|Coleridge declares that a man cannot have a good conscience who refuses apple dumplings, and I confess that I am of the same opinion. - Charles Lamb|
No. 32, 16 February 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIA DIFFERS ON BOSNIA. During a question and answer session with reporters following meetings with visiting British Prime Minister John Major on 15 February, President Boris Yeltsin charged that "some people are trying to solve the problems in Bosnia without Russia . . . We shall not allow this to happen. Russia will take an active part in the negotiations in order to end the war in Yugoslavia through negotiations." Yeltsin's spokesman, Vyacheslav Kostikov, warned that NATO air strikes would be perceived in Russia as a false start for NATO's "Partnership for Peace" program. On the same day a Russian Foreign Ministry statement, circulated at UN headquarters in New York and reported by Russian media, claimed that NATO has no authority to decide alone on air strikes against Serb positions in Bosnia. It said that Russia supports the demands for a pullout of military hardware from the Sarajevo area, but rejects presenting such demands as an ultimatum directed against the Serbs. Indirectly attempting to claim a Russian veto right on NATO action, the statement contended that "the NATO Council has not been empowered to adopt decisions on the essence of the Bosnian settlement, including the decision to carry out air strikes in Bosnia. Such decisions must be adopted by the UN Security Council." Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. TURKEY DRAWS UP NEW SHIPPING RULES FOR STRAITS. Turkey has drawn up new rules for shipping passing through the Bosphorous and Dardanelles, which link the Black Sea and the Mediterranean and separate the European and Asian parts of Turkey, Reuters reported on 14 February. Russia will be the country most affected by the new rules, and a Russian delegation will visit Ankara on 22-23 February to discuss their implications. The new regulations, which will take effect in June, will require vessels carrying oil and dangerous cargoes to give 24-hours notice before entering the straits. Nuclear-powered vessels and waste-carrying ships will have to get special clearance from the Turkish authorities before passage. Turkey says it can no longer allow large-scale oil-shipping through the straits because of the danger of an environmental catastrophe to heavily-populated Istanbul and that other means must be found to convey what are expected soon to be heavily increased shipments of crude oil conveyed on Russian tankers. Turkey would prefer the oil to be transported by pipeline across Turkey; Russia wants to go on using the Black Sea. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. GENERAL STAFF CHIEF DENIES RUMORS OF RESIGNATION. General Staff Chief Mikhail Kolesnikov on 15 February denied published reports that he has resigned from his post over differences with Russia's Defense Minister and over his concern with what was described as the disintegration of the Russian army. Earlier that day Komsomolskaya pravda and Moskovskyi komsomolets had reported the resignation. Interfax of 15 February reported a Defense Ministry statement that quoted Kolesnikov as saying that "such publications are designed to sow enmity within the ministry leadership and weaken the armed forces . . . one of the country's most stable institutions." There have long been rumors of tensions within the military leadership, particularly between the General Staff and the Defense Minister's entourage; some sources have suggested that these tensions have worsened since military units were used in the assault on the parliament building on 4 October 1993. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA AND TATARSTAN SIGN INTERSTATE TREATY. On 15 February the presidents of Russia and Tatarstan, Yeltsin and Mintimer Shaimiev, finally signed a treaty on the mutual delegation of powers that had been more than two years in the making, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. Sergei Shakhrai, Russian Minister for Nationalities and Regional Policy, described the treaty as "a substantial breakthrough in the promotion of federal relations." Tatarstan refused to sign the federal treaty in March 1992 and later in the same year adopted a constitution that proclaimed the supremacy of Tatarstan's laws and a special status for Tatarstan vis-a-vis the Russian Federation. Yeltsin stated at the signing ceremony that the treaty provides a formula for helping to eliminate problems between the central government and the constituent republics. The treaty describes Tatarstan as a state united with Russia on the basis of the constitutions of the two states and the new bilateral treaty. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN'S HEALTH LIKELY TO DELAY SPEECH IN PARLIAMENT. Presidential spokesman Anatolii Krasikov was quoted by Russian Television on 15 February as saying that Yeltsin's continued poor health would likely force the postponement of his major speech in parliament scheduled for 18 February. Yeltsin is to address both chambers of the Federal Assembly with his annual report on the social and economic situation in the country. Krasikov said Yeltsin was still recovering from a cold and doctors had advised him to stay at home. (The same day, other representatives of the presidential administration told RFE/RL that the speech had already been rescheduled for 24 February.) Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. PRESIDENTIAL CONTROL OVER EXECUTIVE STRENGTHENED. Yeltsin has issued a decree which strengthens presidential control over the federal bodies of executive power, ITAR-TASS reported on 15 February. The decree stipulates the creation of a new Administration for the Federal Civil Service which will deal with personnel appointments in all federal organs of the executive power. The new administration will become a major part of the presidential apparatus, headed by Sergei Filatov. Filatov stated that according to the new Constitution, the President is no longer the functional head of the government. He said that, apart from the Administration of Federal Civil Service, new departments for economic analysis, finance, and foreign affairs have been set up in the presidential apparatus to provide the President with control over government policy. The Minister for Nationalities' and Regional Politics, Sergei Shakhrai, has charged that the President's interference in the government's sphere may cause unnecessary tensions within the executive branch. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. CHERNOMYRDIN TASKS HIS DEPUTIES. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin has assigned the areas of responsibility to his deputies, ITAR-TASS announced on 15 February. Responsibility for investment and the defense industry goes to First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets, who will also coordinate the activities of the 15 government ministries and state committees. As for the three Deputy Prime Ministers, Aleksandr Zaveryukha is responsible for agriculture; Anatolii Chubais continues to oversee the privatization program; and Yurii Yarov is responsible for social policy and for government liaison with political parties and social organizations. Economics minister Aleksandr Shokhin will coordinate economic reform and Russia's relations with the other members of the CIS. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. DEFENDANT SAYS GORBACHEV APPROVED OF STATE OF EMERGENCY. Former secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Oleg Shenin, said former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev approved of the imposition of a state of emergency in August 1991, Western agencies reported on 15 February. Shenin is one of the defendants at the trial of the organizers of the GKChP (the State Committee on the State of Emergency). On 15 February, Shenin told the trial that on 18 August 1991, two future GKChP members, Valentin Varenikov and Oleg Baklanov, consulted with Gorbachev over the imposition of the state of emergency in parts of the USSR and obtained his approval. The defendants at the trial are accused of imposing the state of emergency without Gorbachev's consent. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. POOR SAFETY RECORD OF NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY. On 15 February, the Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Oversight Committee released its first annual survey as an independent body with enhanced powers, The Los Angeles Times of 16 February reported. The chairman of the watchdog agency told a Moscow news conference that, in 1993, 20,000 safety violations had been recorded, 78 enterprises temporarily closed down, 232 officials reprimanded, and 437 workers flunked on safety quizzes. None of the country's 29 nuclear reactors has all the right equipment for preparing radioactive waste for burial, and existing preburial storage facilities are expected to fill up within 2-3 years. The Ministry of Defense was criticized for occasionally refusing to allow the inspection of its facilities and for not recognizing the authority of the civilian agency. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. VODKA IMPORT DUTIES TRIPLED, EXCISE DUTIES REDUCED. On 15 February, Prime Minister Chernomyrdin ordered a reduction in excise duties on domestically produced vodka from 90% to 85% (i.e., the level obtaining prior to 23 December) and raised import duties on foreign vodka from 100% to 300%, Russian and Western agencies reported. RIA was quoted as saying that the new measures would halve the retail prices of domestic vodkas and triple the prices of imported brands. The reduction was made in response to the halt in production at more than half of the vodka and liquor plants and a big drop in budget revenues. The share of imported alcoholic beverages in 1993 in the domestic market was said to have reached 45%, Interfax reported. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS RUSSIA TO INCREASE OIL SUPPLIES TO UKRAINE AND BELARUS? In an apparent about-face in its policy towards its gas debtors, Russia may increase oil supplies to Ukraine and Belarus in the first quarter of 1994, Interfax reported on 16 February. The reason is the surplus of oil in Russian refineries and pipelines due to customers' insolvency. According to Transneft, the state company responsible for oil deliveries across the former USSR, 8.6 million tons of surplus oil have accumulated in its storage systems. Experts say that the oil distribution situation has deteriorated because of bureaucratic complexities in oil export and customs clearance, failure to supply oil for state purposes, and protracted storms in Russian ports, apart from the financial crisis. As a result, the delivery of as much as 2 million tons of oil to Ukraine and Belarus may prove to be the only solution. The report added that the recipients would not be required to pay for the oil in advance and the customs procedures would be streamlined. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN SUPPORTS PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. Azerbaijani Foreign Minister Hasan Hasanov has written to US Secretary of State Warren Christopher expressing his country's support for NATO's Partnership for Peace program, Interfax reported on 15 February. Hasanov explained that Azerbaijan's positive assessment of the program was based in part on its endorsement of the principle of the inviolability of existing frontiers. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. NAZARBAEV IN THE US. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev spent his second day in Washington meeting with economic and financial officials, including the US Secretaries of Commerce and the Treasury, the president of the World Bank, and the managing director of the International Monetary Fund, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 16 February. Although the US officials declined to discuss the substance of their meetings with the Kazakhstani president, presumably the implementation of increased US assistance to Kazakhstan was discussed. In a meeting with US businessmen on 14 February, Nazarbaev pointed out Kazakhstan's need for help in developing its transportation system. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CONFUSION CONTINUES OVER WESTERN DEMANDS ON SERBS. International media report on 16 February that differences have yet to be fully resolved between UN and NATO officials over the nature of the "control" to be placed on Serb artillery under the terms of the Atlantic alliance's 9 February ultimatum. UN commanders on the ground appear to favor electronic monitoring of the weapons, while their NATO counterparts seem to stress that control must be total and physical. The Washington Post and The New York Times suggest that the US has come to accept a compromise not far from the UN commanders' position. The Post says that the Serbs might be encouraged simply to move their weapons outside the Sarajevo area, to "be used without NATO interference against other territory held by Bosnian Muslims." Reuters on 15 February notes that the point has not been lost on Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, who said that "certainly we should withdraw some weaponry . . . and we may need those pieces elsewhere, not for offensive purposes, only for defensive purposes." Bosnia's ambassador to Brussels, Nedzad Hadzimusic, countered by saying that any move short of taking physical possession of the guns "stinks." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. PAPOULIAS MEETS MILOSEVIC. On 15 February Serb media reported extensively on Greek Foreign Minister Karolos Papoulias' statements to the press after his meeting with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic. Tanjug reports that Papoulias said that the purpose of his visit to Belgrade was to work for a peaceful resolution of the Bosnian conflict and to find the means of averting NATO airstrikes against Bosnian Serb positions. He stated that Athens has profound reservations about the use of NATO forces against the Bosnian Serbs, because air strikes could cause an escalation in the Bosnian fighting or even trigger a wider Balkan conflict. He added that a lasting peace in Bosnia could only be achieved when all sides involved in the conflict were prepared to compromise. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. CROATS UNEASY OVER BOSNIA AND SERBIA. The 16 February New York Times says that, while Croats across the political spectrum have applauded the NATO ultimatum, officials fear that the Atlantic alliance might be tempted to use the same tactics against Croats, if they work on Serbs. It is also feared that the Serbs or Muslims may turn their attention to Croat positions once hostilities around Sarajevo end. The main topic in the Croatian press in recent days, however, is the controversy surrounding the naming of Veljko Knezevic as Belgrade's new ambassador to Croatia. Knezevic is an ethnic Serb from Croatia and a former director of Zagreb television, and his appointment appears to throw cold water on Croatian hopes that Serbia might be ready to turn its back on the Krajina Serbs and recognize Croatia's Tito-era borders. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. TUDJMAN IN ROMANIA. Croatia's President Franjo Tudjman arrived on 14 February in Bucharest for a three-day visit, Radio Bucharest reports. On the same day, he discussed bilateral relations and the conflicts in former Yugoslavia with his Romanian counterpart, Ion Iliescu. The two countries are expected to sign a friendship and cooperation treaty and a series of bilateral agreements. Tudjman's visit came in response to the visit paid by Iliescu to Zagreb in June 1993. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. MACEDONIAN DEVELOPMENTS. The International Monetary Fund has reportedly approved a loan of about $17 million to aid Macedonia's economic reforms in 1994, according to an RFE/RL correspondent. A similar amount may be forthcoming in six months if Macedonia's reform program is effective. Regarding external issues, MIC reported on 15 February that Greece has pledged to cease blocking Macedonia's admission to the CSCE. Meanwhile, Reuters reported on the same day from Greece that opposition to recognition of Macedonia continues, as tens of thousands rallied in front of the US consulate in Thessaloniki to protest the US' recognition of the Republic of Macedonia. Demonstrators, who threw eggs, coins and other objects at the consulate building, chanted "Clinton has betrayed the Greek People" and "Macedonia is Greek, "according to a Politka report. The demonstration was allegedly sponsored by the local Greek Orthodox Church. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH FOREIGN MINISTER CONTRADICTS KLAUS ON BOSNIA. Speaking on TV station Nova on 15 February, Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec said that he is convinced that the Czech Republic must "at least symbolically" support the NATO ultimatum to warring parties in Sarajevo. Zieleniec said that "it is not possible to see NATO countries as potential partners and allies and, at the same time, to distance ourselves from them at a time when they are making difficult decisions." Zieleniec said that Sarajevo is a city that "is experiencing horrible things, a city that is being strangulated." According to the foreign minister, air strikes may alleviate the situation and "that is why I support the NATO action." Zieleniec's statements appeared to contradict the stand of Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus who has said that an outside intervention could escalate the war and that air strikes against Serb positions would be "unfair." Klaus has argued that there are no clear battle-lines and fronts in Bosnia and, "therefore, it is difficult to determine who fired which grenade." Klaus's statements have been criticized by some of his party's coalition allies, who have called for a resolute Western action in Bosnia. President Vaclav Havel expressed support for the NATO ultimatum and a possible military action on 13 February. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW CZECH LAW ON WEAPONS EXPORTS. The Czech Parliament passed a law on 15 February dealing with the export of weapons. The law sets rules for granting licenses to weapons exporters. CTK reports that under the law weapons exporters must be legal entities based in the Czech Republic, who have obtained a license from the ministry of industry and trade. The license must be approved by the foreign, defense, and interior ministries. The law forbids trading in nuclear, chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction. It provides for penalties of up to 8 years in prison and a possible fine for anyone found guilty of violating its provisions. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE IN MECIAR ON 17 FEBRUARY? On 15 February Party of the Democratic Left Deputy Chairman Milan Ftacnik told Reuters that the opposition should agree on a list of shadow ministers by 16 February and that a no-confidence vote in Premier Vladimir Meciar is expected the following day. Meanwhile, Meciar has been increasing calls for early elections, which he wants to hold in June (other parties prefer to wait at least until the fall), and he said on Slovak Television that if the parliament rejects a June poll, a referendum would be held. The issue will be discussed during the 16 February parliamentary session, but the support of at least 90 deputies will be needed for the law to pass, TASR reports. In a 15 February Slovak cabinet meeting concerning privatization, Meciar demanded that Deputy Premier Roman Kovac and Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik leave the session (both have signed on to the Alternative of Political Realism faction within the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, aiming to form a broad coalition government without Meciar). Both Kovac and Moravcik have been expelled from the MDS by Bratislava district committees, but Kovac said he is waiting for the decision of the party congress, which is scheduled for March. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PRESIDENT COMMENTS ON CURRENT SITUATION. On the occasion of the first anniversary of his election as president, on 15 February, Michal Kovac held a press conference, which included discussions of the present crisis. Kovac said he was "dissatisfied" with the level of cooperation he has with Meciar, saying that his demands for greater participation "have not been met with great understanding." He also said he has not yet received proposals for the dismissal of Roman Kovac and Moravcik and has told Meciar that such plans could "evoke further doubts about Slovakia and its policy." Finally, Kovac encouraged MDS deputies to join the new coalition government, rather than the opposition, in the case of Meciar's defeat in a no-confidence vote. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV DELAYS SLOVAK VISIT. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev made a last-minute change in his schedule for an upcoming tour of Greece and the Visegrad countries. Originally scheduled to begin his trip with a visit to Slovakia on 16 and 17 February, on 15 February it was announced that he would postpone his visit to Slovakia until 24 February. No explanation was given. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. WALESA ADVOCATES PRESIDENTIAL RULE. In a 15 February interview with PAP, President Lech Walesa said that in the current transition period Poland required a more effective executive subordinated to the president. Commenting on conflicts in the ruling coalition, he said that parliament should be concerned with legislation and control of the executive, and not waste energy on forming a majority to govern; that should be the president's worry. Walesa prophesied that popular disaffection would shake the government, possibly forcing new elections and prolonging the political instability of the last four years. He gave himself three or four months to decide whether to build around himself a "strong bloc which will sweep the lot--president, premier and government." Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka, RFE/RL, Inc. LARGE STATE FUNDS LOST IN HUNGARIAN FINANCIAL SCANDAL. The Hungarian State Securities Supervision suspended Lupis Brokerage House Inc. from trading activities for allegedly squandering an estimated two billion forints ($19.6 million) of investors' money, The Wall Street Journal, and MTI report on 16 February. Investors with outstanding claims against Lupis include the Hungarian Defense Ministry, with about 800 million, the Interior Ministry with 100 million, and the state railway corporation MAV, with about one billion forints. Brokers have been pushing the government for over a year to introduce new regulations by amending the Securities Act to avoid such scandals. The strong banking lobby, however, which still hopes to turn back the clock and regain securities trading rights for Hungary's banks, opposes such legislation. Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIA'S MRF PARTY DISSATISFIED WITH CABINET. Over the past weeks leading members of the mainly Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms have expressed growing dissatisfaction at the way the government led by Lyuben Berov has handled issues crucial to the Bulgarian Turkish minority, such as the tobacco farming industry and labor market policies. On 15 February MRF leader Ahmed Dogan met with Berov and called on the government to abandon its plans to further centralize tobacco manufacturing and instead help reorganize it according to current world market conditions. Dogan also asked that the measures be coupled with an active labor market policy in the regions affected. In turn, the MRF leadership is apparently under increasing pressure. Following four previous defections of parliamentary deputies and extensive media coverage of discontent among followers, on 15 February legislator Sherife Mustafa formally resigned as MRF Deputy Chairwoman. On the same day Ibrahim Tatarla and Arif Mustakla were elected new Deputy Chairmen, while caucus leader Yunal Lyutfi retained that position. Because of defections from all parliamentary groups, the MRF no longer holds the balance of power in the National Assembly. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. "BERLIN WALL" GOING UP IN MOLDOVA. A decree by "president" Igor Smirnov, reported by Russian and Moldovan media on 11 February, requires all visitors who are citizens of "other states" including Moldova to enter and exit the "Dniester republic" only through the latter's customs and checkpoints at its "state border," undergo passport and visa control there, and specify in writing the purpose of their visit. The "border" takes in the major right-bank city of Bendery, mostly held by the left-bank forces. The establishment by force of a "border" between the two parts of Moldova and the introduction of Dniester "border troops" in the security zone constitute major violations of the 1992 armistice convention and of Russian "peacekeeping" commitments, but the Russian side has blocked a response by the armistice control commission. Moldova views the emergence of a "Berlin Wall" on the Dniester as a grave violation of the human rights of its citizens and as further evidence of the "Dniester republic's" lack of interest in settling the conflict. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. POLITICAL STRIKES IN BELARUS. On 15 February a one-day general strike was held in Minsk, various agencies reported. The strike had been called by the Belarusian Strike Committee following the removal of Stanislau Shushkevich from office as the chairman of the Supreme Soviet. Among the demands presented to the new Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Mechyslau Hryb, were calls for the resignation of Prime Minister Vyacheslau Kebich's government, the formation of a provisional government, early parliamentary elections in March 1994, the granting of 15 minutes of broadcast time every night on Belarusian TV to the Strike Committee, as well as measures to improve the lot of workers. Estimates of the number of workers striking varied between 2,000 and 20,000. Hryb refused to meet openly with the Popular Front opposition or the Strike Committee. The organizers said they would broaden their strike if the government did not resign by 22 February, when parliament is to meet again. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BALTIC BATTALION--NOT FOR "HOT SPOTS." At their meeting in Riga the Baltic defense ministers discussed common security issues and formed working groups to deal with specific tasks: Estonia will head a group on military training and weapons standardization according to NATO regulations; Latvia--air space and border control; and Lithuania--information and communications systems. A new working group on the Baltic peacekeeping battalion is to meet in Estonia on 21 February. Commander of the Latvian armed forces Col. Dainis Turlais said that the battalion, to be comprised of one brigade each from Estonia, Latvia, and Latvia, is not intended for peacekeeping operations in "hot spots," such as Bosnia; the immediate goal of the battalion, said Turlais, is "to acquire modern experience during joint maneuvers with NATO states and the member states of the Partnership fro Peace program, and to create a single defense space in the region," Interfax, BNS, and Diena reported on 15 February. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA TO MARK ITS BORDERS WITH ESTONIA UNILATERALLY? Russian Foreign Ministry official Sergei Prikhodko told Interfax on 14 February that if Tallinn persists in its territorial claims on Russia and continues to evade discussions on border demarcation, Moscow will have to mark the border unilaterally. While insisting that this "does not mean an ultimatum to Estonia or a threat to seal the border," Prikhodko noted that the existing situation "complicates the work of services designed to guard the border and protect Russia's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and the activity of customs officials." Recently other Russian officials, including Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin, made similar statements to the press regarding the border, failing to point out that the border question is among the still unresolved issues on the agenda of Russian-Estonian talks. The problem stems from the fact that Moscow wants to mark the border that existed between the Estonian SSR and the RSFSR, while Estonia wants Moscow to recognize the validity of the 1920 Estonia-Russian peace treaty (which was never revoked and which also defined the borders between the two countries) before any discussion of new borders can start. After the USSR incorporated the Baltic States in 1940, some territory from Estonia and Latvia was annexed by Russia. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA REJECTS PROSTITUTION LEGALIZATION. On 15 February the Estonian parliament rejected a bill that would have introduced a licensing system for prostitutes, Reuters reports. Although Prime Minister Mart Laar expressed support for the bill in November 1993, a public outcry at home and abroad, particularly in Scandinavia, forced him to change his position. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Vladimir Socor and Michael Shafir The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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