|Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought. - Albert Szent-Gyorgyi|
No. 24, 4 February 1994
RUSSIA RECOMMENDATION TO CHANGE LEGISLATION ON POLITICAL PARTIES. Officials have recommended to President Boris Yeltsin that the laws on political parties be amended, Interfax reported on 3 February. The authors of the memorandum called the current multi-party system "overblown" and recommended measures that, they said, would turn parties into "a mechanism for selecting professionals fit to work in the legislative and executive branches of government." The measures reportedly include tighter regulation of the registration of parties before elections, and stricter monitoring of the financing of political parties. Parties would reportedly be required to publish articles explaining their programs for "national development" and would not even be permitted to contest elections unless their programs "evoked some public response." Wendy Slater, RFE/RL, Inc. COUNCIL OF FEDERATION FEELS NEGLECTED BY CHERNOMYRDIN. The Council of the Federation has reacted negatively to Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin's decision to cancel his address to the upper chamber of the parliament because of his involvement in chairing a government session, Radio Rossii reported on 3 February. Deputies also criticized their speaker, Vladimir Shumeiko, for failing to secure Chernomyrdin's appearance. Instead of Chernomyrdin, economics minister Aleksandr Shokhin addressed the Council, while Chernomyrdin has been scheduled to speak at a later moment. The Council of the Federation has send a signal to the government that in the future it wants to give recommendations on correcting economic policy. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. IZVESTIYA: KOZYREV, CHERNOMYRDIN DIFFER. An article in Izvestiya on 3 February suggested that there may be disagreements between Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and Prime Minister Chernomyrdin. Citing the difference in emphasis of the two politicians opposition to air-strikes against targets in Bosnia, Izvestiya said that "the foreign policy course associated with Andrei Kozyrev and broadly meeting with the support of Boris Yeltsin has apparently acquired a serious opponent in the shape of Viktor Chernomyrdin." The article cited the denial a high-ranking by Russian diplomat of fundamental disagreements between the ministers, but nonetheless concluded that Chernomyrdin, already campaigning for the 1996 presidential elections, is trying to appeal to the conservative part of the Russian electorate. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA ESTABLISHES RELATIONS WITH MACEDONIA. ITAR-TASS reported on 3 February that Russia and Macedonia have established full diplomatic relations. Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Mikhail Demurin said that the action was not directed against any other state and would contribute to "promoting stability in the Balkans as a whole." President Yeltsin made an impromptu announcement in Bulgaria in August 1992 that Russia recognized Macedonia. The establishment of full relations was delayed, in part, because of lack of support for Yeltsin's move in Moscow. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. SHOKHIN FOR STRICT FINANCIAL POLICY. Minister of Economics Aleksandr Shokhin told deputies in the Council of Federation that he will "take [Egor] Gaidar's position" should Prime Minister Chernomyrdin sign the agreement with Belarus on a single ruble zone, Ekho Moskvy reported on 3 February. Gaidar had resigned earlier in protest over that policy. Shokhin also rejected the alternative economic program of some former Gorbachev advisors (Abalkin, Petrakov, Shatalin) saying that their recommendations emphasize exactly the opposite of what should be done. He stated that his ministry is preparing its own paper on economic reform in 1994, and that he will fight for a strict financial policy. Shokhin also spoke against new government subsidies to the agricultural sector. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. FARM SUPPORT. On 3 February, the scale of future agricultural subsidies received much attention, according to Russian and Western agencies. The cabinet was reported to have approved, in principle, an allocation of 14 trillion rubles for farm support in 1994, but called for a further review to be completed in a week's time. This amount is be set against projected budgetary revenues of not more than 80-100 trillion rubles, as cited by Biznes-TASS. It was not specified which prices were used. Economics Minister Aleksandr Shokhin touched upon the maintenance of agricultural subsidies in his speech to the Federal Council. But Andrei Illarionov, of the Working Center for Economic Reforms, argued that a further 14 trillion rubles would be needed to form the federal food funds and another 6 trillion rubles would be requested to carry out spring operations, making a total of 34 trillion rubles. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. REAL INCOMES ROSE IN 1993. Deputy Labor Minister Valerii Kolosov told a news conference on 3 February that money incomes rose by 1100% in 1993, while retail prices increased by 940%, Interfax reported. The incomes of the top 10% were 11 times higher than those of the poorest 10%. 13% of the population had incomes below the 36,000-ruble level estimated as being adequate, in December 1993, to purchase the minimum amount of foodstuffs, while 30% were said to be below the subsistence minimum of 50,000 rubles a year. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. DIRE WARNING ON VODKA SUPPLY. The directors of vodka and spirit plants met in Moscow on 3 February to talk shop, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. The main grumble was that new taxes had raised production costs by more than one half, leading to an 80% drop in vodka output in January. They also complained that imported drinks and "plain substitutes" were being sold on the domestic market with virtually no controls. Unless the government reduced the burden of excise and other taxes, they warned, the domestic output of vodka and other liquors would cease. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS UKRAINE RATIFIES START-1 . . . On 3 February the Ukrainian parliament voted overwhelmingly in favor of exchanging the instruments of ratification of the START-1 treaty and Lisbon protocol. The move came after a speech by President Leonid Kravchuk in which he stressed the dangers of keeping aging warheads in Ukraine and the threat of international isolation if Ukraine failed to live up to its non-nuclear commitments. Kravchuk also noted that he had just received a letter from US President Bill Clinton, promising a doubling of economic aid to Ukraine. There are some ambiguities in the parliament's decision. First, the 18 November 1993 resolution on START ratification specified that cuts of 36% in launchers would be made by Ukraine, although it allowed for greater reductions. In response to deputies' questions, Kravchuk implied that he would eliminate all nuclear weapons, but it is unclear whether this is parliament's intent. Second, Kravchuk noted that Ukraine did not wish to destroy its missile silos as called for by the treaty, suggesting that further negotiations on this matter may be necessary. The ambiguities in the resolution and the failure to debate the NPT apparently led to some confusion amongst deputies, with one noting that "I have no idea what we voted for," according to the 4 February Los Angeles Times. Details of the debate and resolution were carried by Ukrainian and Western press agencies. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . BUT DELAYS NPT ACCESSION. While the original draft resolution submitted to parliament for approval contained a point authorizing accession to the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT), deputies did not extensively debate or pass the item. Consideration of NPT accession has been referred to committee for further discussion, and may not be voted upon until after the March elections. The resolution passed by parliament upholds START-1, and rescinds the earlier ratification resolution's exclusion of Article 5 of the Lisbon protocol. (Article 5 commits Ukraine to NPT accession as a non-nuclear state in "the shortest possible time.") However, the security guarantees which Ukraine desires, and which were proffered in the trilateral agreement, are explicitly conditional upon NPT accession as a non-nuclear state. The original draft resolution's point on NPT accession contains additional statements asserting Ukrainian ownership of the components of the nuclear weapons, and noting that their presence in Ukraine does not violate the treaty. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. NEXT STEPS TO DISARMAMENT. The parliament's resolution opens the way for implementation of the trilateral agreement, which calls for an initial transfer of 200 weapons from Ukraine to Russia within the first ten months of implementation. It is likely that the instruments of ratification for START-1 will be submitted during Kravchuk's planned trip to Washington in March. In the meantime, a trilateral group of experts will meet to discuss details of compensation for tactical nuclear weapons--a crucial issue which has not yet been resolved. A timetable for the removal of all warheads from Ukraine must also be agreed upon. It also appears that Kravchuk must submit to parliament for ratification the Ukrainian-Russian agreement on compensation for strategic nuclear warheads signed in September 1993 at Massandra. Finally, both the US and Russia have made full implementation of START-1 conditional upon all parties acceding to the NPT. Belarus has already done so, and President Nazarbaev will deposit the instrument of ratification for Kazakhstan during his forthcoming visit to Washington in February. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN REACTION. As of 13:00 Moscow time on 4 February there had been no official Russian reaction to the Ukrainian parliament's move. While the debate was covered on late evening news shows on 3 February, by 4 February, Ostankino TV in its 9:00 broadcast devoted only 15 seconds to the accord, instead emphasizing Crimean President Yurii Meshkov's prospective meeting with President Kravchuk, and a meeting of societies representing the interests of Russians living in the "near abroad." Subsequent Russian and Ostankino TV broadcasts are not even mentioning the resolution. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. YELTSIN IN TBILISI. On 3 February a Russian delegation headed by President Boris Yeltsin made a one-day visit to Tbilisi, the high point of which was the signing with Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze of a bilateral treaty on friendship and cooperation, together with 24 other agreements on trade and economic ties, scientific and cultural cooperation, the status of Russian border guards in Georgia, and military basing rights, Russian and Western agencies reported. Talks also covered the ongoing conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the possibility of Georgia joining the ruble zone; at a joint press conference with Shevardnadze, Yeltsin said a working group would be formed to address the latter issue, according to ITAR-TASS. Both Shevardnadze and Yeltsin expressed satisfaction with the visit, which Shevardnadze characterized as important for the establishment of peace and stability throughout the Caucasus, Georgian Television reported. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. SHOKHIN ON MONETARY UNION WITH BELARUS. The Russian economics minister, Aleksandr Shokhin, has said that the package of documents on the unification of the monetary systems of Russia and Belarus has not yet been prepared, and that is why the unification agreement cannot be signed during Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin's upcoming visit to Minsk, Interfax reported on 3 February. Shokhin said he had learned about Chernomyrdin's visit from the media and that he had never given his consent to signing the agreement. The proposed terms of the union have been reported as being favorable toward Belarus at Russia's expense, and were one of the reasons Egor Gaidar cited for resigning as Russia's economics minister. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BEEHIVE OF DIPLOMATIC ACTIVITY ON BOSNIA . . . International media report on 4 February that the UN Security Council has warned Croatia to withdraw its reported 3-5,000 troops in Bosnia or face "serious measures," which may mean sanctions. The Washington Post notes, however, that the imposition of sanctions might prompt Croatia to retaliate against the UN's Zagreb-based operations or against the 200,000 Muslim refugees in that republic. Meanwhile in Sarajevo, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic said on 3 February that the 10 February session of the Geneva peace talks is likely to be "another abortive session that wastes time" and that he consequently will not attend. A Bosnian delegation nonetheless will attend out of a sense of duty and will be headed by Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic, Reuters reports. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. . . . KOSOVO AND MACEDONIA. On the other side of the Atlantic, the president of the self-styled Republic of Kosovo, Ibrahim Rugova, and Prime Minister Bujar Bukoshi met briefly on 3 February with US President Bill Clinton. Rugova told news agencies that Clinton showed "concern and understanding" for the situation in the Serbian province with a more than 90% ethnic Albanian majority. The Kosovar leader claimed the Albanians are subjected to "violence, discrimination, and even apartheid," and that consequently Kosovo "is ready to explode." He pointed out that his goal is "an independent and neutral Kosovo. Neutral means open to both Serbia and Albania to avoid conflict between these two nations." And in neighboring Macedonia, Nova Makedonija and the Belgrade Borba report on 4 February that Russia will send an ambassador to Skopje within a month as part of its policy of promoting stability in the Balkans. Moscow recognized Macedonia in August 1992 but only now is setting up full ties. News agencies said that Greece "expressed displeasure" over the decision. Meanwhile, Nova Makedonija also says that the Czech Republic has agreed to recognize Macedonia and will soon send a delegation to Skopje. Finally, Borba notes that Slovenia is "thinking over" the possibility of normalizing relations with rump Yugoslavia, where it has extensive business interests. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. DESERTERS FACE DEPORTATION TO CROATIA. International media in recent days have reported on up to 100,000 Croatian refugees in Germany who face deportation to Croatia after their current residency permits expire on 30 April. Croatian Foreign Minister Mate Granic asked his German counterpart Klaus Kinkel to stagger out the return in phases, Reuters reported on 27 January. German human rights groups have noted that among those possibly affected by the deportations are thousands of draft-age men who have declared themselves to be refugees rather than deserters or contentious objectors. The Frankfurter Rundschau mentioned as many as "some thousands of deserters." International media in recent days have noted that both Serbia and Croatia have been dragooning young men to serve in Bosnia. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. ARRESTS OF MUSLIM LEADERS IN THE MONTENEGRIN SANDZAK. In the mainly Muslim-populated region of Sandzak, the leader of the Party of Democratic Action (SDA) of Montenegro, Harun Hadzic, and at least seven other members of the Muslim-dominated party and the Muslim National Council have been arrested on allegations of planning an armed uprising. According to Politika on 2 February, "large quantities of weapons" were found in Hadzic's yard. Hadzic, a former deputy to the Montenegrin parliament, is currently serving as the president of the SDA in both Serbia and Montenegro because Serbian authorities have threatened to arrest his counterpart on the Serbian side, Sulejman Ugljanin. That man left for Turkey in November 1993, when the last wave of arrests took place in Sandzak on the same charges. After that the SDA did not participate in December's Serbian elections. Among the recently arrested people are also Hakija Muratovic, the SDA leader in Beran, and Isid Skenderovic, a party secretary in the same town. He supposedly led a paramilitary secret organization and was leader of an alleged Muslim "general staff." The SDA says that the charges are a political frame-up. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. OWEN AND STOLTENBERG IN BUCHAREST, SOFIA. International mediators Lord David Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg on 3 February discussed in Bucharest the conflicts in former Yugoslavia with Romanian leaders, including President Ion Iliescu and Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu. Radio Bucharest reported that the talks focused on the effects on Romania of the UN sanctions against the rump Yugoslav federation and ways to unblock negotiations on the war in Bosnia. Later that day, Owen and Stoltenberg arrived in Sofia where President Zhelyu Zhelev stressed that a peace settlement needs to take into account the security of the entire region. Dan Ionescu and Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE UPHEAVAL IN POLISH CABINET. Miroslaw Stec, the director of the Public Administration Bureau in the Council of Ministers Office (URM), resigned his post on 2 February, PAP reports. Stec had worked in the URM, the ministry responsible for public administration and local government, since 1991. His resignation was a protest against the policies of URM chief Michal Strak, who has been widely criticized for an overly centralized and politicized approach to the public administration. Stec said the government has no idea of how a proper state should be structured, while the URM's "piecemeal" changes in the administration rule out any systemic reform. Strak's "biggest mistake," Stec added, was not so much his wholesale removal of voivodship chiefs (16 of 49 have been replaced since October) but the appointment of local party bosses to take their place. "This destabilizes the work of the public administration," Stec charged. In other cabinet troubles, Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak and SLD leader Aleksander Kwasniewski met on 3 February to discuss the Prime Minister's unilateral decision to fire Deputy Finance Minister Stefan Kawalec. The SLD saw the firing as a slight to Finance Minister Marek Borowski, who was said to have threatened to resign in protest against the decision. Both Pawlak and Kwasniewski were reported by the Warsaw papers on 4 February to have also discussed the manner of decision-making within the coalition. This marks the most serious conflict within the left-wing coalition since the formation of the government. Louisa Vinton and Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc. PRIVATE, NATIONWIDE TV OPENS IN CZECH REPUBLIC. The first nationwide private television channel in the Czech Republic--NOVA TV--starts broadcasting on 4 February. The station, which was licensed to broadcast nationwide one year ago, will initially broadcast 19 hours daily. Czech Television will be its main competitor. The chief financial backer of NOVA is the Central European Development Corporation, headed by Mark Palmer, a former US Ambassador to Hungary. Other financial partners are the Czech Savings Bank and a group of investors led by Vladimir Zelezny, the station's general director. NOVA will not be the first commercial station in the Czech Republic. The Italian-financed channel Premiera has been on the air since May. However, it reaches only Prague and parts of southern Bohemia. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK OPPOSITION WILL TRY TO OUST MECIAR. Opposition leaders said on 3 February that they will call an extraordinary parliament session this month to cast a vote of no-confidence in Premier Vladimir Meciar, Reuters reports. The announcement came after a parliamentary session ended in deadlock, as members of the ruling coalition, made up of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Slovak National Party, walked out. Although the coalition officially has 79 deputies, a faction of the SNP, including Chairman Ludovit Cernak, no longer supports the MDS and did not leave the session. Thus, after the walk-out, 76 of 150 deputies remained in the parliament, which is enough to pass legislation, TASR reports. The crisis occurred when the parliament named Cernak moderator of the discussion on the government's proposed amendments to the large-scale privatization law, thus depriving parliament chairman Ivan Gasparovic of "his right" to chair the debate. The opposition criticized the government's amendments, saying "they would result in a concentration of power." (Meciar is currently acting as privatization minister and chairman of the National Property Fund.) The chairmen of all parliamentary parties will meet before the 4 February session to try and resolve the deadlock. In an interview with TASR later that evening, Meciar said he did not consider the current situation "a crisis" and claimed that the coalition has "enough votes" to pass the cabinet's privatization proposals. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. NATO TEAM IN SOFIA, BUCHAREST. A top-level NATO team headed by Assistant Secretary General Gebhardt von Moltke spent 2 February in Sofia, and 3 February in Bucharest, discussing details of the Partnership for Peace plan, as well as enhanced military cooperation including future military exercises. In Bulgaria the delegation was received by President Zhelyu Zhelev and in Bucharest by Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu. Both countries have been positive about the NATO scheme and its implications and on 26 January Romania became the first former communist country to sign a partnership agreement with NATO. In a separate foreign relations development, Romania and Iran on the same day signed a trade agreement aimed at strengthening commercial exchanges between the two countries. The agreement came at the end of a two-day visit by Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati, who on 1 February signed a similar deal with Bulgaria. Kjell Engelbrekt and Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIAN AIR FORCE IN SORRY STATE. On 3 February Lt. Gen. Miho Mihov, Commander of Bulgaria's Anti-Aircraft Defense and Air Force, warned that as much as 80% of the country's entire air force might be unflightworthy by the end of 1994. Mihov told BTA that at present some 30% of the military aircraft and 46% of the helicopters are beyond repair, and only 8% of the aircraft belong to the so-called fourth generation of aviation technology, as opposed to 50-55% in neighboring states. Aside from outdated equipment, he said the chief current problem is the lack of young and motivated staff, especially pilots, who are leaving for better-paid jobs in the private business sector. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. BELARUSIAN DIFFICULTIES OVER CFE. The deputy foreign minister, Aleksandr Sycheu, has said that Belarus is having financial difficulties implementing the next stage of the Conventional Forces in Europe disarmament agreement, Interfax reported on 3 February. Under the agreement some 1,200 tanks, 600 armored vehicles and 80 military aircraft must still be discarded by Belarus. Belarus had put forward a proposal to set up a fund for the dismantling of conventional weapons in the summer of 1993. The idea was supported by Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Georgia and Armenia. According to Sycheu, the foreign and defense ministries of Great Britain, France and Germany did not support the idea, but preferred bilateral contacts on the subject. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN DAILY SAYS ATTACK ON MOLDOVA AUTHORIZED BY MOSCOW. Corroborating earlier avowals by Yeltsin's adviser Sergei Stankevich and other Russian officials, Rossiiskie Vesti of 2 February dismissed as "a legend" the notion that Russia's Gen. Aleksandr Lebed had acted on his own in unleashing his 14th Army against Moldova in 1992. "Only now, summing up all the facts, we have come to understand: every step of that Army's commander was authorized by the hierarchy of Russia's Ministry of Defense." To have done otherwise "would have meant incurring the anger of millions of compatriots and losing a valuable strategic outpost oriented toward the Balkans." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. 14TH ARMY TO GET NEW STATUS? Elsewhere, Gen. Lebed told an officers' assembly that the 14th Army is to be reorganized this year, possibly by being given the status of an "operational group" or a force based abroad. According to a Basapress report from Tiraspol, citing the 14th Army's weekly Soldat Otechestva, Lebed said he would nonetheless remain in command. "Dniester republic" Supreme Soviet chairman Grigorii Marakutsa for his part told Interfax on 3 February that negotiations are underway with Russia's Defense Ministry concerning compensation to Tiraspol for the 14th Army's use of military housing and services provided by the "Dniester republic." Meanwhile the Moldovan-Russian troop talks are deadlocked. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA JOINS PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. On 3 February Foreign Minister Juri Luik signed the documents enrolling Estonia in NATO's Partnership for Peace program. Luik stressed that "Estonia considers eventual NATO membership to be part of the wider framework of European integration. It is crucial for stability in Europe." Luik also called on Russia to withdraw its remaining troops from his country, Western agencies and Baltic media reported. On 3 February Latvian leaders signed the formal application for membership in the Partnership for Peace program and Latvia's admission is expected to be expedited quickly. Lithuania was the first Baltic State and second East European state to have enrolled in the program. Since the program was established in January, NATO has increased its attention on the Baltic States. NATO representatives have visited Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania and Baltic representatives have visited NATO headquarters to discuss specific security issues. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. STILL NO DEFINITE PLAN FOR RUSSIAN TROOP PULLOUT FROM ESTONIA. BNS of 2 February noted that while some progress had been made at the most recent Estonian-Russian negotiations, Russia failed to produce a detailed timetable for the withdrawal of its troops from Estonia. Estonian Foreign Ministry expressed surprise, since President Yeltsin and other Russian officials had spoken of the imminent presentation of a timetable. Russian delegation head Vasilii Svirin told journalists that Moscow "did not consider it necessary to present the schedule," since it did not agree with Estonia's stand on Russian military retirees. Svirin complained that Estonia wants Russian servicemen who retired in that country after 20 August 1991 (the date of the restoration of the independent Republic of Estonia) and their families (altogether about 35,000 persons) to leave and the other Soviet military retirees (with their families, they number about 44,000) to give "humiliating" pledges, such as swearing that they no longer work for the Russian army or secret service. Svirin also complained that Estonia was not cooperating with Russia over marking the common borders. The next round of talks are to take place in Tallinn on 1-2 March. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA'S NEGATIVE TRADE BALANCE. According to data of the Bank of Estonia, in 1993 Estonia's imports amounting to 11,967.5 million kroons ($860 million) exceeded exports worth 10,596.9 million kroons, BNS reported on 1 February. Estonia's trade deficit with Finland, the leader in both categories, was 2,139.9 million kroons. Estonia had a trade surplus of 504.3 million kroons with its second greatest partner, Russia. Textiles, food, and vehicles were the leading exports while machines and equipment, mineral products (fuels), and vehicles were the most important imports. Estonia traded with 116 countries, having a positive trade balance with 70. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN-FINNISH CUSTOMS COOPERATION, POLISH DELEGATION. On 3 February in Helsinki Vitalijus Gerzonas, the director of the Lithuanian Customs Department, signed a cooperation agreement with his Finnish counterpart, BNS reports. The agreement, which is Lithuania's first with a Nordic country, provides for exchange of information, joint actions in preventing violations of customs regulations, and cooperation in training specialists. In a separate development, a Polish delegation headed by secretary of state in the president's office, Andrzej Zakrzewski, on 1 and 2 February held unofficial talks with Lithuanian Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys President Algirdas Brazauskas. Radio Lithuania reported that Zakrzewski brought new versions of several articles in the long negotiated friendship and cooperation treaty that has bogged down due to Lithuanian demands that it includes a condemnation of the Polish seizure of Vilnius in 1920. The talks did not deal with the situation of the Polish minority in Lithuania. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Kjell Engelbrekt The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. 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