|If a man be gracious and courteous to strangers, it shows he is a citizen of the world, and that his heart is no island cut off from other lands, but a continent that joins to them. - Francis Bacon|
No. 38, 24 February 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN ADDRESSES NATION. Russian President Boris Yeltsin's address to the nation, delivered to the State Duma on 24 February, was mainly devoted to economic issues and did not contain anything new. In his speech, broadcast live by Ostankino, Yeltsin emphasized the need for further radical restructuring of the country's economic system and for an intensive struggle against corruption and crime. He criticized the government for moving too slow on the road to reform. Yeltsin urged the West not to restrict Russia from playing its traditionally strong role in world politics. He said Russia will refrain from unilateral military budget cuts in 1994. He rejected the idea of an enlargement of NATO to the East. Nezavisimaya gazeta on 23 February reported that Yeltsin wanted to suggest a change in the Constitution after the transitional period of two years which would return more power to the legislature, but that the head of the presidential apparatus, Sergei Filatov, excluded that part from the speech. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. DUMA AMNESTIES YELTSIN FOES. In its first major decision, the State Duma on 23 February granted an amnesty to the leaders of the 1991 coup, those responsible for attacks on police at a Moscow demonstration last May Day, and the leaders of the parliamentary revolt crushed by Yeltsin in October. People convicted of economic crimes (i.e., selling for profit) in the Soviet era will also be freed. Yeltsin adviser Emil Payin told RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent the amnesty was "an open challenge" to Yeltsin. The amnesty, which passed by a vote of 252 to 67, was supported by communist and Liberal Democratic deputies. Article 103 of Russia's new constitution gives the Duma the sole right to declare an amnesty, and the president's power to veto laws passed by the Duma does not apply. Aleksandr Yakovlev, Yeltsin's representative to the Duma, told Russian TV on 22 February that the president has no constitutional power to prevent the amnesty. As a result, Ruslan Khasbulatov and Aleksandr Rutskoi may soon be freed. Khasbulatov has little support in Russian society, but Rutskoi, who was always popular, could be even more so now. As a nationalist hero, he could prove a formidable competitor not only to Yeltsin but also to Zhirinovsky. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN REACTION ON AMES AFFAIR. The chief of the press bureau of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), Yurii Kobaladze, refused to discuss the exposure of Aldrich Hazen Ames and his wife as Soviet/Russian spies. According to ITAR-TASS of 23 February, his only comment was that "all questions in this matter must be addressed to the CIA." The director of the SVR, Evgenii Primakov, who was on a working visit to Slovakia, and his spokeswoman, Tatyana Samolis, also refused to comment on the Ames affair, Primakov noting that he had never heard of Ames. Meanwhile, Vladimir Nadein writes in Izvestiya of 24 February that by recruiting Ames the former KGB Foreign Intelligence had made in the 1980s "a breakthrough to [American intelligence] assets of tremendous value." Nadein added that the reaction of American side was grounded in "hypocrisy," because "Russia has no less a right to clandestine activity in the United States that the United States has in Russia." Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. REACTIONS TO SPYING. Russia and the US traded harsh remarks over the case of a high-level CIA employee who allegedly spied for the Russian Federation. President Bill Clinton stressed the seriousness of the case on 23 February, and White House Press Secretary Dee Dee Myers emphasized at a briefing the same day that Washington did not "like it one bit." An unnamed senior Russian Foreign Ministry official told Interfax on 23 February that Washington was blowing the case out of proportion by being "overly emotional, acting first and thinking next." The same official questioned the timing of Washington's release of the information and suggested that publicizing the case was connected with dissatisfaction over Russia's Bosnia initiatives. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. BACK TO PEACEKEEPING. In the aftermath of the Bosnia crisis and Russia's deployment of additional peacekeeping forces there, Russian officials are stressing once again the role of Russian peacekeeping efforts in the former Soviet Union. Defense Minister Pavel Grachev said that Russia's peacekeeping efforts in the ex-USSR were necessary because other states had not created proper armies and because "there are numerous Russians residing in conflict areas and we must protect their interests." Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev stated on 23 February that Russia did not wish to act alone in peacekeeping operations--neither in Bosnia nor in the former Soviet Union. He stressed Russia's desire for "serious help," Russian agencies reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV ON PEACEKEEPING. In an article appearing in New Times No. 4 1994, Kozyrev discussed Russia's goals in peacekeeping in the ex-USSR. He said that no international "legislation" of peacekeeping operations was necessary because Russia's deployments were already fully legal. He stressed, however, that "a UN mandate and the presence of UN observers confirm the impartial character of Russian peacemaking missions." Kozyrev said that the "right moment" for involvement of UN or CSCE observers was after a cease-fire agreement had been reached. Kozyrev added, "in this case they can effectively support Russian troops as a third force." Kozyrev said that Russia's peacemaking operations were "now traditional" in terms of UN practices, because "they are carried out in the territory of neighboring countries where Russia has serious economic and other interests." Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN MARKS ARMY HOLIDAY. In a speech at the Moscow Suvorov Military Academy on 23 February, Yeltsin lauded military personnel for the peacekeeping operations they have conducted in trouble spots throughout the former Soviet Union and in Bosnia. Calling for an acceleration of reform in the military, he said that a fundamental restructuring of the Russian armed forces was in the offing. Yeltsin pointed to the enormous organizational difficulties that confronted the armed forces following the breakup of the Soviet Union and said that Russia was moving toward the creation of compact, flexible, mobile armed forces equpped with modern weaponry and manned by highly qualified professionals. He pointedly praised the valor of Russian soldiers who had fought in the "undeclared" war in Afghanistan and called for society to pay greater attention to the social needs of these veterans and those of all current and former military personnel. As reported by ITAR-TASS, Yeltsin made no mention of the army's political role. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. GRACHEV PRAISES PEACEKEEPING EFFORTS. In his own holiday remarks, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev also singled out Russia's peacekeeping activities, saying that thanks to such efforts greater bloodshed had been avoided in Moldova, North Ossetia, Abkhazia, and Tajikistan. According to ITAR-TASS and Russian television reports, Grachev said that Russia now had some 16,000 peacekeepers serving in the "near and far abroad." Grachev also suggested that to date Russia was the only state on the territory of the former Soviet Union to have constructed viable, if not yet fully effective, armed forces. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. GAZ PRIVATIZATION SCANDAL. The December 1993 auction of shares in a major automobile plant has been annulled by a government commission, the Financial Times and Reuters of 23 February reported, quoting Nezavisimaya gazeta and Kommersant. The commission charged that the director of the GAZ factory and some colleagues had used long-term state credits to the value of 46.5 billion rubles (about $30 million), provided for the introduction of a new model of truck, to purchase shares in the company at the December auction. The director now controls, directly or indirectly, some 30% of GAZ. A new auction will be scheduled, but it was unclear whether any action could be taken against the director and his colleagues under existing legislation. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. SOFT CREDITS FOR CONVERSION. Russian Central Bank First Deputy Chairman Aleksandr Khandruyev announced that a soft loan of 700 billion rubles has been granted for investment and conversion projects, Interfax reported on 23 February. The annual interest rate of 10% cited compares with a current base rate of around 210%. Khandruyev, however, pledged that the RCB would generally adhere to a "moderately firm" credit policy in 1994. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. PRIVATIZATION AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT. Aleksandr Ivanenko, the first deputy chairman of the State Property Committee, said that the new state privatization program, in effect since 1 January, expands the possibilities for foreign investors to acquire property in Russia, Interfax reported on 22 February. The new program, in contrast to the 1992 legislation, permits foreign individuals and entities to procure vouchers for the purchase of shares in state enterprises. Previously, prior permission from the Finance Ministry was needed for foreign acquisitions. Restrictions are still maintained on the foreign purchase of shares in the defense and mining sectors, in the fuel and energy complex, and in certain extractive industries. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. VORKUTA MINERS END HUNGER STRIKE. Seven coal miners, who had been occupying their pits in Vorkuta to protest the government's failure to pay back wages, on 23 February ended the hunger strike they had started three days earlier, Interfax reported on 23 February. Miners all over Russia, however, are said to be preparing for a countrywide strike due to start on 1 March if the government does not meet their demands in full. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN SACKS HEAD OF HIS INFORMATION DEPARTMENT. President Yeltsin sacked Vasilii Kupriyanovsky, the chairman of the Information Resources Department in the presidential administration, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 February. The agency said Kupriyanovsky had made a "critical mistake in performing his duties." It did not elaborate. Kupriyanovsky was appointed chairman of the department in September 1992. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS RUSSIAN OFFICIAL CALLS FOR RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN ECONOMIC UNION. The chairman of the Council of the (Russian) Federation Budget Committee, Nikolai Gonchar, has called for the economic union of Russia and Ukraine. He said in an interview published on 23 February in Rossiiskaya gazeta and reported by ITAR-TASS and Ukrainian TV that "in Crimea they have already understood" that there is "no alternative" to such a union. Sounding nostalgic for the old Union, he blamed politicians who had exploited "nationalist hysteria" in order to come to power for impeding the creation of a "single economic space" and commented that, "indisputably," for most people, "the parade of sovereignties has had negative consequences." Gonchar also warned that "in Ukraine things are so bad" economically that "at any moment there could be an explosion," which will reverberate beyond Ukraine's borders. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ALIEV IN LONDON. On the second day of his four-day visit to Britain, Azerbaijani President Geidar Aliev met with Prime Minister John Major and signed nine bilateral agreements, including one on friendship and cooperation and a second on cooperation in the energy field, Western agencies reported on 23 February. No progress was made in negotiations with a consortium led by British Petroleum on joint exploitation of Azerbaijan's Caspian oil, but an agreement is expected to be signed very soon. Addressing the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Aliev called for continued efforts by international organizations to resolve the Karabakh conflict; he did not rule out the possibility of a territorial exchange between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE AIR STRIKES STILL POSSIBLE IN BOSNIA. On 23 February international media reported that NATO and UN officials have warned that air strikes are still possible in Bosnia. According to AFP, an attack on 22 February near the town of Tuzla that resulted in injuries to five Swedish peacekeepers may have prompted the warning. US Secretary of State Warren Christopher also said that the NATO threat to strike Serbian positions around Sarajevo stands. In other news, AFP reports that Western leaders have not yet agreed to attend a conference proposed by Russian President Yeltsin that would deal with bringing peace to Bosnia. Meanwhile, Ankara has renewed its offer to send peace keepers to Bosnia. According to Milliyet of 22 February, Russian officials have said they would raise no objections to Turkish peace keepers. On 24 February Borba carried an interview with Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic in which he expressed pessimism over the prospects of a lasting peace being brought to Bosnia in the near future. Stan Markotich and Yalcin Tokgozoglu, RFE/RL, Inc. CROATIAN-MUSLIM CEASE-FIRE REACHED IN BOSNIA. On 23 February international media reported that Bosnian Muslim and Croatian military commanders met in Zagreb and agreed to a ceasefire accord. Under the terms of the deal, fighting between the two sides would stop on 25 February and heavy artillery would either be pulled back from the front lines or placed under UN control by 7 March. Moreover, on 23 February Croatian Radio quoted Kresmir Zubak, the leader of the ruling council of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Croatian state of Herceg-Bosna, as saying that an eventual partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina into three ethnic ministates would be less desirable than forming a single federal Muslim and Bosnian Croatian state. On 24 February, however, the Los Angeles Times reported that Bosnian Croats, perhaps under pressure from Zagreb or Belgrade, had "abruptly rejected" the idea of political cooperation with the Bosnian Muslim side. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH, ROMANIAN POSITIONS ON RUSSIAN TROOPS IN BOSNIA. The Polish and Romanian defense ministers on 23 February expressed reservations about the presence of Russian troops in Bosnia-Herzegovina, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Bucharest. Visiting Polish Defense Minister Piotr Kolodziejczyk said after a meeting with his Romanian counterpart, Nicolae Spiroiu, that a long-term presence of Russian troops in Bosnia would not contribute to peacekeeping in the area. He said the troop deployment was a "spectacular success" for Russian diplomacy, but, at the same time, it was also part of a long-term Russian strategy to counter the NATO presence in the area. Spiroiu said Russia's presence in Bosnia and Herzegovina "complicates things" and agreed that it was a counterweight to NATO influence. This departs from the views previously expressed in Bucharest on the issue. On 21 February, the Romanian Foreign Affairs Ministry had expressed "satisfaction" with the manner in which the conflicting sides had accepted "measures aimed at stopping hostilities" in the Sarajevo region, adding that the Russian troops serving in the UN forces can "play a positive role" in the "total obliteration of tension" in the city. At the end of Kolodziejczyk's visit, the two countries signed a military cooperation accord. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH GOVERNMENT CHIDES BAUDYS. The Czech cabinet has rejected the peace plan for Bosnia that Defense Minister Antonin Baudys unveiled on 20 February without consulting the government or the parliament. But the government opted not to propose removing Baudys. Speaking at a press conference after the cabinet session on 23 February, Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said the government decided to limit its stance to two sentences: "The government criticized. Baudys accepted the criticism." PAP reports from Prague that the government also resolved to regulate the status of military attaches; in several cases, Baudys conveyed his peace plan to foreign politicians via these attaches. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. BERISHA SIGNS PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. Western agencies report that Albanian President Sali Berisha on 23 February signed in Brussels the Partnership for Peace program linking up his country with NATO. Albania is the tenth former communist state to enter the deal. Speaking to journalists after the signing ceremony, Berisha reaffirmed Tirana's commitment to the alliance, recalling that Albania was the first East European country to formally apply for full NATO membership. He also used the opportunity to call on NATO and the UN to increase, rather than relax, the pressure on Serbia and thereby force Belgrade to enter negotiations about the future status of Kosovo, a part of rump Yugoslavia mainly inhabited by ethnic Albanians. Berisha said the lifting of UN sanctions would encourage Serbia to crack down on Kosovo and as a consequence trigger a wider Balkan war. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND'S CONSTITUTIONAL CONFLICT HEATS UP. The president and leaders of the left-wing coalition traded accusations and insults after Lech Walesa announced his resolve to do battle with postcommunist forces on 22 February. In remarks widely interpreted as opening his reelection campaign, Walesa charged the Sejm with spurning his efforts to include the public in the drafting of the new constitution. Walesa threatened to bypass the parliament and submit his own draft to a referendum. Democratic Left Alliance leader Aleksander Kwasniewski called "unlawful" the president's decision to withdraw his representative from the constitutional commission. Speaking in Riga on 23 February, Walesa responded that he sees no point in further cooperation with the parliament. He rebuffed a proposal by Sejm speaker Jozef Oleksy for a meeting to resolve the conflict. The constitutional commission on 23 February rejected a motion to postpone work until relations with the president improve. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND OFFERS RUSSIA TRADE PARTNERSHIP. Speaking at a conference on Polish-Russian relations held on 23 February in Cracow, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev warned again that the admission of Central European states to NATO would erect new political barriers in Europe that are unacceptable to Russia. He called instead for the creation of an effective pan-European "partnership" based on the CSCE. Russia and Western Europe would jointly provide Eastern Europe with security guarantees, he said. "There can be no revival of empire," Kozyrev added, "but Russia cannot be ignored when major international diplomatic actions are being considered." Polish Foreign Minister Andrzej Olechowski later told reporters that Poland and Russia differ over the best means to promote European security. Olechowski proposed a "partnership for transformation" designed to reactivate the trade relations that dissolved along with the CMEA. Gazeta Wyborcza reports, however, that the Russian delegation was not interested in any discussion of new cooperative projects. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. SOLIDARITY TESTS GOVERNMENT RESOLVE. Buoyed by the success of its protest march in Warsaw on 9 February, Solidarity staged a two-hour warning strike on parts of the railway network early on 24 February, PAP reports. The union demanded wage increases but acknowledged that the real aim of the strike was to pressure the government into halting planned energy price hikes and increasing social spending in the 1994 budget. The railway management called the wage demands unrealistic and charged the union with staging a political strike. Two of Solidarity's regional organizations also went on strike alert; miners' protests are planned for March. Meeting to discuss the strike situation on 22 February, the government pledged to fulfill agreements with the unions but stressed that the draft budget cannot be amended. Opinion polls showed that the level of public optimism in February was lower than before the September elections, which gave a dramatic--but only temporary--lift to the public mood. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. PRIMAKOV IN SLOVAKIA. Evgenii Primakov, the chief of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service, on 22 February arrived in Slovakia for a two-day visit. Primakov's spokeswoman told the media that his talks with Slovak officials are not aimed against a third country and have nothing to do with the current political crisis in Slovakia. Augustin Marian Huska, a deputy chairman of the Slovak parliament, told the media after his meeting with Primakov that the main area of cooperation between the Russian and Slovak intelligence services is "fighting international crime." Asked by journalists on 23 February to comment on the case of Aldrich Hazen Ames, a CIA official arrested on 22 February on charges of spying for the former Soviet Union and later for Russia, Primakov said he had never heard of the name before learning about the case from television and could not comment on it before returning to Russia. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK DIPLOMATIC ACTIVITIES. On a five-day visit to China, Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar held talks with Chinese President and party leader Jiang Zemin and Prime Minister Li Peng. Slovak media reported that Meciar's visit began on 21 February; they also said that an agreement on economic cooperation between the two countries was signed in Beijing. In another development, Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolij Zlenko, who had visited Bratislava beginning 21 February, said in an interview with Narodna Obroda that Ukraine supports further development of economic and trade relations with Slovakia. Zlenko also warned against ethnic separatism, a problem faced by both countries. Zlenko's visit took place at the invitation of his Slovak counterpart, Jozef Moravcik, who has been recently expelled from Slovakia's ruling party and asked to resign from his post. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARY CONSIDERS APPLYING FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. Hungarian Prime Minister Peter Boross announced during a visit to Paris on 23 February that Hungary was considering formally applying for membership in the EU by July, Western news agencies report. Boross said that Hungary could not join the EU in its current economic condition but wished to present an economic program leading to membership over several years. Boross met with President Francois Mitterrand, Prime Minister Edouard Balladur, and several cabinet ministers. After meeting with Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Secretary General Jean-Claude Paye, Boross was optimistic that negotiations on Hungary's OECD membership would take one to two years at the most. Boross said that full membership in the OECD would be a "crucial milestone" in Hungary's full political and economic integration into the Western world. Hungary had formally requested OECD membership in December 1993. A formal request for membership in the EU would be the first from an East European country. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN RULING PARTY BREAKS OFF NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE GRP. Reacting to the Greater Romania Party's earlier announcement that it was suspending negotiations with the Party of Social Democracy in Romania for setting up a new coalition, the PSDR Central Executive Bureau said in a press release carried by Radio Bucharest on 23 February that it no longer made any sense to continue the negotiations. The PSDR placed the entire responsibility on the shoulders of the GRP leadership and on Senator Corneliu Vadim Tudor personally. It said the GRP's "open letter" of 18 February to President Ion Iliescu was a "true scenario of incitement to violence" and that the GRP was trying to make electoral capital. The statement included, however, a plea to GRP parliamentarians to remember that collaboration in the past had been constructive and expressed the hope that it could continue, provided they make "proof of responsibility and adopt reasonable positions." In a related development, the army's High Military Council said in a communique that it rejected the "calumnious and insulting" articles published in GRP publications against Spiroiu and other high officers. It termed these attacks "gross, irresponsible misinterpretations" pursuing the "premeditated destabilization" of the country. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIANS RALLY IN DEFENSE OF HIGHER EDUCATION. Several hundred Bulgarians demonstrated in front of the government and parliament buildings on 23 February, urging a more coherent government policy regarding higher education as well as increased spending. The demonstrators, chiefly students but also officials of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, especially protested against government plans in 1994 to allocate 0.7% of the gross domestic product to higher education, saying 2% are necessary. Some 18,000 Sofia students have been on strike for one month over the same issue. In early February most university teachers joined the protest. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE RUSSIAN OFFICERS SAID TO JOIN "DNIESTER" FORCES. Aleksandr Porozhan, a senior official of the "Dniester republic" in Dubasari, told Kishinevskie Novosti in an interview cited by Basapress on 19 February that some thirty fresh graduates of Russian military academies in St. Petersburg and Moscow, who are allegedly from Dubasari, are due to "return" there shortly. Moldovan Defense Ministry officials, however, dismissed the claim that the officers were from Dubasari as simply a cover for a possible transfer of Russian officers into the "Dniester" forces. On 17 February, Basapress cited security officials in Tiraspol as saying that forty officers recently dismissed from Russia's revamped Ministry of National Security had joined the "Dniester" Ministries of State Security and Internal Affairs, which are already staffed by former KGB and MVD officers from Russia. "Dniester Republic" Vice President Aleksandr Karaman in an interview with Basapress refused to confirm or deny the reports. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH PRESIDENT VISITS LATVIA. On 23 February, the first day of a two-day official visit to Latvia, President Lech Walesa met with his Latvian counterpart Guntis Ulmanis and signed a political declaration on friendship and cooperation between their countries. The two presidents expressed concern about the high concentration of Russian troops in the Kaliningrad oblast and noted that their presence endangers the region's security. They also said that Warsaw and Riga should coordinate their relations and initiatives in the context of NATO's Partnership for Peace program. That same day, Latvian Foreign Minister Georgs Andrejevs and Polish Deputy Foreign Minister Iwo Byczewski signed a declaration resuming the accords on cooperation between their countries concluded from 1922 to 1938, Baltic media reported Dzintra Bungs., RFE/RL, Inc. UNAUTHORIZED RUSSIAN MILITARY TRANSIT THROUGH LITHUANIA. On 22 February Lithuanian Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys summoned Nikolai Obertyshev, Russia's ambassador to Vilnius, to discuss the problem of unauthorized Russian military transit through Lithuanian territory, BNS reported on 23 February. On the night of 19-20 February a Russian echelon composed of twenty-six infantry fighting vehicles escorted by armed Russian soldiers lacking permission to carry weapons in Lithuania entered the republic from Kaliningrad. Escorted by Lithuanian troops, the train proceeded to Belarus without incident. The Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party issued a statement declaring that no special agreements for Russian military transit should be signed and international transit regulations should apply. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. KOSTIKOV: THERE WAS NO SOVIET OCCUPATION OF ESTONIA. On 22 February the Estonian parliament asked the UN member states to condemn the 1940 Soviet annexation of and aggression against Estonia. On 23 February Russia's Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Krylov told Interfax that Moscow considered that in 1940 "there was no occupation. If we reexamine the historical documents we will find a call by the legitimate Estonian authorities of the time for Estonia's admission into the USSR." Krylov failed to mention that by the time that the appeal was submitted in 1940 Estonia had already been occupied by Soviet troops. Krylov added that Estonian-Russian relations were going through a difficult period. He cited the recent attack on the Russian security post, saying that he felt Estonia's conduct did not measure up to "generally recognized civilized principles." Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Saulius Girnius and Dan Ionescu (END) The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. 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