|The only thing one knows about human nature is that it changes. - Oscar Wilde|
No. 28, 10 February 1994
RUSSIA UPROAR IN RUSSIA; BOSNIA IMBROGLIO LEAVES MOSCOW DEFIANT, ISOLATED. In a development likely to test Russia's friendly relations with the West, Russian political leaders of all persuasions lined up on 9 February to oppose a NATO proposal calling for air strikes against Serb positions in Bosnia. The dispute has left Russia isolated diplomatically; at the same time, the perception in Russia that Moscow's wishes have not been taken into account in UN deliberations could, over the longer term, threaten President Boris Yeltsin's already unsteady political authority at home. For the time being, however, the issue appears to have united Russia's usually fractious political elites. "The President, the government, and the State Duma are one in opposing any bombing," Reuters quoted Evgenii Ambartsumov, a prominent centrist deputy, as saying. That impression was reinforced by debate in parliament on 9 February, where deputies ranging from the liberal Egor Gaidar to the militant nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky registered opposition to the proposed air strikes. Zhirinovsky, just back from Serbia, made what Western agencies described as a sometimes hysterical speech in which he warned, among other things, that the launching of air strikes against Bosnia would amount to a declaration of war against Russia. He also called for the withdrawal of all foreign forces from the former Yugoslavia. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN, FOREIGN MINISTRY WORK TO HEAD OFF STRIKES. President Yeltsin, said by aides to be working from his country dacha because of a cold, conducted urgent consultations with world leaders by telephone on 9 February in an effort to avert the threatened military strike on Bosnia, Western and Russian sources reported. It was not revealed which governments he had contacted. Meanwhile, Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, speaking to reporters in Kazakhstan, again urged world leaders to consider Moscow's proposal to make Sarajevo a UN protectorate rather than launching the air attacks. Kozyrev said that Russia would consider sending its own troops as part of the effort to implement the plan. "We say yes' to a security zone, yes' to withdrawal of artillery and heavy weapons from this security zone . . . but no' to escalation of the conflict by resorting to air strikes," Kozyrev was quoted as saying by Reuters. According to the Los Angeles Times, Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin was scheduled to present the Russian plan for the demilitarization of Sarajevo at talks in Geneva on 10 February. On the same day, Reuters (quoting Interfax) reported that another Russian Deputy Foreign Minister, Anatolii Adamishin, said that Russia might call an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council to discuss the issue. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN MEDIA ON SARAJEVO. Ostankino and Russian TV reports of the Sarajevo market attack and NATO's ultimatum have carefully avoided giving any credence to the Western charge that the deaths were caused by a Serbian mortar attack. For example, Ostankino TV's news broadcasts of 9-10 February referred to an "explosion" in the market, claiming that "ballistics experts" had concluded that the shell could not have come from Serb-controlled territory and suggesting that it was fired from a nearby Muslim-controlled area. It also gave substantial coverage to Serbian claims that the explosion was a "terrorist act" carried out by Muslims in order to force NATO into action. "Similarly, Reuters reports that the military newspaper Krasnaya zvezda of 10 February carries a lead article propounding the allegation of Muslim responsibility for the deaths." John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN CONCEPT OF NATIONAL SECURITY MADE PUBLIC. President Yeltsin will present a new concept of national security in his address to the joint session of the Russian parliament next week, Pravda of 9 February reported. The concept, compiled from several alternative drafts, puts the emphasis on domestic threats to national security rather than external factors. Among such threats, the documents lists the danger of new ethnic conflicts on Russian territory and in the "near abroad;" the social instability caused by economic hardship; the pervasive corruption of the state administration and the penetration of organized crime into the federal government bodies; and the appalling ecological conditions in many areas of the Russian Federation. The authors of the concept believe that the current situation may require "the introduction of provisional presidential rule under parliamentary control." Finally, the concept reiterates the Kremlin's negative attitude towards the incorporation into NATO of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. PRESIDENTIAL PARTY TO BE SET UP. President Yeltsin has chosen his associate from the early days of the Russian democratic movement, Lev Shemaev, to coordinate the creation of his new presidential party, according to Segodnya of 9 February. The new party is being formed with support of the presidential administration and regional executive structures. Shemaev said the party would endorse Yeltsin's candidacy for the next presidential elections. He remarked that the party wants to work out a concept for Russia's economy for the next 10-15 years. He stated that representatives of the industrial lobby, bankers, entrepreneurs, as well as moderate reformers, are invited to join the party, but he excluded the participation of such politicians as Gennadii Burbulis, Sergei Shakhrai and Arkadii Volsky in the formation of the new party. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. SHOKHIN FOR LIMITED PRICE CONTROLS. On 9 February, the Economics Ministry held a four-hour long discussion of various alternative economic programs, Russian and Western agencies reported. The alternative scenarios examined included the Shatalin-Abalkin-Petrakov plan, the Glazyev-Lvov program, and Evgenii Saburov's blueprint. Summing up the discussion, Economics Minister Aleksandr Shokhin declared his support for limited price controls on such items as energy and rail transport, but was against a freeze on prices and wages and he also rejected any suggestion of reintroducing a fixed exchange rate for the ruble. Shatalin's proposals were scheduled to be presented to the State Duma on 10 February. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. KHANIN CALLS FOR RETURN TO COMMAND ECONOMY. Russian economist Grigorii Khanin, well-known for his critical analyses of official Soviet and Russian statistics, told an ITAR-TASS correspondent on 8 February that the attempt to create a market in his country had proven a total fiasco. The economy is "fifteen centimeters" from an abyss, and the embryonic market institutions in the nation are merely soap bubbles that could soon burst. Khanin suggested that the best idea would be to recreate temporarily Gosplan, Gossnab and other structures of the command economy. Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc. PLANS FOR RESCHEDULING IN 1994. According to The Journal of Commerce of 8 February, the Russian government has allocated $6.4 billion in the draft budget for 1994 towards the repayment of a total of $28 billion in principal and interest due this year on the external debt of the former Soviet Union. The government evidently plans to reschedule the balance. Moreover, it is hoping to receive new credits amounting to $6.3 billion, including $2.5 billion from international financial institutions. In 1993, Russia repaid $2.5 billion out of about $20 billion due. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. CHUBAIS CRITICIZES LUZHKOV. The day after Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov's denouncement of the national privatization program, Deputy Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Property Committee Anatolii Chubais called privatization in Moscow a "complete fiasco," Interfax reported on 9 February. Chubais said that a mere 12 large enterprises, or 2% of the planned total, had been privatized in Moscow. This compares with a national average of more than 65%. "I cannot be responsible for Moscow privatization," Chubais is quoted as saying, "[it] is run personally by Mayor Yurii Luzhkov." Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc. PLANS FOR RUSSIAN NUCLEAR FORCES. Izvestiya on 9 February reports that Russia's future strategic nuclear forces will be primarily based on the SS-25 "Topol" single-warhead ICBM and a follow-on variant. According to Academician Lev Volkov, approximately 30-40% of the ICBMs will be deployed on mobile launchers--the rest will be in silos. Volkov noted that some 900 launchers would be deployed, fewer than the maximum allowed under the START-2 treaty. Volkov did not provide any information on prospective submarine-based systems, although he criticized their safety record as compared to land-based missiles. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS SHUMEIKO GETS CIS POST. Vladimir Shumeiko, chairman of the upper chamber of the Russian parliament, has been elected chairman of the Interparliamentary Assembly (IPA) of the Commonwealth of Independent States, ITAR-TASS reported on 8 February. The assembly, which groups parliamentarians from eight CIS-members, is meeting in St. Petersburg. Shumeiko is the second representative of the Russian Federation to hold the post. He replaces Ruslan Khasbulatov, whose term of office would have expired at the end of October last year even if Boris Yeltsin had not clapped him behind bars at the beginning of that month. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS CONCLUDE. Reports from Interfax and Reuters on 9 February suggest that the first round of Ukrainian-Russian talks on implementing the trilateral agreement have indeed made progress. The talks are centering around six draft bilateral agreements. Ukrainian Deputy Prime Minister Valerii Shmarov told Interfax that the talks were "difficult" but that they were being carried out in a "good-natured" atmosphere. AFP reported on 10 February, citing the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry, that a preliminary package of agreements is to be submitted to the two presidents for their approval. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIANS DEMANDING CUT OF KAZAKH OIL DEALS. Russia is demanding hefty shares of the revenues from the multibillion dollar oil and gas development projects launched in Kazakhstan over the last year in exchange for the use of its pipelines for export purposes. Citing sources in the Kazakh fuel industry, AFP reported on 9 February that the Russians might demand as much as 40% of the revenue from sales of oil and gas from the Kazakh-British-Italian facility under construction in the Karachaganak field. The Guardian reported on 28 January that the Russians were demanding 20% of the revenue from the Kazakh-Chevron joint venture in Tengiz. Chevron officials have said that the joint venture is able to export only one-third of its current production owing to lack of transport capacity. Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA KOZYREV MEETS NAZARBAEV. Russian Foreign Minister Kozyrev met with Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev and Foreign Minister Tuleutai Suleimenov on 9 February, and stated afterward that there had been a concurrence of opinion on outstanding issues between the two countries, Russian news agencies reported. Russian-Kazakhstani working groups are to be formed to deal with questions of dual citizenship, military cooperation, and the future of the Baikonur space complex. Agreement between the two sides may not have been as complete as Kozyrev claimed, however: in an interview published in the 9 February issue of Komsomolskaya pravda Nazarbaev reiterated his opposition to dual citizenship, proposing instead that individuals who emigrate to Russia receive that citizenship, while residents of Kazakhstan hold Kazakhstani citizenship. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE NATO GIVES SERBS ULTIMATUM . . . International media report on 9 and 10 February that NATO ambassadors meeting in Brussels agreed after difficult discussions to give Bosnian Serbs until 21 February to move their artillery 20 kilometers from Sarajevo or place it under UN control; the alternative is to face airstrikes if the UN so requests. Canada had concerns for the safety of its 2,000 soldiers in Bosnia, and Greece opposed the airstrikes entirely but agreed not to veto the proposal, the BBC says. US President Bill Clinton stated that "Nobody should doubt NATO's resolve. NATO is now ready to act." Meanwhile, the UN brokered a cease-fire between Serbs and Muslims in Sarajevo in which the Serbs agreed to pull back their heavy guns. The track record of such agreements gives ground for skepticism. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . BUT SARAJEVO HAS ITS DOUBTS. The BBC reports on 10 February that the initial reaction in the Bosnian capital to the ultimatum was not optimistic. Observers noted that the NATO decision affects only Sarajevo and not the broader conflict, and that Serb artillery can still hit the city from 30 to 40 kilometers anyway. It was also pointed out that Serbs had put their heavy guns under UN control in Krajina, too, but then simply took them back when attacked by the Croats in January 1993. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, for his part, said that his men will "shoot down every plane we can." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BELGRADE REACTS TO SARAJEVO MASSACRE. Belgrade's official reaction to the Sarajevo marketplace bomb was one of condemnation. Serbian opposition party leaders denounced the bombing as an act of barbarism while Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, speaking on TV in Novi Sad on 8 February declared that "those killed and injured in Sarajevo were not the victims of war, but of war criminals." Yet on 9 February, AFP, citing Politka, reported that officials from the rump Yugoslav army supported Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic's interpretation of the incident. The army officers categorically denied that the bombing was the work of Bosnian Serbs, blaming instead Bosnian Muslims for detonating explosives causing deaths and injuries. Meanwhile, on 10 February Tanjug reports that Belgrade's official reaction to the possible NATO airstrikes is being withheld until later in the day. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIA OPPOSES AIR STRIKES IN BOSNIA. A foreign ministry spokeswoman told Reuters on 9 February that Bucharest continued to believe that "the use of force [in Bosnia] can only bring more tragedy and loss of human life." The spokeswoman added that Romania's Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu would express Romania's concern at the Geneva gathering of ministers from countries bordering former Yugoslavia. Romanian officials are expected to discuss the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina with Croatian President Franjo Tudjman during his visit to Romania, scheduled for 14-16 February. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. JOURNALISTS TO BOYCOTT THE GENEVA TALKS? Few observers of the Wars of the Yugoslav Secession seem to find the matter so odious as those who have to write about it regularly, and now it appears that some journalists intend to make their feelings felt. The Berlin Tageszeitung reports on 9 February that journalists accredited to the UN's Geneva offices are considering boycotting reporting at least the arrival of the delegations slated to join in the Bosnian peace talks on 10 February. The journalists want to protest the fact that talks are going on about "confidence-building measures" when people are being massacred. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVENE-CROATIAN RELATIONS ON THE MEND. Borba on 8 and 9 February reports on the meeting in Zagreb on 7 February between Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek and his Croatian counterpart Nikica Valentic. A number of economic issues between the two countries have been settled or are about to be resolved, including Croatia's debts to Slovenia's Krsko nuclear plant and the Ljubljanska Banka's obligations to its Croatian depositors. Outstanding issues include mainly a number of border-related questions, especially maritime frontiers, but much mistrust remains between the two former Yugoslav republics in the wake of mutual accusations of betrayal in their respective wars of independence in 1991. Vjesnik on 22 January suggested that Slovenia is anxious to put its relations with Croatia in order to make itself more acceptable to the West for membership in Partnership for Peace and the EU. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. IS THE HARMONY OF KOSOVAR ALBANIAN PARTIES HISTORY? The Kosovar Albanian newspaper Bujku broke a taboo and recently wrote "in detail and openly" on the conflicts within and among the various ethnic Albanian parties in Kosovo, Borba says on 8 and 9 February. The largest party is the Democratic League of Kosovo, which got about 90% of the votes in the underground elections in May 1992. The original article was written by the controversial Shkelzen Maliqi, the former leader of the Social Democratic Party of Kosovo, who had to resign and leave the party after he proposed the participation of Kosovar Albanian parties in the Serbian elections of December 1993. According to Borba, Maliqi said that "all Kosovar Albanian political parties have turned to factionalism and the forming of groups, that individuals fight for power' that does not really exist, and that all this is aimed at simulating real democratic political life in Kosovo." He added that one was facing "grotesque forms of combining democratic rhetoric with the traditional authoritarian ways of doing things." The Kosovo Albanians have hitherto taken great care to preserve an outward facade of unity, but the Borba articles suggest that much fighting over ideology and policy as well as among personalities has been going on behind the scenes. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. JESZENSZKY CALLS EMBARGO OF SERBIA BANKRUPT. At a hearing of the parliament's foreign relations committee, the Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky said the embargo against Serbia is not working, Hungarian radio reported on 9 February. Jeszenszky also said that the pressure on the Hungarian minority in Serbia had eased recently. Hungary will be the first to welcome the lifting of the embargo against Serbia if Belgrade will fulfill the requests of the international community, he added. Budapest, however, will not make unilateral moves in this direction. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. SOLIDARITY STAGES PROTEST MARCH IN WARSAW. An estimated 40,000 unionists participated in a protest march in Warsaw on 9 February, Polish TV reports. The march was organized by the Solidarity union to protest the government's proposed 1994 budget and other economic policies. Right-wing party leaders took part; many demonstrators shouted anticommunist slogans. The high turnout marked a reversal in the union's fortunes; it was the first show of strength since Solidarity unwittingly brought down the last government in May 1993. Solidarity Chairman Marian Krzaklewski stressed that the protest was "social" rather than "political" but threatened to move against the government should the union's demands go unanswered. He said it is unacceptable for real wages to continue to decline as Poland enjoys its third year of economic growth. The union's demands include: a halt to energy price hikes; increased spending on welfare and unemployment programs; a 2% hike in real wages for industrial workers; and passage by 15 March of all legislation embodying the "pact on state firms" negotiated by the last government. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH GOVERNMENT PREPARES WAGE CONTROLS. Meeting on 8 February, the Polish cabinet approved draft legislation designed to impose new wage controls on state firms. The controls are deemed necessary to hold down inflation and prevent wage-driven bankruptcies but they are also politically sensitive, as the two parties now in power campaigned against them in past parliaments and elections. In December the Sejm ignored government pleas and voted to abolish the existing "tax on excess wages" [popiwek ] by the end of March; since then many firms have simply ceased paying the tax. The cabinet has given the new draft an "urgent" tag in order to put new limits in force by 1 April. Firms without debts to the state treasury will be able to choose among four methods for setting wage levels; indebted firms will face a government-imposed limit. The bill will affect 5,600 firms employing 1.8 million people, PAP reports. In a sop to the unions, the draft bill includes a clause allowing the government to impose the tax on private firms when wage growth threatens the "balance of state finances." Both the OPZZ federation and Solidarity immediately condemned the government's proposals. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. ARRESTS IN CONNECTION WITH 1956 HUNGARIAN MASSACRE. The Budapest Attorney General's office said "a number of persons" were arrested in connection with an ongoing investigation regarding the 1956 massacre in Eger, MTI reported on 4 February. On 12 December 1956 police fired into an unarmed crowd, killing eight persons. These are the first arrests ever made in connection with the crushing of the 1956 revolution. Justice Minister Istvan Balsai rejected charges that the move was politically motivated. He said only those who are guilty, and especially "war criminals," should be apprehensive. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAKIA SIGNS PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE PLAN. On 9 February Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar, along with Deputy Premier Jozef Prokes and Defense Minister Imrich Andrejcak, traveled to Brussels to sign the Partnership for Peace agreement with NATO, making Slovakia the seventh country to join the initiative. Before leaving for Brussels Meciar told TASR that the signing of the agreement is the first step in building Slovakia's Euro-Atlantic security orientation. Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik, who was scheduled to accompany Meciar, was forced to stay in Slovakia because of back problems. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. IMF SAYS SLOVAK ECONOMY SHOWS POSITIVE SIGNS. Concluding a four-day visit to Slovakia on 8 February, IMF Executive Director Jacques de Groote said that Slovakia is likely to receive a stand-by loan and that the IMF will decide on this issue in the near future. Noting that the rate of inflation and unemployment are lower than anticipated by the IMF, de Groote said Slovakia should begin to see economic revival in 1995, TASR reports. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. PRAGUE POLICE ARRESTS LEADING ITALIAN MAFIOSO. A leading member of the Italian Mafia was arrested in the Mala Strana district, CTK reported on 9 February. A drug division police squad seized Eugenio Buontempo as he was leaving a wine bar. The report said that a Naples court had issued an international warrant for Buontempo's arrest. The warrant cited bribery and blackmail charges. According to CTK, Czech intelligence services had been cooperating with Italian secret police in the Buontempo case since 1992. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN SENATE APPROVES AGREEMENT WITH IMF. After ten hours of heated debate, Romania's Senate approved on 9 February a government agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The vote was 76 to 16, with 36 abstentions. The agreement calls for resolute reforms in Romania's economy, including new tax policies; strict budget control; freeing of interest, and money exchange rates, as well as consistent privatization programs. The vote in the Senate ended a two-month dispute among Romania's political parties. The opposition said it did not trust the government to implement the reforms required by the IMF. Romania's Chamber of Deputies had approved the accord on 8 February. Radio Bucharest covered extensively the Parliament's separate sessions. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. BEROV DEFEATS FIFTH NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE. The government of Prime Minister Lyuben Berov survived on 9 February its fifth no-confidence vote since it was formed 13 months ago, Bulgarian and Western media report. Just as the previous four, the motion had been introduced by the opposition Union of Democratic Forces, this time accusing the cabinet of having failed to curb crime and stop Mafia-type organizations to assume control over part of the economy. In a secret ballot, the National Assembly rejected the motion by 135 votes to 89, with three abstentions and one vote declared invalid. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT CONSIDERS 1994 BUDGET. While Berov undoubtedly has been strengthened by the vote, his government faces new challenges as the 1994 budget proposal is being reviewed by parliament. Opening discussions on the first reading on 8 February, Prime Minister Lyuben Berov called on legislators to consider the proposal "sensibly" instead of seeking "cheap effects and [short-term] political benefits." Berov argued that, in order for Bulgaria's relations with international financial institutions--primarily the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank--to develop as planned, the budget should be passed by 16 February. Although both the Economic Committee and the Budget and Finances Committee suggested that the government draft had been based on an overoptimistic estimate of Bulgaria's economic performance during 1994, BTA said all parliamentary committees recommended approval of the proposal on its first reading. A 6.7% budget deficit and a 35-40% annual inflation rate are envisaged in the present draft. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY REFUTES SAUDI REPORTS ON FLEET. In an article appearing in Uryadovii Kurier on 8 February, the Ukrainian defense ministry corrected a report printed in the Saudi Arabian newspaper Ash-Shark Al-Ausat on Ukraine's willingness to sell a substantial part of its naval inheritance to countries in the Persian Gulf region. The report had said Ukraine was willing to sell missiles and torpedoes, and had proposed that Iran buy a submarine. The defense ministry stated this was misinformation aimed at compromising Ukraine in the eyes of the international community. At the moment Ukraine does not control any part of the naval forces of the former Soviet Union, so there cannot even be any talk of selling battle ships and such equipment, it said. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. INFLATION IN ESTONIA INCREASES. The Estonian Statistics Department announced that the consumer price index increased 5.5% in January, BNS reported on 7 February. This is the largest monthly increase since the 9.2% rise in November 1992. In the last two months of 1993 the index rose 4.1% and 4.0%, respectively. The rise was due to a 10.8% increase for transport and communications, 6.7% for leisure activities, 5.9% for housing, 4.7% for food, and 3.1% for manufactured goods. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. BALTIC-NORDIC COOPERATION GROWS. More than 80 parliamentarians from Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden met in Riga on 4 and 5 February to work out the details of further Baltic-Nordic cooperation on social, economic, legal, environmental, educational, scientific, and cultural spheres, BNS reported on 4 and 5 February. The participants discussed specific projects, such as the possibility to introduce a common visa regime for the Baltic and Nordic countries, energy supplies (including plans to build a gas pipeline from Norway) and the establishment of the Via Hansa and Via Baltica highways. In Riga it was announced that the Nordic Council had granted the Baltic States half a million US dollars to implement various cooperation programs. Furthermore, the Nordic Council is expected to allocate additional funding for Baltic cooperation in its 1994 budget. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Michael Shafir The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. 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