As courage endagers life even so fear preserves it. - Leonardo Da Vinci
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 27, 9 February 1994

RUSSIA

FOREIGN MINISTRY ADAMANT ON BOSNIAN AIR STRIKES. Russian opposition to 
proposed air strikes on Serbian positions in Bosnia continues. Reuters 
reported that on 8 February Russia's UN ambassador, Yulii Vorontsov, 
proposed that Sarajevo be placed under UN administration immediately 
rather than be subject to strikes. According to the same report, Foreign 
Minister Andrei Kozyrev also wrote a letter to UN Secretary-General 
Boutros Boutros-Ghali in which he objected to using air power to open 
Tuzla airport, as NATO had previously authorized. In general, Foreign 
Ministry spokesmen have specified that they would approve the use of air 
cover if UN peacekeeping forces were attacked, but oppose what they 
describe as "pre-emptive" or "reprisal" strikes. Foreign Ministry 
spokesman Mikhail Demurin, during a briefing reported by Interfax on 8 
February, also argued that Serbian culpability for the 5 February mortar 
attack in Sarajevo has not yet been established. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, 
Inc. 

PARLIAMENT, MINISTRY OF DEFENSE ALSO REGISTER OPPOSITION. Russian 
parliamentarians have uniformly expressed opposition to the proposed air 
strikes. Interfax on 8 February quoted State Duma speaker Ivan Rybkin as 
saying that "non-violent solutions" to the situation in Bosnia should be 
sought, and that air strikes against Serbs "would do Europe a lot of 
harm." The Communist Party's leader, Gennadii Zyuganov, blamed Western 
European nations for originally encouraging the break-up of the former 
Yugoslavia and said that NATO air strikes would lead to an escalation of 
violence there. Finally, the deputy chairman of the parliamentary 
Committee for International Affairs (and a member of Vladimir 
Zhirinovsky's nationalist Liberal Democratic Party), Aleksei Mitrofanov, 
compared the mortar attack in Sarajevo to "setting the Reichstag on fire," 
and suggested that it was a deliberate provocation (presumably by 
non-Serbian groups) to destabilize the situation and to provide a pretext 
for attacking Serb positions. Meanwhile, Russian Defense Minister Pavel 
Grachev charged on Radio Moscow on 8 February that the dispatch of 
additional NATO contingents to Bosnia could lead the Muslim community to 
build up its own forces, escalating the conflict further; he said that 
Russia was trying to ensure that pressure be brought to bear on Croat and 
Muslim groups as well as on the Serbs. On the same day, according to 
Interfax, Russian air force commander Petr Deineken also warned against 
air strikes, arguing that they would result in civilian casualties. 
Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. 

MOSCOW READY TO AID ETHNIC RUSSIANS. Saying that "diplomatic measures are 
not enough," Foreign Ministry spokesman Mikhail Demurin told reporters on 
8 February that his ministry was currently drafting a program aimed at 
safeguarding the interests of the some 25 million ethnic Russians living 
in the former Soviet states. Reuters says the program would include 
economic support measures, the establishment of a powerful broadcasting 
network, and the granting by Russia of priority treatment to companies 
based outside Russia but run by ethnic Russians. Demurin said that the 
planned program, which would be submitted shortly for consideration in the 
government and then the parliament, would be very expensive; he suggested 
that the government would nevertheless ask parliament to provide the 
necessary state funding for it. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

KOZYREV AGAIN CHARGES "ETHNIC CLEANSING" IN BALTIC STATES. Repeating 
charges most recently published in the 14 February edition of Newsweek, 
Foreign Minister Kozyrev on 8 February again condemned what he described 
as "ethnic cleansing" allegedly being conducted in Estonia and Latvia. 
According to Interfax, Kozyrev said that Russia could not remain 
indifferent to what was happening near its borders and called upon the 
world to pay "attention to this inhuman and potentially dangerous 
situation." Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.

FEDOROV'S NEW POST. On 8 February Boris Fedorov, the former finance 
minister, was unanimously elected to be chairman of the State Duma's 
Sub-Committee on Central Bank Monetary and Credit Policies, an RFE/RL 
correspondent and Russian agencies reported. When another legislator 
expressed concern about Fedorov's relationships with Russian Central Bank 
(RCB) Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko, Fedorov assured the hearing that he 
harbored no personal animosity towards Gerashchenko. He went on call for a 
close scrutiny of the RCB's monetary and credit policy and for an 
examination of the RCB's final audit for 1993, of which an abridged 
version "contained many discrepancies;" and he roundly criticized the 
proposed merger of the Russian and Belarusian monetary systems. Keith 
Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. 

FARM LOBBYING CRITICIZED. On 8 February Defense Minister Grachev called 
for more funding for the military-industrial complex, Reuters reported, 
citing Russian TV. He told viewers that President Boris Yeltsin had agreed 
to allocate only 70% of the 2.3 trillion ruble arrears owed to defense 
plants for output delivered in 1993. "The main obstacle for me is Deputy 
Prime Minister Aleksandr Zaveryukha, whose rank is higher and who is by 
character more pushy," Grachev said. Zaveryukha has been lobbying hard for 
ever greater allocations from the 1994 federal budget to support the state 
agriculture sector. His demands have ranged from just a few trillion 
rubles to, effectively, 34 trillion rubles, and he has varied the mix of 
outright grants with credits, which, in the present context amount to much 
the same thing. Even First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets, who seems 
to favor subsidizing every sector, complained to Interfax on 5 February 
that Zaveryukha was trying to grab too much of the budget expenditure 
resources for farm support. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. 

LUZHKOV REJECTS PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM. Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov, 
addressing an economics conference in Moscow on 8 February, called for the 
revision of the State Property Committee's privatization program, various 
Russian news agencies reported. Luzhkov has been a long-standing critic of 
the program fathered by Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais. Last 
November he reportedly received Yeltsin's approval to draft a special 
decree for privatization in Moscow; but his attempt was apparently 
thwarted by Chubais and his supporters. Luzhkov objects to the giveaway 
character of the Chubais program and claims that it does not create 
effective ownership structures at privatized firms. Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, 
Inc.

ILLARIONOV FOLLOWUP. On 7 February Andrei Illarionov, the director of the 
Prime Minister's Group for Planning and Analysis, submitted his 
resignation, citing the new government's anti-reform policies [see RFE/RL 
Daily Report no. 26]. A government spokesman on 8 February countered this 
by telling Interfax that Illarionov had actually been fired for 
absenteeism. The advisor had taken three days off without permission to 
give some lectures in Britain. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.

YELTSIN SETS UP COUNCIL ON INFORMATIONAL DISPUTES. President Yeltsin 
issued a decree on 3 February, setting up a judicial body attached to the 
president's office to deal with disputes and other issues concerning the 
mass media. Izvestiya of 4 February says the chamber will resolve disputes 
between parliamentary factions over the distribution of broadcasting time 
on state-run media. It also has the right to issue warnings to publishers 
of periodicals and the management of broadcasting media if they "violate 
acceptable ethical norms." The chamber may suggest closing those media 
organs whose editorial policy violates existing legislation; the final 
decision on closure would then be taken by regular courts. Some 
journalists feel that the creation of a body within the presidential 
apparatus to supervise the performance of the mass media could encourage 
the political leadership to increase its control over the media. 
Journalists also objected to the vague wording of the decree and to the 
use of expressions such as "acceptable ethical norms" which are open to 
broad interpretation. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.

STATE DUMA VOTES TO INVESTIGATE OCTOBER EVENTS. State Duma deputies voted 
on 8 February by 274 votes to 46, with 20 abstentions, to create a 
parliamentary commission "to investigate the reasons and circumstances of 
the events of September and October 1993," Reuters reported on 9 February. 
The motion was proposed by pro-nationalist deputy Sergei Baburin, who had 
been a prominent opposition leader in the old parliament and who leads the 
Russian All-People's Union. Reuters quoted Baburin as saying that: "Until 
there is an objective investigation of . . . the October events, there 
will be blood not only on the government but on the State Duma." An 
earlier motion to order an investigation into the events had failed to 
muster sufficient support. Official figures put the death toll for the 
violence in early October at 147 people. Wendy Slater, RFE/RL, Inc.

CIS

DEPUTY CLAIMS START-1 RESOLUTION "FALSIFIED." Ukrainian parliamentary 
deputy Serhiy Holovatyy has charged, according to UNIAR on 8 February, 
that the official published text of the Ukrainian parliament's resolution 
on START-1 was not the one passed by parliament. Holovatyy said he 
proposed an amendment to the resolution, specifying that no transfer of 
warheads was to take place until treaties on compensation and security 
guarantees are signed. Holovatyy claims that the resolution was passed 
together with his amendment, but that the amendment was not included in 
the official published text as carried by UNIAR. While Holovatyy's 
comments have not yet been backed up by other deputies, they are 
consistent with other reports suggesting there was some confusion 
surrounding the vote on the resolution. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.

RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR TALKS. Russian and Ukrainian delegations held 
talks in Kiev on 8 February in order to resolve some of the outstanding 
details, such as the amount of compensation for tactical nuclear weapons, 
left unresolved by the trilateral agreement. Interfax quoted Yurii 
Dubinin, the Russian delegation's head, as stating that he wanted 
clarification on how Ukraine was interpreting START-1, specifically 
whether the parliament had voted for complete or only partial 
denuclearization. According to an AFP report, little progress was made at 
the talks, which were to continue on 9 February. In a related report, 
Interfax claimed that Russia is running short of nuclear reactor fuel 
since reactor operators have insufficient cash to pay for it. Whether this 
shortage would affect the trilateral agreement, which calls for the US to 
pay for an initial delivery of 100 tons of fuel to Ukraine, is unclear. 
John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.

TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

KOZYREV IN UZBEKISTAN. At the conclusion of a two-day visit to Uzbekistan, 
Russian Foreign Minister Kozyrev told journalists that discussions during 
his visit focused on economic and military ties between the two countries, 
as well as legal and humanitarian issues, Western and Russian news 
agencies reported on 8 February. Kozyrev was quoted as saying that 
progress had been made on the rights of Russian-speakers in Uzbekistan and 
"mutual misunderstanding" between Uzbekistan and Russia seems to have 
decreased. After Kozyrev's previous visit in November 1993, Uzbek 
officials expressed annoyance over his request that Uzbekistan institute 
dual citizenship for Russian-speakers. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.

NAZARBAEV AGAIN POSTPONES MEETING WITH YELTSIN. Kazakhstan's President 
Nursultan Nazarbaev has again postponed a visit to Moscow to meet Boris 
Yeltsin; Radio Rossii on 8 February quoted unidentified observers as 
saying that the reason for the postponement is the failure to resolve the 
issue of the space center at Baikonur. According to this account, the 
sticking point in negotiations between Kazakhstan and Russia over the 
future of the center is Kazakhstan's desire to use part of the complex 
itself for commercial purposes. Russian authorities want to lease the 
entire complex, not just the military portion. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

KARADZIC CALLS MASSACRE A "STAGE-MANAGED FRAUD." Reuters on 8 February 
quotes the outspoken Bosnian Serb leader as claiming in letters to the 
American and Russian presidents that the 5 February explosion at a 
Sarajevo market was orchestrated by the Muslims themselves. He charged 
that older corpses and plastic body parts were used to increase the 
apparent number of casualties. Bosnian Serbs have frequently blamed 
earlier attacks on Muslim civilians on the Muslims themselves. AFP, for 
its part, notes that the Belgrade press quotes rump Yugoslav military 
experts as claiming that so much damage could not have been caused by one 
shell, arguing that the market had to have previously been mined. NATO 
countries, however, appear to have come to different conclusions, and the 
BBC on 9 February says that the member states are close to a consensus on 
an ultimatum to Bosnian Serbs. The Serbs will likely be told to end the 
siege of Sarajevo or face air strikes. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

UKRAINE OPPOSES BOSNIAN AIR STRIKES. During a visit to Brussels, Ukrainian 
Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko said he was opposed to air strikes 
against Serbian positions in Bosnia, Reuters reported. According to 
Zlenko, aerial bombardment around Sarajevo would transform the 
peacekeeping forces in the area into hostages. Ukraine has 420 
peacekeepers with the UN stationed in Sarajevo. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

HERZEGOVINIAN CROAT LEADER "RESIGNS." The Los Angeles Times on 9 February 
reports from Livno in Herzegovina that Mate Boban resigned as president of 
the self-styled Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna the previous day. He 
told the mini-state's assembly that "Croats are not entirely free of 
imprudence in this conflict, but they never had bad intentions toward the 
Muslims, nor did anything to cause the destruction of Bosnia and 
Herzegovina." Boban has likely been sacrificed as a scapegoat for Croatian 
President Franjo Tudjman's catastrophic policies that have destroyed the 
traditional Croat-Muslim alliance and led to the apparent elimination of 
ancient Croatian communities in central Bosnia. The abrasive Boban, 
moreover, got himself into serious political trouble last May by engaging 
in a complex and acrimonious polemic with the respected Cardinal Franjo 
Kuharic. Herceg-Bosna's "foreign minister," Mile Akmadzic, is expected to 
replace Boban in the presidency. Meanwhile, Bosnian Croats favoring a 
continued common statehood with the Muslims opened an assembly of their 
own in Sarajevo on 6 February. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

ARE AMERICAN OFFICERS WORKING IN SLOVENIA? The Belgrade Politika of 9 
February quotes the Slovenian Republika as claiming that four US officers 
are working in that country's defense ministry and adds that up to 70 can 
be found staying in Ljubljana's Slon Hotel. The papers quote unofficial 
sources for their information and claim that Slovenian President Milan 
Kucan was caught unaware of the Americans' presence, which was supposedly 
arranged by Defense Minister Janez Jansa and which has become a lively 
topic of discussion in Ljubljana. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. 

MACEDONIA TO RECEIVE US RECOGNITION? Following in the footsteps of six EU 
countries and Russia, the US will soon grant Macedonia diplomatic 
recognition, The New York Times reported on 9 February. The Greek 
government has been apparently officially informed of the forthcoming 
action, which is being taken, according to officials, in order to 
contribute to greater stability in the region. Macedonia is currently 
experiencing some political tension resulting from the arrest of several 
prominent Albanians in connection with the "All Albanian Army" plot to 
destabilize the state. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc.

ROW OVER ALBANIAN NATIONAL SYMBOLS IN MONTENEGRO. In a conflict about a 
"draft law on the use of national symbols of ethnic and national groups in 
Montenegro," the ethnic Albanian Democratic League of Montenegro claimed 
that "the Montenegrin parliament cannot decide about our flag." The text 
of the bill has not yet been published, but the Albanians fear that it 
will take away their Tito-era right to use the Albanian flag. At the root 
of the problem is the fact that the traditional red flag with a black 
eagle is not only the official flag of the Republic of Albania; it is also 
regarded by Albanians in general as a symbol of their entire ethnic group. 
Serbs and Montenegrins, however, see it as a symbol of irredentism when 
displayed outside of the Republic of Albania. Arguing the Albanian 
position, Montenegrin parliament member Haxhi Sylejmani claimed that 
"since the times of Skanderbeg, the Albanians have had no other national 
symbol." He added that the Albanian flag "is not the symbol of the 
Albanian state, but of all Albanians," Rilindja reported on 7 February. 
Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc.

NEW SERBIAN PARTY TO FORM, REPORTS OF IMPROVED RELATIONS DENIED. According 
to a report carried in Borba on 4 February, disaffected former delegates 
of the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DEPOS) coalition in the federal 
parliament of rump Yugoslavia are to form their own party. In other news, 
on 7 February the international media reported that Hungarian foreign 
minister Geza Jeszenszky flatly denied earlier reports that Budapest had 
opted to normalize relations with Belgrade. Reuters quoted Jeszenszky as 
saying "there is no deal between Belgrade and Budapest . . . and such a 
policy will never occur as long as I am in this job." Stan Markotich, 
RFE/RL, Inc.

POLISH COALITION PAPERS OVER DIFFERENCES. A four-hour meeting of leaders 
of the two ruling Polish parties ended late on 8 February with at least 
the appearance of harmony, PAP reports. In a statement, the Polish Peasant 
Party (PSL) and Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) restated their will to 
uphold the two-party coalition "until the end of the Sejm's full term" in 
late 1997. They confirmed the validity of the coalition agreement and 
agreed to support "in solidarity" the draft budget proposed by the 
government. They also praised former Deputy Prime Minister and Finance 
Minister Marek Borowski, whose resignation brought the coalition conflict 
to a head. Borowski took part in the talks; he told reporters afterward 
that the SLD will present a new candidate for finance minister within a 
week. This apparently peaceful outcome was something of a surprise, as SLD 
leader Aleksander Kwasniewski had said before the talks that there was 
"little chance for agreement." The conflict appears to leave Prime 
Minister Waldemar Pawlak (PSL) strengthened and Kwasniewski weakened. In 
flexing his political muscle and asserting control over personnel policy 
in the finance ministry, Pawlak played on divisions within the Democratic 
Left Alliance, whose "unionist" members do not wholeheartedly support the 
economic policies favored by their "liberal" leadership. Meanwhile, 
President Lech Walesa formally removed Borowski from office on 8 February. 
Speaking to reporters on the ski slopes in Kotlina Klodzka, Walesa used 
the conflict to argue once again for presidential control of the executive 
branch. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. 

HAVEL AWARDED INDIAN PEACE PRIZE. Indian President Shankar Dayal Sharma 
presented his Czech counterpart Vaclav Havel with the 1993 Indira Gandhi 
Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development, international news services 
reported on 8 February. Sharma praised Havel for his leadership and 
"creative spirit." The Czech President replied the prize was a tribute to 
citizens of former Czechoslovakia, who for years engaged in non-violent 
opposition to communist authorities. At a later press conference in New 
Delhi, Havel indicated that Czech authorities are willing to sell military 
hardware to India. CTK quoted him as having said that he sees no reason 
"why the Czech Republic should not export some military items to countries 
with a democratic tradition." Also on 8 February, Havel met with Indian 
Prime Minister Narasimha Rao. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.

ZHIRINOVSKY CONFIRMS INVITATION TO CZECH REPUBLIC. Russian nationalist 
leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky confirmed that he has been invited to visit 
the Czech Republic, CTK reported on 8 February. The extreme-right 
Republican Party announced last week that it would invite Zhirinovsky "to 
learn more about his views." Czech President Vaclav Havel and spokesmen 
for the foreign ministry said that the Russian leader would be granted a 
visa, but that authorities reserved the right to expel him from the 
country if his actions merited such a move. In an interview with Czech TV, 
broadcast on 8 February, Zhirinovsky said that Czechs will criticize Havel 
after his death, "just as Russians are cursing Gorbachev." He pointed out 
that it is "not right" to have a playwright as president. Jan Obrman, 
RFE/RL, Inc. 

SLOVAK GOVERNMENT MEMBERS TRY TO SOLVE DEADLOCK. On 8 February two deputy 
premiers from the Slovak National Party, Jozef Prokes and Marian Andel, 
offered to give up their government posts to solve the current 
parliamentary deadlock. Both were forced to give up their positions as 
parliamentary deputies when they became members of the coalition cabinet 
formed by the SNP and the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia in November. 
Prokes said he "feels responsible" for the current deadlock, in which only 
75 of 150 parliamentarians support the government, because the SNP deputy 
who replaced him "betrayed" the coalition and joined the opposition. If 
Prokes and Andel give up their government posts, the members who replaced 
them would be forced to leave the parliament, and the coalition would thus 
be strengthened by two votes, TASR reports. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. 

GERMAN-SLOVAK MILITARY COOPERATION AGREEMENT. On 8 February German Defense 
Minister Volker Ruhe arrived in Bratislava for a two-day visit, which 
includes meetings with his Slovak counterpart Imrich Andrejcak, as well as 
with President Michal Kovac, Premier Vladimir Meciar and Foreign Minister 
Jozef Moravcik. Andrejcak and Ruhe signed a military cooperation agreement 
providing for information exchanges and joint training. Following talks 
with Meciar concerning NATO's Partnership for Peace initiative, Ruhe said 
that the program is not "an alternative to joining NATO," but rather "a 
program of active participation of post-communist countries in advancing 
to NATO structures," TASR reports. Meciar will travel to Brussels on 9 
February to sign the Partnership for Peace agreement. Sharon Fisher, 
RFE/RL, Inc. 

HUNGARY, UKRAINE, SIGN PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE AGREEMENT. Hungarian radio 
reported on 8 February that Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky signed in 
Brussels the Partnership For Peace agreement with NATO. He was the fifth 
East European state to do so. Jeszenszky said that the agreement is the 
first step on the road to join NATO. On the same day the agreement was 
signed in Brussels also by Ukraine's Foreign Minister, Anatolii Zlenko, 
UNIAN and Reuters reported. At the signing ceremony Zlenko said he 
welcomed the program as a reasonable alternative to "selective and partial 
NATO enlargement." Zlenko also said Ukraine would use the program to bring 
Ukraine's armed forces up to standards enabling it to eventually fully 
join the alliance. Karoly Okolicsanyi and Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

UKRAINIAN DEFENSE MINISTER VISITS BUDAPEST. MTI reported on 8 February 
that Vitalij Radeckij started a two-day visit to Hungary. He had talks 
with Prime Minister Peter Boross. Topics included the South Slav crisis, 
the Partnership for Peace agreement with NATO and future Ukrainian spare 
parts deliveries to Hungary. Radeckij announced that Ukraine will increase 
the number of its UN troops in Bosnia. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. 

UKRAINE PRESIDENT VISITS LITHUANIA. On 7 February Leonid Kravchuk, 
accompanied by acting Prime Minister Yukhim Zvyahilsky and other 
ministers, paid a one-day visit to Vilnius. After talks with his 
Lithuanian counterpart Algirdas Brazauskas the two leaders signed a treaty 
of friendship and cooperation. In a speech to the Seimas and at a press 
conference, both broadcast live by Radio Lithuania, Kravchuk noted both 
countries wanted closer integration with NATO through the Partnership for 
Peace program and hoped that a Baltic-Black Sea alliance would be formed. 
Lithuanian Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys and Ukrainian International 
Economic Relations Minister Oleh Slepichev signed an agreement on 
investment promotion and protection. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES ACCORD WITH IMF. The Chamber of Deputies 
started on 8 February debates over details of a new agreement between 
Romania and the International Monetary Fund, Radio Bucharest reports. 
Mircea Cosea, head of the cabinet's Council for Economic Coordination, 
Strategy and Reform and one of the accord's main architects, told deputies 
that economic reforms were doomed without the agreement. Finance Minister 
Florin Georgescu and National Bank Governor Mugur Isarescu also defended 
the agreement. But Ion Ratiu from the National Peasant Party Christian 
Democratic said that the government should have negotiated better terms 
with the IMF. And deputies for the Liberal Party-1993 criticized some 
provisions of the accord and called on the government to assume full 
responsibility for its implementation. The Senate is scheduled to debate 
the agreement on 9 February. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.

ROMANIAN OPPOSITION LEADER ON TUDOR CHARGES. In a statement broadcast by 
Radio Bucharest on 8 February, Democratic Convention Chairman Emil 
Constantinescu, demanded an official investigation into the dispute 
between nationalist Senator Corneliu Vadim Tudor and Romania's Defense 
Minister General Nicolae Spiroiu. Tudor had accused Spiroiu of having 
betrayed national interests and harmed the country through disadvantageous 
military contracts with foreign partners. Spiroiu has denied the 
accusations, saying that the real reason for Tudor's attacks was the 
minister's refusal to promote Tudor's brother, an army colonel, to the 
rank of general. Constantinescu criticized President Ion Iliescu, the 
government, the parliament and the General Prosecutor's Office for 
encouraging a state of general confusion by failing to react to Tudor's 
allegations. Tudor is chairman of the extremist Greater Romania Party, a 
parliamentary ally of the ruling Party of Social Democracy in Romania. Dan 
Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. 

BELARUSIAN OPPOSITION OPPOSES MONETARY UNION. The Belarusian Popular Front 
issued a document signed by 23 deputies denouncing the proposed monetary 
union with Russia, Belinform-TASS reported on 8 February. According to the 
text, the union would "disarm the Belarusian economy and state" because of 
Russia's greater capital and manufacturing capabilities. The union would 
also reduce Belarus to being a non-paid transit corridor for Russian gas 
and oil to western countries. The document says that that a one-sided 
foreign policy orientation towards the east has already cost the country 
money, and claims that Belarus is paying $128 per ton for oil from Russia 
when oil is being traded on the Rotterdam exchange for just $91. Ustina 
Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. 

LATVIAN, ESTONIAN REACTIONS TO KOZYREV'S INTERVIEW. Latvian and Estonian 
foreign ministries responded to an interview with Russian Foreign Minister 
Andrei Kozyrev (Newsweek of 14 February), where he reiterated accusations 
that ethnic cleansing was taking place in Estonia and Latvia and seemed to 
imply that the presence of Russian troops in the those countries was 
needed to protect the rights of the Russians living there, BNS reported on 
8 February. The Latvian foreign ministry, rejected the accusations as 
being untrue and pointed out that such statements, stemming from a neglect 
of the findings of various international organizations concerning the 
situation of human rights in Latvia, serve to undermine Latvian-Russian 
relations and progress in the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia. 
Estonian Foreign Minister Juri Luik expressed astonishment over Kozyrev's 
remarks and said that they play right into the hands of Zhirinovsky. 
Noting that no Russian troops had left Estonia in January, Luik asked 
Kozyrev to state clearly what Russia's position was regarding the pullout 
of its troops from the Baltic States. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. 

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Wendy Slater and Michael Shafir The RFE/RL Daily Report is 
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