of Koha
Jone--Alexander Frangaj--received a light one-month sentence.
Romeo Licaj, a defense ministry official, received a five year
sentence for turning over the information to the journalists.
Robert Austin and Kjell Engelbrekt

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Elizabeth Teague and Dan Ionescu
The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research
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