|Human life is but a series of footnotes to a vast obscure unfinished masterpiece. - Vladimir Nabokov|
No. 33, 17 February 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIA PERSISTS IN OPPOSING AIR STRIKES. In a telephone conversation with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl on 16 February, Russian President Boris Yeltsin reiterated Russia's rejection of the UN plans to use air strikes against Serbian positions in and around Sarajevo. Meanwhile, Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin continued touring the Yugoslav successor states attempting to circumvent the air strike option. He claimed that the situation in Sarajevo is "quite good" and warned that the use of air strikes would "escalate the Bosnian conflict," ITAR-TASS reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA OPPOSES REDEPLOYMENT OF PEACEKEEPERS. A resounding no was the response of Russian diplomats and military officials to the UN request for redeployment of a battalion of Russian peacekeepers from Croatia to Bosnia. Churkin said that Russia would not entertain such a redeployment when Russia's preferences for the resolution of the conflict were not being considered. Radio Rossii reported on 16 February that Russian commanders in Croatia had received orders from Moscow to stay put. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA, UK AGREE TO DE-TARGET NUCLEAR WEAPONS. A joint statement issued by Russia and Britain on 15 February said that the two countries had agreed not to aim their nuclear weapons at each other, Reuter reported. The accord, similar to one reached earlier by the US and Russia, calls for the missiles to be retargeted by 30 May of this year. A second agreement specified that joint military exercises by the armed forces of the two countries would begin sometime in 1995. ITAR-TASS reported that British Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Douglas Hurd and Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev had conferred on promoting military cooperation between the two countries; the two also reportedly discussed NATO's Partnership for Peace Program. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA TO PUBLISH FULL MILITARY DOCTRINE? General Klaus Naumann, German Army Inspector-General, was quoted by Die Zeit on 16 February as saying that Moscow appears to be warming to the NATO Partnership for Peace Program and, as a means of building confidence, is considering publishing the full text of the Russian military doctrine that was approved last fall. To date, only a summary of the doctrine has been made public. Naumann, who addressed officers of the General Staff Academy during an official visit to Moscow, reportedly emphasized that "NATO is the only working defense organization in Europe," that it "must not be weakened under any circumstances," and that only NATO member states would decide on the admission of new members. He added that to demonstrate appreciation for Russia's new openness Bonn was considering offering Russia unrestricted access to the Bundeswehr's secret defense concept. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. WRAP-UP ON KOLESNIKOV RESIGNATION RUMORS. The Russian Defense Ministry newspaper, Krasnaya zvezda , quoted General Staff Chief Mikhail Kolesnikov on 16 February as calling reports of his resignation a "fabrication" and a development that had "disgusted" him. Kommersant-daily for its part speculated on 16 February that the rumors of Kolesnikov's departure may been part of a plan to discredit the Defense Ministry at a time when advisors to the President are considering launching a reorganization of the military command structure that would shift some responsibilities from the Defense Ministry to the General Staff and subordinate the latter body directly to the President's office. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE STUDYING CIS COUNTRIES. The Chief of the Analytical Administration of Russia's Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), General Mikhail Dmitriev, told Russian Television on 12 February that his unit is responsible for briefing the Russian president and government and preparing psychological profiles on foreign leaders, including those of the other CIS states. However, Dmitriev denied that his unit is engaged in spying on the former republics of the USSR and claimed that all the analysis is prepared outside the countries concerned. Dmitriev said many veterans have left the SVR for leading posts in banks, joint ventures, and commercial firms, but that new recruits are coming from the best Russian institutions such as Moscow State University, the Institute of the World Economy and International Relations, and the Institute of Oriental Studies. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW INVESTIGATION INTO MIRZAYANOV CASE. The Moscow City Court has ruled that Vil Mirzayanov, the Russian scientist accused of betraying state secrets concerning the production of Soviet chemical weapons, must remain in jail while a fresh investigation is conducted into the charges against him, ITAR-TASS reported on 14 February. Mirzayanov argues that the case against him is unconstitutional since the list of state secrets itself remains classified. Meanwhile, Boris Yeltsin has issued a decree identifying 38 federal bodies which have the right to classify information as a state secret, ITAR-TASS reported on 13 February. They include the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, Nuclear Power, Economy, Finance, and Civil Defense, as well as the law enforcement and security agencies. The publication of Yeltsin's decree may signify an attempt on the part of the President to distance his administration from the Mirzayanov case. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. PAMFILOVA QUITS AFTER ALL. The reformist Minister for Social Affairs, Ella Pamfilova, has decided to quit the government, Ostankino TV "Novosti" reported on 16 February. Pamfilova, a leading member of the radical reformist movement Russia's Choice, wanted to leave earlier but Prime Minister Chernomyrdin rejected her resignation. Pamfilova stated that in the present composition of the government she cannot do anything for the poor. She said that Chernomyrdin's government may fall in the next two-three months and that she does not want to be part of a team which "builds a bridge to power for [Vladimir] Zhirinovsky." She maintained that the government could become viable again if radical reformers, such as Egor Gaidar and Boris Fedorov, would return. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. ZHIRINOVSKY PLANS HIS OWN RADIO. Russian ultranationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky plans to set up his own radio in Russia, Komsomolskaya pravda reported on 15 February. Negotiations on broadcasting have been conducted with two radio stations--"Avto-radio" and "Vozrozhdenie." The expenses involved are said to pose no problem for Zhirinovsky. "Radio Zhirinovskogo" is to start broadcasting this coming April and feature musical programs for different generations of Russians and psychotherapy consultations. Observers note that Zhirinovsky seeks to raise his popularity with a view to the presidential elections. Meanwhile, Zhirinovsky's faction in the Duma proposed banning Radio Liberty broadcasts on the territory of the Russian Federation, Independent Television reported on 16 February. A majority of the deputies voted down the proposal. Alexander Rahr and Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. DISSENT IN ZHIRINOVSKY'S PARTY. Two senior members of Zhirinovsky's Liberal Democratic Party are leaving the party's parliamentary faction, Reuters reported on 16 February. Viktor Kobelev, a member of the party's Supreme Council, told the State Duma that he and fellow-deputy Aleksandr Pronin were quitting the faction to protest against statements made by Zhirinovsky, particularly during his foreign trips. Kobelev, who said Zhirinovsky's "crazy tricks" were not sanctioned by the party, added that he intended to stay in the party and could only be dismissed by a party congress. He said the party's next congress is due in April. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. POPULATION DECLINE CONTINUES. Reports published recently indicate a marked decline in the population of Russia and suggest a continuation of this trend through the end of the century. From Roskomstat's preliminary data for 1993, as cited by RIA of 3 February, The Financial Times of 14 February, and ITAR-TASS of 15 February, it appears that in 1993 there were 1.4 million births and 2.2 million deaths. Because of inward migration of Russians from the "near abroad," the net fall in population was limited to 500,000. The decline is attributed primarily to economic upheaval, the breakdown in health services, and the deteriorating environment. The head of the Labor Ministry's Department of Human Resources reckons that the fertility index will remain at around 1.5 until the end of the century, whereas an index of 2.11 would be necessary to maintain the population. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA HIT BY STRIKE WAVE. Russia is experiencing a wave of industrial protests with miners, teachers, ambulance drivers, and lumber workers all striking or threatening to strike, many of them demanding payment of back wages. Construction workers in the coalmines in Vorkuta, who had been occupying their pits since 9 February, returned to the surface on 14 February. Many of them had fallen ill from the cold underground, Interfax said. Promised they will receive their back pay for November and December on 21 February, the mineworkers have suspended their strike but are threatening to resume their protest above ground on 1 March if the wages are not paid. Miners in Partizansk in Russia's Far East have been on strike for four days, while miners in Rostov-on-Don and in the Kuzbass are threatening to strike if they are not paid back wages soon, AFP reported on 15 February. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS RUSSIAN DUMA GROUP AGAINST RUSSIA-BELARUS MONETARY UNION. The "Union of 12 December" deputies' group in the Russian Duma has said that monetary union with Belarus would adversely affect Russia's finance, ITAR-TASS reported on 16 February. According to one of its members, deputy Vadim Boiko, the union would cost Russia several trillion rubles and would lead to at least a 5% increase in inflation. While opposing monetary union, the "Union of 12 December" said they did support close political and economic ties with Belarus which would be in both sides' interests. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GAMSAKHURDIA TO BE REBURIED IN CHECHNYA. The Georgian and Chechen authorities reached agreement on 16 February on the disinterment of the body of ousted President Zviad Gamsakhurdia from his present burial place in western Georgia and its transport to Grozny for reburial there on 23 February, Reuters reported. Georgia has now dropped its insistence on an autopsy by international experts prior to reburial. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN-ARMENIAN ECONOMIC AGREEMENT SIGNED. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin and his Armenian counterpart Hrant Bagratyan signed a trade and economic cooperation agreement in Moscow on 16 February under which Russian will supply Armenia with goods to the value of US$141.3 million, ITAR-TASS reported. Energy supplies to Armenia for 1994 will remain at the level for 1993; the agreement does not provide for Russian credits to Armenia. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. UZBEK-RUSSIAN TV DISPUTE. Uzbekistan interrupted rebroadcast of Russia's Ostankino TV and of Russian TV for most of the day on 15 February, Ostankino news reported the same day. The Uzbek Ministry of Communications justified the action on the grounds that Ostankino and the Russian TV Companies were in debt to the ministry. Earlier, broadcasts of Russia's ITA had been interrupted by Uzbek authorities for nearly a week. An official of the Uzbek Ministry of Communications told Ostankino that the dispute was financial--not only has the ministry not been paid approximately one billion rubles for its services, but no agreement for 1994 has been concluded. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE GREECE BLOCKADES MACEDONIA AGAIN. In a move evidently intended to both pressure the Republic of Macedonia into concessions and assuage popular dissatisfaction in Greece with the recent recognition of Macedonia by major EU states, Russia and the US, Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou on 16 February imposed an economic blockade on Macedonia that will preclude the shipment of all goods to and from the port of Thessaloniki except food and medicine according to Reuters and Nova Makedonija. This is the second embargo imposed by Greece on Macedonia in two years. Macedonian officials, who have been willing to hold discussions with Greece, are bewildered by the action. The blockade, as well as the closing by Greece of its consulate in Skopje, is likely to further impact negatively relations between Athens and its European and North American allies. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW WAVE OF SERB VIOLENCE IN WESTERN BOSNIA. While international attention has been focused on the Serb guns around Sarajevo, Bosnian Serbs have been conducting a new campaign of intimidation and violence, including rape and murder, aimed at driving some 60,000 Muslims and Croats out of the Banja Luka area. UN and refugee relief officials told The New York Times on 17 February that "this is criminality on a huge scale . . . It's absolutely sanctioned by local leaders. It's very well organized, and they try to keep it well hidden. . . . With no one watching, God knows what the Serbs will do. And they blame the Muslims for everything." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. DJILAS SAYS WEST HAS NO STRATEGIC VISION IN BOSNIA. On 16 February, Milovan Djilas talked to RFE/RL's new South Slavic Service about the conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The prominent analyst of Yugoslav affairs and former dissident feels that Belgrade will not step in to help the Bosnian Serbs in case of air strikes except to provide arms and supplies. Djilas adds that the rump Yugoslav army "would not get involved and would not fight NATO forces." He also notes, however, that air strikes will not solve the problem because the West has no strategic concept for the area and will not intervene on the ground in a measure necessary to restore the Bosnian state. Instead, Djilas feels that some sort of federation of Muslim, Serb, and Croat states will emerge there, but adds that the US and Russia will be decisive in any settlement. Those two powers, he concludes, are already closer in their policies than many think and should now begin to agree on a common policy for the region. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SERBIA UPDATE. On 16 February Reuters reported that Russia's envoy to the former Yugoslavia, Vitaly Churkin, held talks with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic about the crisis in Bosnia and the possibility of NATO using air strikes against Bosnian Muslim positions. Churkin reportedly failed to give details about the substance of his talks with Milosevic. Reuters also reports that Vuk Draskovic, Serbian opposition political leader, predicts air strikes against the Bosnian Serbs will only serve to trigger a broader conflict. Draskovic did add, however, that he is confident the Bosnian Serbs will comply with the NATO ultimatum, thereby averting the air strikes. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA AND THE BOSNIAN CRISIS. On 16 February President Zhelyu Zhelev responded to a letter by Suleiman Demirel, his Turkish counterpart, in which the latter had asked for Sofia's political support for Western military intervention in the Bosnian war. In his response, Zhelev reiterated the Bulgarian position that all Balkan states should stay out of the conflict in former Yugoslavia. He described the NATO ultimatum as "a final and extreme warning to those forces in Bosnia which refuse to accept UN Security Council resolutions and are blocking the peace negotiations." On the same day, Bulgaria and Greece signed a program on military cooperation in 1994. Greek Chief of General Staff Adm. Hristos Lamberis stressed that the agreement should not be seen as directed toward a third party. Meanwhile, Trud of 16 February reported that Angel Dimitrov has now been installed as Bulgaria's first ambassador to the Republic of Macedonia. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA AND THE UN EMBARGO. Following charges in the media that the government is neglecting to enforce the UN sanctions against rump Yugoslavia, recent days have seen a spate of new initiatives. Special forces detachments have been stationed at border crossings and on 15 February Transport Minister Kiril Ermenkov announced a cabinet proposal that the ministries of Transport, Finance and Interior establish a set of joint control mechanisms. On 16 February Bulgarian customs officials said that in 1993 goods worth nearly 51 million leva ($1.4 million) were seized at Kalotina, the main border crossing with Serbia. On the same day Expres quoted the head of the UN monitoring mission, Henning Stanislawski, as confirming that individual Bulgarian officials have participated in sanction-breaking schemes. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. TUDJMAN APOLOGIZES TO JEWS. The 16 February Washington Post says that President Franjo Tudjman has formally apologized in a letter to officials of B'nai B'rith for casting doubts on the Holocaust in his book Wastelands of Historical Reality. Because of that book and some of his public statements about Jews, Tudjman's presence at the April 1993 Holocaust Museum dedication angered many. Tudjman now says that "it is in terms of my evolving relationship with and increased understanding of the Jewish people that I now realize the hurtfulness of certain portions of this book and the misunderstanding they have caused." The Post adds that B'nai B'rith representatives point out "that despite the controversy over his book, Tudjman has had good relations with Croatia's tiny Jewish population and with Israel. . . ." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. STALEMATE IN SLOVAK PARLIAMENT CONTINUES. On 16 February, in the first session since the deadlock over a privatization law led leaders to adjourn the parliament on 4 February, the parliament remained stalemated. Although the cards have largely turned in favor of the opposition parties, the opposition still lacks enough support to pass its proposal for early elections, since changes to the constitution require 90 votes. While all parties agree that early elections will be necessary (the next elections are not scheduled until June 1996), Meciar prefers that they be held in June 1994, while the opposition wants to wait until November. Opposition parties need more time to prepare and have argued that the budget would be less strained if they are held simultaneously with November local elections. Both proposals, Meciar's and that of the opposition parties, were defeated on 16 February, TASR reports. Meciar said that if his proposal is not passed by 21 February, he will start collecting the 350,000 signatures needed to call a referendum on the issue, CTK reports. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. ETHNIC HUNGARIANS DEMAND GUARANTEES FROM OPPOSITION. After months of trying to push forward legislation protecting the rights of the Hungarian minority in Slovakia, Hungarian parties have been excluded from the opposition's plans for a new coalition government, which is to include all parliamentary parties except those of the Hungarian minority. Still, the opposition depends on the support of the 14 ethnic Hungarian deputies to achieve a majority in the 150-member parliament. After the Hungarian deputies voted against the opposition's proposed law for early elections on 16 February, Party of the Democratic Left Chairman Peter Weiss surmised that Meciar had made a deal with the Hungarians in order to garner their support. This speculation, however, was denied by Arpad Duka-Zolyomi of the Coexistence Movement, who said that his party wanted to work with the opposition but that it first demanded guarantees for participation in the new government, CTK reports. Even with the support of the ethnic Hungarians, the opposition has only between 83 and 86 deputies, still short of the 90 votes needed to change a constitutional law. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. MECIAR ASKS KOVAC TO DISMISS TWO MINISTERS. On 16 February Slovak President Michal Kovac received a request from Premier Vladimir Meciar asking him to dismiss Deputy Premier Roman Kovac and Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik, TASR reports. Meciar justified the move by saying that the MDS leadership had voted no-confidence in both. Meciar proposed that Moravcik be replaced by Jozef Prokes, who is now deputy premier and honorary chairman of the Slovak National Party, while Kovac's responsibilities would be divided among other ministers. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH-SLOVAK CONFLICT OVER FOOD IMPORTS SOLVED. The Council of the Czech-Slovak Customs Union met on 16 February in an extraordinary session to discuss Slovakia's recent decision to require certificates of approval from Slovak authorities for each shipment of food entering the country. Most of the food imported to Slovakia comes from the Czech Republic. The meeting of the Council was attended by Czech and Slovak ministers of economy, agriculture, finance, and industry. The Council decided that Slovakia will cancel the measures and will return to the arrangement used before 11 February, when the new Slovak rules were introduced. Under the arrangement certificates of health issued for Czech food products by Czech authorities are automatically recognized by Slovak authorities and vice versa. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. LAST-MINUTE SPARRING BEFORE POLISH BUDGET DEBATE. After meeting with the ruling coalition's members in the Sejm's budgetary commission on the eve of the 1994 budget debate, Polish Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak succeeded in overcoming resistance within the coalition to the proposed 1994 budget, Gazeta Wyborcza reported on 17 February. Various lobbies, spurred on by respective ministers, fought up until the last minute to increase budgetary expenditure. The final version of the budget that will be recommended to the Sejm proposes no additional revenues and approves, with minor shifts, the revisions introduced by the government itself after Finance Minister Marek Borowski resigned. These left the deficit unchanged at 83 trillion zloty ($3.9 billion) while raising both revenues and spending by 3 trillion zloty ($140 million). Pawlak pledged to revise the budget after the second quarter if the growth and inflation rates remain constant. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. REPORTS ON POLISH ARMS SALES TO CIA DENIED. Allegations in The Washington Post of 14 February that Poland secretly sold modern Soviet military technology to the CIA in the 1980s have caused a stir in Poland. Defense Minister Piotr Kolodziejczyk said on Polish TV that the claim was "a gross provocation against the Polish army, and others as well." Gazeta Wyborcza on 16 February quoted Kolodziejczyk as saying the article was "a journalistic monstrosity." The daily speculated, referring to Polish sources in the South African Republic, that Polish arms might well have reached the CIA via Angola and South Africa, since Angola was Poland's most important arms trading partner in Africa in the 1980s. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN BANKER DISMISSED. Romanian and Western media on 16 February reported that Dan Pascariu had been sacked from the position of president of the Romanian Bank for Foreign Trade. Pascariu, a main architect of post-communist banking reforms in Romania, is on record for having resisted government interference in his bank's credit and spending policies. He becomes the latest Romanian reformer to be forced out of a senior position for having differed with conservatives in the ruling Party of Social Democracy in Romania over economic policies. The Financial Times quoted a senior London-based banker as saying that the Pascariu's removal was a "very serious" matter. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVAN PREMIER ATTACKS ROMANIA'S IRREDENTISM. Moldovan Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli told ITAR-TASS on 16 February that "they in Bucharest must understand once and for all that Moldova is an independent state. We are brothers, but each has his own home and lives by his own laws." Noting that "the overwhelming majority of our republic's citizens oppose unification with Romania," Sangheli complained of Romania's "two-faced policy toward us: they talk to us about recognizing our independence but, behind our back, they claim that our republic is a part of Romania." Endorsing President Mircea Snegur's recent address which stressed the Moldovan as distinct from Romanian identity and Snegur's call for a plebiscite to confirm independent Moldovan statehood, Sangheli condemned the "disrespectful," "slanderous," and "hysterical" reactions in the Romanian media. He also rejected as "interference in the affairs of our independent state" the Romanian Foreign Ministry's 3 February statement which claimed that a Moldovan plebiscite can only be valid if the people of Romania participates in it--a claim that Romania's Foreign Ministry reiterated on 16 February. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVAN-RUSSIAN TROOP TALKS DEADLOCKED. The eighth round of Moldovan-Russian talks on "the status and terms of withdrawal" of Russian troops from Moldova, which had been postponed three times since November at Russia's request, will not be held on 16 and 17 February either, Moldova's Ambassador to Russia, Anatol Taran, told Moldovan TV on the 15th, as cited by Basapress. Taran observed that Russia "deliberately delays" the withdrawal of its 14th Army from Moldova and seems intent on maintaining its military presence in Moldova and other parts of the former USSR. On 10 February Rossiiskaya Gazeta published the unilateral Russian draft of a Russian-Moldovan "Agreement on matters of jurisdiction and mutual legal assistance related to the temporary stationing of Russian Federation troops on the territory of Moldova," accompanied by the text of a decision by Yeltsin approving the draft and ordering Russia's Ministry of Defense to sign it in the name of Russia, ruling out any amendments "of a substantive nature." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. FINANCIAL WOES IN UKRAINE'S ARMED FORCES. The Ukrainian military daily, Narodna Armiya, reported on 16 February that the Ukrainian army is barely surviving financially. Gen. Ivan Shtopenko told the daily that the army has received less than 10% of funds allotted to it so far this year and that personnel and their families are living at subsistence levels. The Ministry of Defense had requested 63.7 trillion karbovantsy (approximately $1.8 billion) for the 1994 defense budget, but was given only a fraction of that figure. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY BACKS TROOP PULLOUT FROM BALTICS. After meeting with the foreign ministers of the three Baltic States and top Latvian leaders, British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd told the press in Jurmala on 16 February that the withdrawal of Russian troops from their countries is a right on which they are entitled to insist. Hurd also indicated that Britain would join the Nordic countries in helping to train the Baltic peacekeeping battalion which is planned to operate under the auspices of an international body, such as the United Nations. According to Hurd, the best way for the Baltics to reintegrate into Europe is through trade and he said that London is ready to assist in this and other matters of reintegration, Baltic and Western media reported on 16 February. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. BALTIC FREE-TRADE AGREEMENT. The free-trade agreement, signed by the prime ministers of the Baltic States on 13 September 1993 in Tallinn, will come into effect on 1 April, BNS reported on 16 February. In January, Lithuania's parliament ratified the agreement that is similar to the agreements the three states have signed with Finland, Sweden, Norway, and Switzerland. The agreement abolishes all customs duties and quotas on imported goods, but places restrictions on some exports to encourage domestic industries to use local raw materials. Latvia will place export tariffs of 20-100% on gypsum, limestone, raw hides, and timber. Lithuania will maintain exports duties on raw hides, glands, and some types of timber. Estonia may place quotas on exports of oil shale, gravel, clay, and quartz sand. The agreement will stay in force indefinitely and the three states will set up a joint commission to supervise its activity. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Vladimir Socor and Michael Shafir The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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