|One word frees us of all the weight and pain of life: that word is love. - Sophocles|
No. 29, 11 February 1994
RUSSIA RUSSIA EASES OPPOSITION TO AIR STRIKES ON BOSNIA. On 10 February Moscow appeared to drop its opposition to the launching of UN air strikes on Serb positions in Bosnia when Russia's UN ambassador, Yulii Vorontsov, told reporters that Moscow would not insist on convening the UN Security Council to approve the operations and that UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali was indeed within his rights in ordering the strikes. According to the Los Angeles Times, Vorontsov did make a formal request for an urgent meeting of the Security Council "to consider practical ways to demilitarize Sarajevo and to introduce there a UN administration." Russia would apparently not be allowed to introduce a resolution or call for a vote at that meeting. Considering Vorontsov's surprising reversal, the Washington Post suggested that Russian officials had determined that they have little room for diplomatic maneuver at the UN. "Consequently," the newspaper said, "they appear to be talking tough against NATO at home, where they face powerful nationalist pressures to confront the West . . . [while] taking moderate action in diplomatic practice." Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. BUT DISCORDANT NOTES PERSIST. Indeed, remarks by Russian Foreign Ministry spokesmen in Geneva and Moscow remained confrontational. In Geneva, Russia's special envoy on Yugoslavia, Vitalii Churkin, charged on 10 February that the West had failed to think through the consequences of air strikes in Bosnia on Russia's domestic political situation, Reuters reported. He, and other Russian officials, also appeared to be trying to exploit potential tensions between the UN and NATO, calling the air strikes a "risky operation" and suggesting that NATO operations might endanger UN peacekeeping forces already on the ground. In Moscow Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Anatolii Adamishin questioned Boutros-Ghali's authority to launch the strikes and suggested that the ultimatum issued to the Bosnian Serbs by NATO exceeded that organization's mandate. As reported by Interfax on 10 February, he also suggested that issuing the ultimatum might embolden Bosnia's Muslims, and charged that they had "already become virtually the main obstacle on the road to a settlement." Meanwhile, the chairman of the Russian Duma's sub-committee on security, Vyacheslav Nikonov, warned that the launching of air strikes could endanger ratification of START-2 by parliament. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN UNREACHABLE? Meanwhile, US President Bill Clinton has apparently been unable to reach Russian President Boris Yeltsin by telephone for more than two days in order to discuss the Bosnia dispute. According to the Washington Post of 11 February, US officials have described as "curious" the persistence of "technical problems" that have kept Yeltsin incommunicado. A senior administration official reportedly said that there was "no sense of alarm or concern" in Washington, however, and pointed out that national security adviser Anthony Lake had spoken with his Russian counterpart, as had American UN ambassador Madeleine Albright, and that James F. Collins, a senior State Department official, had also been in contact with senior Russian officials. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. LOCAL MEDIA STOPPAGES. Workers at local television and radio stations in 30 regions of the Russian Federation temporarily halted transmission to protest against overdue government payments, ITAR-TASS reported on 10 February. Local radio and television workers were demanding that the government pay debts of 80,000 million rubles, most of it in overdue salaries. On the evening of the same day, however, the strike leaders decided to stop disruption of broadcasts. The strike was suspended in response to an appeal from Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, who promised that the government would pay communications workers their outstanding wages by the end of March. Izvestiya warned the same day that the TV strike could signal the beginning of a nationwide wave of strikes next month, including stoppages by oil workers and others who are trying to force government to pay up to six months' worth of overdue wages. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. VORKUTA MINE BUILDERS STRIKE SPREADS. A strike by mine builders in the Russian northern region of Vorkuta spread on 10 February. ITAR-TASS reported that several hundred mine builders were on strike. The strike began on 9 February to press demands for payment of several months' worth of unpaid wages. The strikers are also demanding the implementation of earlier agreements with the government on alleviating the problems of miners and other residents of Russia's northern regions. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE PROMISES OF MONEY FOR DEFENSE INDUSTRY. Interfax reported on 9 February that the Russian defense industry will receive 1.5 trillion rubles as partial payment of the government's debt to industry for arms purchases. Oleg Lobov, Russian Security Council secretary, made the announcement, noting that it would cover 85% of the total debt. Past promises of imminent payment have not been fulfilled, although pressure for payment has been increasing from both defense industry and military representatives, including Defense Minister Pavel Grachev. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. MILITARY PUBLICATIONS TO BE DISCONTINUED. Moskovsky komsomolets reported on 9 February that, according to reliable sources, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev has ordered the discontinuation of approximately a dozen military publications in the near future. Financial difficulties were given as the reason for the action, although the newspaper suggested that the cool attitude toward the Defense Minister himself displayed by these publications may have been a more important cause. Other sources have suggested, however, that many of the minor military publications have, in fact, remained in the hands of unreconstructed communists, and that Grachev has been unable to conduct a housecleaning. The decision to close them may be connected with their actions in the lead-up to the December parliamentary elections. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RESTRUCTURING OF THE PRESIDENTIAL APPARATUS. Another round of restructuring in the presidential staff is nearing completion, Kommersant-daily reported on 10 February. The President's senior aide, Viktor Ilyushin, and the head of the Presidential Administration, Sergei Filatov, have apparently both emerged strongly from the reorganization. Kommersant-daily also noted that the Main Protection Administration and the president's personal bodyguard service have become more independent of the presidential apparatus. At the same time, the presidential administration has taken control of three main "power ministries" (defense, internal affairs, and the counterintelligence service). Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. GAIDAR ON NEW PARTY. The leader of the radical reformist movement Russia's Choice, Egor Gaidar, met with leading Moscow activists to discuss a further consolidation of pro-reformers' ranks, Interfax reported on 10 February. Many other leading members of Russia's Choice did not participate at the meeting, which may indicate that a new split is emerging within the movement. Gaidar said that he wants to create a new political party on the basis of Russia's Choice which would enable reformers to create a "well-oiled campaign machine to succeed in the 1996 presidential elections." Presidential spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov, who attended the meeting, stated that there will be "an ideological connection" between President Yeltsin and the new party. Other participants in the meeting, such as former dissident Zoya Krakhmalnikova and journalist Andrei Cherkizov, criticized Gaidar for his neglect of social policy. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS DISARMAMENT AID TO UKRAINE TO DOUBLE. At a meeting with representatives of Ukrainian-American organizations on 10 February, US President Bill Clinton announced that he expected US aid for Ukrainian nuclear disarmament to double from its current budgeted level of $175 million. In addition, bilateral economic aid is also expected to double. A formal announcement of the increase will be made when President Kravchuk visits Washington in March. Clinton also reiterated US plans to offer security guarantees (as specified in the trilateral agreement) to Ukraine after its accession to the nuclear non-proliferation treaty. Clinton's comments were reported by Reuters and other Western press agencies. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. CRIMEAN PRESIDENT TO MOSCOW FOR TALKS. Recently-elected Crimean President Yurii Meshkov has met Russian leaders in Moscow on 10 February, Radio Rossii "Novosti" reported. Meshkov, however, declined to name the politicians in the Russian government and parliament to whom he had spoken, saying only that he discussed the reestablishment of economic links between Russia and Crimea. He also said that the people of Crimea should not suffer economically from the political and economic errors made by the Ukrainian leadership. Meshkov, who plans to stay in Moscow for a few more days, emphasized that Crimea had to conduct an independent economic policy, but denied that the political situation in the peninsula could become strained. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ALIEV IN TURKEY. On 9 February, the second day of his official visit to Turkey, Azerbaijan's President Geidar Aliev signed a ten-year treaty of friendship and cooperation with Turkey that provides mutual assistance in the case of aggression by a third party, in consultation with the UN and other international organizations, ITAR-TASS reported. Fifteen other documents on trade and investment and scientific and cultural cooperation were also signed. Turkish President Suleyman Demirel reaffirmed Turkey's commitment to achieving an Armenian withdrawal from occupied Azerbaijani territory; Aliev in turn requested increased arms supplies from Turkey to reduce his country's dependence on the Russian military, according to Hurriyet of 10 February. Aliev's visit constitutes a rapprochement between the two countries after a cooling-off period following the removal of Azerbaijan's pro-Turkish President Abulfaz Elchibey. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. ABKHAZ SITUATION DETERIORATES. Following the joint appeal on 9 February by Russian President Yeltsin and Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze to UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali for the deployment of UN peacekeeping troops in Abkhazia, Abkhaz Prime Minister Sokrat Dzhindzholia was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 10 February as stating that Abkhazia would condone the deployment of such forces only on the border between Abkhazia and the rest of Georgia. Meanwhile a Georgian official told Interfax on 10 February that Georgian civilians continue to flee Abkhazia's Gali raion to escape ethnic cleansing, while Abkhaz parliament speaker Beslan Bardzhgania told Interfax that Georgian saboteurs had shelled a hospital in the Abkhaz capital Sukhumi. Also on 10 February, the Abkhaz parliament issued a statement proclaiming Abkhazia's independence from Georgia, according to Interfax. It had previously been suggested that the issue of Abkhazia's status within Georgia should be decided by a referendum. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV ON BAIKONUR. After a brief visit to the space center at Baikonur in Kazakhstan on 10 February, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told ITAR-TASS that he is guardedly optimistic that a solution can found to the dispute between Russia and Kazakhstan over the future of the site. This will be one of the issues to be discussed at a meeting sometime in March between Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev and Boris Yeltsin. Interfax reported that the acting chief of the launch site, Major-General Viktor Grafinin, complained to Kozyrev that Russia's space research program is likely to be disrupted if the status of Baikonur is not determined soon. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SHELLS "OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN" HIT SARAJEVO. The Washington Post reports on 11 February that at least two "artillery blasts" hit the besieged Bosnian capital the previous day, probably ending yet another cease-fire. UN observers said that the origin of gunfire could not be determined, but Muslim artillery fired at Serb positions in apparent response. The 11 February International Herald Tribune, meanwhile, quotes Bosnian Serb generals as contradicting political leader Radovan Karadzic's earlier statement that Serb artillery would be pulled back from Sarajevo voluntarily. The generals said they have no such intention, and threatened the safety of foreign aid workers in Bosnia. General Milan Gvero said: "If representatives of their countries bomb us, they will remain with us." Karadzic had also said on 9 February that he "could not guarantee" the safety of foreigners if Serb positions were bombed. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BELGRADE REACTS TO NATO ULTIMATUM. On 11 February the rump Yugoslav media reported extensively on reactions in Belgrade to the possibility that NATO may undertake air strikes against Bosnian Serb positions. The ultimatum has not been welcomed by any major political leader, and denunciations have ranged from mild to fervent. In his statement to the media, Democratic Opposition of Serbia leader Vuk Draskovic observed that "nothing was ever solved by ultimatums" and stressed that a settlement in the Bosnian war would come about when all three warring factions were disarmed. According to Politika, representatives from the minor ethnic Albanian coalition in the Serbian parliament as yet have no formal position on the ultimatum, but "welcome in principle any measure of the international community that will bring peace." Thus far it has been the Serbian Radical Party leader Vojislav Seselj who has most vigorously condemned the ultimatum. According to Borba, he has said categorically that "the ultimatum must be rejected . . . because it is no way to communicate with the Serbian people." An official reaction from Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic still appears to be pending. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. TURKEY WELCOMES NATO DECISION ON AIR STRIKES. The 11 February Milliyet quotes Prime Minister Tansu Ciller as applauding the NATO decision to present an ultimatum to Bosnian Serbs. A Milliyet commentator, as well as a foreign ministry spokesman quoted in Hurriyet, said that Turkey would participate in any NATO action but not in the actual bombing. Ankara plans to limit its activity to logistics and reconnaissance. Turkey has strong cultural and historical ties to the Bosnian Muslims and has long urged tough action against the Serbs. Turkey's allies, however, have favored a low profile for any Turkish role in dealing with the conflict, given the deep historical animosity between Serbs and Turks. Patrick Moore and Yalcin Tokgozoglu, RFE/RL, Inc. US RECOGNIZES MACEDONIA. In an effort to promote stability in the Balkans, the United States formally recognized Macedonia on 9 February according to a statement issued by the White House in Washington. The action was taken, according to the statement, as recognition that Macedonia has become "a sovereign and independent state based on democratic principles." The announcement noted certain conditions such as assurances regarding meeting the CSCE norms which will need to be satisfied before diplomatic relations can be established. Throughout the US statement, Macedonia was referred to using the temporary name accepted by the UN ,"The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," not the constitutional name "Republic of Macedonia," an apparent concession to Greece. The announcement notes the expectation that Greece and Macedonia will resolve their differences and the hope that the recognition will "encourage flexibility" in addressing outstanding issues. Agencies report that Greek leaders regard the US decision to recognize Macedonia as a mistake, while Macedonian officials expressed their satisfaction with the move and noted their willingness to negotiate with Athens. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. DJILAS SAYS THAT SERB-CROAT PACT IS A DONE DEAL. The independent Zagreb weekly Globus in its 4 February issue runs an interview with prominent analyst of Yugoslav-area affairs and former dissident Milovan Djilas. He says that the planned restoration of relations between Zagreb and Belgrade announced on 19 January is the result of political problems faced by presidents Franjo Tudjman and Slobodan Milosevic. Djilas argues that the Serbian leader sacrificed the interests of the Krajina Serbs to get his deal with the Croats. But the likely future Croatian ambassador to rump Yugoslavia, Zvonimir Markovic, suggests that Krajina is still on the agenda and will be the last major problem to be tackled. Borba reports on 8 February that Markovic feels that four steps will have to be dealt with before the crucial and interrelated matters of Krajina, Croatia's Serb minority, and the republic's frontiers can be addressed: establishing a cease-fire; setting up embassies; restoring infrastructure links; and opening formal diplomatic relations. Politika reports on 9 February that the rump Yugoslav government has approved the setting up of a Croatian bureau in Belgrade. There is widespread feeling in Croatia, however, that Serbia should recognize Croatia's Tito-era borders as a precondition for talks, and that, in any event, the Croatian leaders should better concentrate on improving relations with the Muslims rather than making deals with the Serb enemy. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. RUMP YUGOSLAV ECONOMY. On 9 February Borba reported that Vuk Ognjanovic, rump Yugoslavia's finance minister, stressed to reporters that the 1994 budget would succeed in "cutting the deficit, and not increasing it." Ognjanovic credited rump Yugoslavia's new currency, the "super dinar", as being the instrument to lead the country to financial stability. According to Ognjanovic, the biggest chunk of the budget, roughly 75%, will continue to be swallowed up by the federal army. The minister also suggested that the rump Yugoslav government might wish to consider using economic levers to control Krajina. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. MACEDONIA GETS WORLD BANK SUPPORT. The World Bank has approved loans amounting to $80 million, according to an RFE/RL correspondent's report of 10 February. Half of the money will be awarded as loans, half as credits from the Bank's affiliate, the International Development Association. The funds will be used to help economic reform and stabilization. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH GOVERNMENT REVISES BUDGET PROPOSALS. Meeting on 10 February to discuss revisions to the draft 1994 budget, the Polish cabinet opted to propose increased spending on education, culture, and social welfare, PAP reports. Quoting unofficial sources, Polish TV's "Panorama" reports that the new spending amounts to a total of 2.7 trillion zloty ($126 million). Labor Minister Leszek Miller conceded that his ministry will receive an additional 500 billion, to promote investment in areas threatened with high unemployment. The government stressed that this new spending will not raise the deficit, which remains set at 83 trillion zloty ($ 4 billion). But, to the consternation of journalists, the cabinet provided no information on the sources or distribution of the additional funds; this will be made public only on 11 February, after the Sejm's budget commission reviews the government's proposals. At the same time, the government announced that, "in connection with the lack of additional sources for budget revenues, there is no way to finance" the additional spending increases proposed by various Sejm commissions. These amounted to roughly 30 trillion zloty ($1.4 billion). The opposition has already charged the government with being wildly optimistic in its revenue calculations. The final Sejm vote on the budget is expected in late February. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUS SIGNS TRADE AGREEMENT WITH CZECH REPUBLIC, SLOVAKIA. Czech Minister of Industry and Trade Vladimir Dlouhy and Uladzimir Radkevich, Chairman of the Belarus State Committee for Foreign Economic Relations signed an agreement calling for liberalization of trade, payments in convertible currency and direct contacts between businesses, Czech Television reported on 8 February. Radkevich was on a two day official visit to Prague. The agreement provides a framework for future accords on issues such as protection of investments and prevention of double taxation. On 10 February in Bratislava an agreement on trade and scientific and technical cooperation was signed by Slovak Economy Minister Jan Ducky and Radkevich. Radkevich said that bilateral trade totaled 30 million US dollars in 1993 and that both countries are trying to increase mutual economic contacts, TASR reports. Jan Obrman and Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. MECIAR'S PARTY SEEMS TO BE CRUMBLING. According to Sme of 10 February, the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia lost two more parliamentary deputies, bringing the party's number down to 63 out of 150 seats. Anna Korduliakova and Milan Mrenka said that 500 of the party's 730 members in the district of Cadca will join their new group called the National Social-Democratic Faction, whose members "feel a need for democracy, not for stringent party centralism." Meanwhile, during a 10 February meeting of government members with deputies from the MDS and its coalition partner, the Slovak National Party, Deputy Premier Roman Kovac spoke about his "differences of opinion" with Premier Vladimir Meciar. Kovac said he does not suffer from "basic ideological conflicts" with the premier but rather from "differences of opinion on the organization of the party and relations between deputies and the government." Kovac and Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik allegedly have at least twelve supporters among MDS deputies, TASR reports. Also on 10 February MDS deputy Peter Tomecek announced that he was creating a new group within the MDS called the Alternative of Political Realism, CTK reports. The ten-member group aims to create a wide government coalition without Meciar. Finally, Chairman of the MDS parliamentary caucus, Tibor Cabaj, confirmed that two of his deputy chairmen, Vladimir Bajan and Marian Kelemen, resigned from their posts on 10 February. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK DEMOCRATIC PARTY OFFICIALS KILLED IN CAR CRASH. On 6 February Democratic Party Chairman Ivan Duris and Deputy Chairman Vladimir Cech died in a car accident in eastern Slovakia. The DS is an extraparliamentary party which recently merged with the Conservative Democratic Party. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN STOCK MARKET HITS RECORD. The 4 February issue of the Financial Times reported that the Budapest Stock Exchange's index rose by 58 % in January. According to the paper, the new high level was mainly achieved through a substantial inflow of foreign capital into the Hungarian market. At the same time, the Credit Suisse First Boston investment company announced the launching of a $200 million fund which is to become active on the stock exchanges of Warsaw, Prague and Budapest. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. KEBICH ON MONETARY UNION. In an interview with Interfax on 11 February, the Belarusian prime minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, said that nearly all the terms of the monetary union between Russia and Belarus have been initialed. The final documents are to be signed in the near future when Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin visits Minsk. When asked if the union implied that Belarus would institute market economy reforms along the Russian road, Kebich replied that Belarus would not do so. According to Kebich, the merger of the monetary systems would not amount to a political or economic alliance, and only if Belarus entered an economic alliance with Russia would the country have to use the same approaches. One of the main issues of the monetary union has been the price Russia will charge Belarus for its energy. Belinform-TASS reported on 9 February that Kebich said if Russia did not charge Belarus the same price it charges Russian consumers there would be no monetary union. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUSIAN TRADE UNIONS OPPOSE STRIKE. On 9 February an RFE/RL correspondent reported that the independent trade unions of Belarusian industry decided against joining a national strike on 15 February. The strike had been called by the Council of Strike Committees of Belarus to demand the resignation of the government and new parliamentary elections. The head of the car and tractor union, Aleksandr Buhvostau, told Belapan that the unions would not participate in the strike because it is politically motivated. Buhvostau added that if the government did not act to relieve economic hardship the unions would make preparations for their own national strike. According to Interfax on 11 February, the unions' main demands are that the government take immediate measures to support domestic manufacturers, approve a program for creating new jobs and tighten state control over prices. A draft of the resolution also demands that a minimum salary of 45,000 Belarusian rubles be set from March. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA PROTESTS OVER KOZYREV'S ACCUSATIONS. On 9 February Estonia's President Lennart Meri demanded that Russian Ambassador Aleksandr Trofimov present an official explanation for recent statements by Russian officials, including Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and Foreign Ministry spokesman Mikhail Demurin on Russia's intention to protect ethnic Russians living in the former Soviet republics and accusations that Estonia and Latvia were carrying out ethnic cleansing against Russians living there. On 10 February Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar told BNS that "Russia's recent statements make it clear that Moscow is attempting to effect a turnabout in its relations with Estonia. Already "there is open talk about the insufficiency of diplomatic means to resolve the situation." Laar added, however, that "Estonia will stick to the same steady and calm course as before," but noted that "We intend also in the future to state our views to our eastern neighbor clearly and unambiguously." That same day Juri Kahn, Estonia's ambassador in Moscow, expressed his country's displeasure over recent Russian foreign policy statements to Aleksandr Udaltstev of the Russian Foreign Ministry and the Estonian parliament adopted a statement deploring what it perceived as the increasing imperialist tendencies in Russian foreign policy. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LAAR, ZHIRINOVSKY ON ROZHOK. On 4 February the Estonian authorities initiated criminal proceedings against Petr Rozhok, representative of Russian Liberal Democratic Party in Estonia, for attempting to instigate ethnic enmity. Rozhok recently told the Sillamaeski Vestnik that Estonia is ancient Russian territory and urged retired Russian officers and soldiers to form military units to protect their honor. Russian Liberal Democratic party leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky told the BNS on 9 February that "if a hair of Rozhok's head should be touched, the Estonian government will have to think about the fate of 900,000 Estonians." Affirming the correctness of bringing criminal action against Rozhok, Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar also pointed out that "Zhirinovsky's displeasure with us puts us in the pleasant company of all those East European nations he has expressed his annoyance with," BNS reported on 10 February. Laar said an investigation into the origin of anti-Semitic leaflets that are being disseminated in Estonia must also be conducted. "They may be linked with the activity of the Russian Liberal Democratic Party," he said. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN CURRENCY BOARD. On 7 February Lithuanian Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius met with deputies representing the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party in parliament, BNS reported on 8 February. He managed to secure their backing for his proposal to create a currency board and to peg the litas to a single foreign currency. The main opponent of the proposal is Bank of Lithuania Chairman Kazimieras Ratkevicius, who in an interview with Radio Lithuania on 31 January rejected the criticism by IMF officials, who said a tighter monetary policy was needed to combat inflation. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Michael Shafir The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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