|Fear of life in one form or another is the great thing to exorcise. - William James|
No. 22, 2 February 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN AIDE SAYS PRESIDENTIAL PARTY BEING FORMED. Sergei Filatov, head of Yeltsin's presidential administration, was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 1 February as saying preparations have begun on forming a political party to support Boris Yeltsin in the presidential election due to be held in 1996. Filatov said the president's regional representatives will soon launch a campaign to promote the new party, but that the founding of the party, which has been mooted on many previous occasions, is still several months away. Meanwhile, former finance minister Boris Fedorov told CNN on 1 February that Yeltsin is now a brake on the reform process and that supporters of reform must act quickly to select and groom a new candidate for the 1996 elections. If the reform lobby cannot agree on a new presidential candidate this year, Fedorov warned, they will lose all chances of winning the 1996 presidential election. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. OSTANKINO LAUNCHES "PRESIDENTIAL PROGRAM." Ostankino television has introduced a weekly program which will "explain presidential decrees to the public," ITAR-TASS reported on 1 February. The program is broadcast every Monday and is moderated by the chief of the presidential administration, Sergei Filatov. President Yeltsin and his team have been complaining that presidential decrees are often ignored, especially at the regional level. The program is supposed to contribute toward better implementation of the decrees. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. FURTHER CONCERN OVER LOCAL GOVERNMENT ELECTIONS. Nikolai Medvedev, President Yeltsin's chief aide on relations with Russia's regions, has added his voice to those of other presidential staffers (see RFE/RL Daily Report, no. 21) who are warning that reform-oriented parties risk defeat in Russia's upcoming local elections. (On 22 October 1993 Yeltsin ordered that elections be held by March this year to new, streamlined local government bodies in all of Russia's krais and oblasts.) Medvedev told ITAR-TASS on 1 February that reformist parties which scored poorly in last December's parliamentary elections are even less organized at regional than at national level, whereas anti-reform parties such as the Communist and Agrarian Parties have strong regional networks. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. POLTORANIN DENIES CHARGES OF ANTI-SEMITISM. The chairman of the Duma's committee on information, Mikhail Poltoranin, denied charges of anti-semitism leveled against him in the liberal Russian media after his controversial interview with Ostankino on 23 January. In the interview, Poltoranin said that many journalists today write in what he called "camp Hebrew'--an explosive mixture of Russophobia, hatred for traditions, lies, and contempt for human dignity." "If this continues, the country will blow up and there will be a huge counter wave of anti-Semitism," Poltoranin stated. This was interpreted as an allegation that Jews dominate the Russian media--a position endorsed by the LDP leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky. On 1 February Poltoranin apologized for his remarks, but told Interfax that they were "taken out of context and misinterpreted." Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA ON AIR STRIKES. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev met with international Yugoslavia mediators Lord David Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg in Moscow on 1 February. Speaking to reporters after the talks, Kozyrev said that the use of air strikes in Bosnia would be an "extreme step" that Russia hopes to prevent. He pointed out that air strikes would require the advance agreement of all members of the UN Security Council. Kozyrev noted that if air strikes were to occur, they should not be aimed only at Bosnian Serb forces. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin spoke in clearer tones, saying that Russia opposes the use of air strikes. Vladimir Lukin, the new chairman of the State Duma's Foreign Affairs Committee said that the Duma would not support air strikes and that the initiation of discussion of military action outside the UN undermines the authority of that body, Western and Russian agencies reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV ON ZHIRINOVSKY. Attempting to soothe concerns about the most recent round of statements by Russian LDP leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky, Andrei Kozyrev told visiting Yugoslav mediators on 1 February that Zhirinovsky was a "medical problem" rather than a political one. In an attempt to keep the record straight on Russia's position on the Yugoslav conflict, Thorvald Stoltenberg correctly noted that Russia's positions on Yugoslavia were not different before the December elections and the triumph of ultra-nationalist forces, Western agencies reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. SHARP DROP IN JANUARY INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT. The State Committee for Statistics is reporting an abnormally large drop in industrial output for January, Reuters and Interfax reported on 1 February. There is traditionally a dip in industrial production at the beginning of the year owing to seasonal factors. This year's fall of 25.5%, however, compares with an 18% tumble in 1993 and 16% in 1992. No explanation was provided for the severity of the slide. Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc. MODEST RETROACTIVE INDEXATION OF SAVINGS. After an acrimonious debate lasting two years, a decision has been reached on the degree of compensation for the dramatic decline in the value of savings deposits that occurred after 2 January 1991. According to the Los Angeles Times of 2 February, citing Russian TV, a presidential decree provides for a retroactive indexation of these deposits by a factor of three. In the meantime, as the newspaper points out, retail prices have risen by about 234 times since 2 January 1991. For certain consumer durables, the prices have risen even further. For instance, someone with 10,000 rubles in a savings account in 1990 could have bought a new "Zhiguli," provided that his or her name was high enough on the waiting list. Now the "Zhiguli" retails for between 8 and 12 million rubles, depending upon the model. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. IMF TEAM IN MOSCOW. A team from the International Monetary Fund has started discussions with the Ministry of Finances on "Russia's economic reform and stabilization plans," Russian and Western agencies reported on 2 February. (A separate IMF team was in Moscow in January to recommend improvements in the social safety net). Its findings will influence the timing of the disbursement of the second tranche of $1.5 billion, the prospects for a further loan to the value of $4 billion, and the possible implementation of a $6 billion stabilization fund. First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets did his best to poison the atmosphere, however. According to Interfax of 1 February, he told the Committee on Machinery Construction that "it is unrealistic to expect any serious economic aid from the West," as the West is afraid of "Russia's potential competitive capacity." Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. IMF DEFENDS ITS RECORD. At a news conference on 1 February, IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus gave a spirited defense of the Fund's performance as the point man in disbursing Western aid to Russia, Western agencies reported. Referring to the stated intentions of the new administration in Moscow, he uttered the mild understatement that "what we hear from the new government . . . seems somewhat new or distanced from the course of reform on which we agreed with the previous government." Camdessus will draw comfort from what appears to be the new line of the US administration towards the Fund. According to the International Herald Tribune of 2 February, Washington now backs the IMF's insistence on tough preconditions for further aid, even if it has reservations about the Fund's lack of clout and persistence. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA FIRST STEPS OF CENTRAL ASIAN ECONOMIC UNION. Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan took the first step in setting up a previously agreed on Central Asian economic union on 1 February by removing customs on the common borders of the three countries, ITAR-TASS reported. Earlier attempts to set up a Central Asian common market have had little effect; the current effort to create an economic union appears to have a greater chance of success because of its more limited initial focus on customs union. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. GEORGIAN DEFENSE MINISTER TENDERS RESIGNATION. Georgian Defense Minister Giorgi Karkarashvili offered to resign on 1 February, one day before a scheduled meeting with his Russian counterpart Pavel Grachev, Western agencies reported. It is not known whether Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze has accepted the resignation. Karkarashvili, who was appointed defense minister in May 1993, has twice offered to resign over policy differences; his public brawl last December with Security Minister Igor Georgadze, who had blamed him for Georgia's military debacle in Abkhazia, gave rise to rumors that he planned to defect to the political opposition. Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT DELAYS NPT VOTE. Parliamentary Speaker Ivan Plyushch told Reuters on 1 February that no vote on accession to the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) will be taken until after a new parliament is elected in March. Plyushch also stated that a majority of deputies now supports the agreement. Reuters also reported that Dmytro Pavlychko, head of the parliamentary committee on international affairs, confirmed that support for the trilateral agreement is increasing amongst parliamentarians and that it is likely to be approved. Pavlychko noted that under the terms of the trilateral agreement, Russia recognizes Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity within its current borders, an important clause in the wake of the victory of a pro-Russian candidate in the Crimean elections. The security guarantees offered Ukraine in the trilateral agreement are conditional, however, upon its accession to the NPT. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY DENOUNCES TREND OF RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY. On 1 February, at the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry's weekly press briefing, the head of the ministry's information department, Yurii Serheev, told journalists that Ukraine was "concerned" by recent statements made by Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and what it regards as a "hardening" of Russia's policy towards the newly independent states which emerged after the collapse of the USSR, Radio Ukraine reported. The official said that Ukraine respects the rights of all national minorities but "categorically opposes" linking the protection of the rights of such groups with the presence of foreign troops on the territory of other states. Serheev noted that at the recent CSCE meeting in Rome foreign ministers had called for the prompt removal of the Russian 14th army from Moldova as well as the remaining Russian forces in the Baltic states and agreed that their withdrawal should not be linked to other issues. Russia, he argued, was claiming that the "aggressive nationalism" of the non-Russians was the main threat to regional peace and security, whereas in reality Russia's policy was exacerbating tensions by "provoking . . . national intolerance" among ethnic Russians living in other states. The official said that Ukraine would oppose Russia's attempts to promote a policy, wherein, "under the banner of defending rights . . . in essence the ideology of great-state chauvinism is being revived." Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATIAN UPPER HOUSE ENDORSES PACT WITH BELGRADE. After a long and stormy discussion, the upper house voted late 31 January to support the 19 January Croatian-Serbian declaration as "a step toward peace." The final resolution, carried by Slobodna Dalmacija on 2 February, frequently uses the words "step toward," indicating that real agreement is still a long way off. Politika adds that the measure passed only by the ruling HDZ's enforcing party discipline in the face of opposition charges that Zagreb has no business talking with Belgrade unless the latter recognizes Croatia within its Tito-era frontiers. The opposition also stresses the importance of rebuilding the alliance with the Muslims, but the resolution as passed urges a review of Zagreb-Sarajevo relations if the Muslims do not cease their attacks on Croats in central Bosnia, a call made earlier by Croatian Foreign Minister Mate Granic. Borba, meanwhile, reports that railway personnel are ready to resume Zagreb-Belgrade rail links and are just waiting for the politicians on both sides to reach an agreement. But Vecernji list of 1 February runs a poll that shows that, while respondents show more support for than opposition to the 19 January declaration, pessimism prevails as to eventual implementation. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CLAIMS AND DENIALS OVER BOSNIAN WAR PREPARATIONS. International media in recent days have reported on the mainly-Muslim Bosnian army's growing strength and self-confidence and have speculated that the Muslims may now try for a victory over the Serbs and Croats, who are suffering from morale problems and desertions. The 2 February Washington Post quotes Bosnia's ambassador to the UN, Mohamed Sacirbey, as joining President Alija Izetbegovic in resisting pressure to sign a peace treaty that their side considers unjust, adding that: "we're not engaged in this for military victory, but we have learned that successful actions on the battlefield are the best diplomacy." Elsewhere, the Los Angeles Times quotes UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali as confirming accounts that Croatian soldiers had crossed into Bosnian territory, an issue on which Politika also reports. Vjesnik on 31 January, however, quoted a top Republic of Croatia military political affairs spokesman as denying that any Croatian units are in Bosnia, while Politika carried an interview with the rump Yugoslav chief-of-staff, who made the same claim for his side. Western media accounts have suggested that Belgrade's armed forces are openly operating in Bosnia, and it is widely believed that the distinction between Zagreb's military and that of the "Croatian Community of Herceg-Bosna" is purely formal. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. DRAGAN TOMIC LEADS SERBIAN PARLIAMENT. On 2 February Politika reports on the efforts of the parties in Serbia's parliament to form a government. Tomic, a member of President Slobodan Milosevic's Socialist Party of Serbia, captured 125 votes from the 250 deputies in his successful bid to become president of the Serbian legislature. Politika stresses that the efforts to form a government have been hampered by disagreements. As a result of the 19 December 1993 elections, the Socialists hold 123 seats to the opposition's 127. Politika notes that the six opposition parties, fiercely divided amongst themselves, are also seemingly unable to cooperate with the Socialists. The daily says representatives from three parliamentary parties had the onerous task of "informing . . . the public" that recent talks aimed at forging a government failed to produce a "political understanding" or to break the political impasse. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. PROMINENT ALBANIAN ARRESTED IN MACEDONIA. Mithat Emini, former secretary general of the largest Albanian political party in Macedonia, the Party for Democratic Prosperity, was arrested on 29 January in connection with the "All Albanian Army" plot uncovered by authorities in November 1993, according to MIC. While the charges against Emini are not yet clear, he is allegedly linked with a group of Albanians who sought to smuggle arms into Macedonia to be used against the state. Emini lost his party post in a recent shakeup; he was regarded by radicals as too conciliatory to the Skopje government. Emini was transferred from prison to a hospital because of a heart condition. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBANIAN JOURNALISTS ARRESTED. The editor in chief of Koha Jone, a daily which the government views as a socialist organ, and a journalist working there, were arrested early on the morning of 21 February. The two men, Alexander Frangaj and Martin Leka, were jailed under the country's old penal code for publishing articles last year which allegedly disclosed secrets of the Ministry of Defense. The arrests have triggered much controversy and opposition member Teodor Keko has declared, "this is war," claiming that the opposition "will give a good lesson to the state." Koha Jone, which carried the story along with Zeri i Popullit, has sent an appeal to an number of international bodies arguing that such action poses danger to the fragile Albanian democracy. Robert Austin and Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW CONFLICT IN POLISH COALITION. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak's unilateral decision to fire Deputy Finance Minister Stefan Kawalec, apparently to take the blame for the "Bank Slaski affair," continues to raise hackles within the two-party Polish coalition. Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister Marek Borowski, who was not consulted on the decision, told Polish TV on 1 February that he had not yet received the written explanation he had demanded from Pawlak. Pawlak, on the other hand, told reporters that the explanation had been provided. The prime minister's press secretary later said that the reasons were given orally rather than on paper. Borowski indicated late in the evening that this approach was unsatisfactory. Meanwhile, the chairman of the Sejm's defense commission, Jerzy Szmajdzinski, demanded on 1 February that Pawlak take immediate action to clarify the position of another controversial figure, Deputy Defense Minister Jerzy Milewski, who simultaneously heads the president's national security office. The Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) objects to this linking of posts, while the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) has acquiesced in order to maintain the president's good will. Szmajdzinski and Borowski both represent the SLD; Pawlak heads the PSL. SLD and PSL leaders met for more than two hours late on 1 February but failed to issue a statement. Journalists were barred from the building in which the meeting was held, PAP reports. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. BANKING, FUNDING PROBLEMS FOR POLISH GOVERNMENT. The Polish media have also attributed Kawalec's removal to the Polish Peasant Party's determination to gain influence in the finance ministry and channel additional subsidies to farmers. Kawalec apparently opposed the government's decision to recapitalize the Bank Gospodarki Zywnosciowej (BGZ), an agrarian bank that oversees Poland's network of highly-indebted cooperative banks that lend to farmers, without requiring the restructuring that was demanded as a precondition for support by the ousted government of Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka. On taking office, Pawlak provided the BGZ with more than 4 trillion zloty ($182 million) in new funds; the bank also expects to receive the lion's share of the 19 trillion zloty allocated to the banking system in the proposed 1994 budget. The BGZ is now under investigation for irresponsible loan policies, Polish TV reports. In other financial news, Labor Minister Leszek Miller abandoned his demand for a 0.5% tax on stock market transactions as a way of funding additional social welfare programs after meeting with investors' representatives on 1 February. The investors argued that the proposed "transaction fee" would discourage investment and ultimately drain more funds from the budget than the tax would bring in. Share prices on the Warsaw stock market declined significantly for the second session in a row on 1 February. Brokers differed over whether this represented a market "correction" preceding a further rise or the beginning of a crash. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. PAWLAK CONTINUES PURGE OF LOCAL OFFICIALS. Prime Minister Pawlak fired the voivodship chief in Kielce and accepted the resignation of his counterpart in Bielsko-Biala on 1 February, Polish TV reports. The two officials were appointed in 1990 by the first Solidarity government headed by Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki. Pawlak removed several other voivodship chiefs over the weekend. Since taking office in October, the prime minister has replaced 16 of 49 voivodship heads with figures supported by the two ruling parties. Michal Strak, the public administration minister, recently proposed that voivodship chiefs share the term of office of the prime minister who appointed them. The government's approach has prompted criticism from the opposition parties, which argue that voivodship posts should be apolitical. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK CABINET URGES CANCELLATION OF LIBEL LAW. In a 1 February session, the Slovak cabinet approved a proposal for a parliamentary bill which would cancel articles 102 and 103 of the penal code, TASR reports. These articles, left over from the communist era in Czechoslovakia, make it illegal to defame the president and the state. Deputy Premier Roman Kovac said the cabinet's decision complies with recommendations of Amnesty International and the Helsinki Committee. The articles were put into practice in December when cabinet member and state secretary of the Privatization Ministry, Ivan Lexa, was charged with defamation of the state and its president. Lexa had heavily criticized President Michal Kovac following the president's refusal to appoint him as Privatization Minister. The two articles remain in the criminal code of the Czech Republic, even after the law was revised in November. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN COALITION GOVERNMENT UPDATE. Gheorghe Funar, chairman of the ultra-nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity, on 1 February told an RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest that negotiations are complete for his party to join a coalition government with the ruling Party of Social Democracy in Romania. According to Funar, the PRNU could start participating in the government in a couple of days, while three other parties (the Greater Romanian Party, the Socialist Labor Party and the Romanian Democratic Agrarian Party) would join the cabinet by 1 March. However, Senator Ion Solcanu, who is also PSDR vice-president, gave a different timetable at a press conference on the same day. He said that all four parties will probably not enter the new coalition until 1 March, after a consensus on an anti-crisis governing program has been reached. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIAN TURKS LEAVE MRF CAUCUS. On 1 January Mehmed Hodzha and Redzheb Chinar announced they are leaving the faction of the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF) and will henceforth be acting independently. Hodzha and Redzheb, who for several months have been openly critical of the MRF leadership, told Bulgarian media that they are defecting in protest over the party's close ties with the Bulgarian Socialist Party, successor of the Communist Party responsible for a forced assimilation campaign against Turks in the late 1980s. The legislators claimed the present government of unaffiliated Lyuben Berov, which is jointly backed by the BSP and MRF parliamentary groups, has lately appointed scores of government officials associated with the attempts to assimilate ethnic Turks. But they also called Chairman Ahmed Dogan's leadership style "authoritarian" and alleged that prominent MRF members take bribes. In a comment, MRF caucus leader Yunal Lyutfi flatly rejected the charges and suggested that the defectors had been influenced by the opposition Union of Democratic Forces. On the same day, the Supreme Court postponed the upcoming trial against ex-President and Communist Party leader Todor Zhivkov, former Prime Minister Georgi Atanasov and former Interior Minister Dimitar Stoyanov, accused of having instigated the assimilation program. The proceedings were originally scheduled for 8 February. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. HRYB ADDRESSES PARLIAMENT. On 1 February the new Chairman of the Belarusian Supreme Soviet, Mechyslau Hryb, addressed parliament, Belinform-TASS reported. Hryb stressed that a change in Belarusian leadership did not mean there would be any changes in the country's political or economic reforms. Belarus would continue working toward its goals of being a nuclear-free and neutral state. In addition, the republic would soon restructure its government and will either become a parliamentary state or introduce a presidency. Thus, the adoption of a new constitution will be parliament's primary task. Hryb also stated that he would do everything possible to introduce reforms which would create a market economy in Belarus. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT APPROVES STATE BUDGET FOR 1994. On 1 February, the Ukrainian parliament finally approved a budget for 1994, Ukrainian Radio reported. Legislators have still to decide whether or not a referendum will be held on 27 March, the same day as the parliamentary elections, on the basic principles of Ukraine's political system. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVA ACCEPTS CSCE'S CONFLICT SETTLEMENT PLAN. Moldova's Acting Foreign Minister, Ion Botnaru, officially informed the new head of CSCE's mission in Moldova, Ambassador Richard Samuel (Britain) that the CSCE plan for settling the Dniester conflict "has been examined and accepted at the highest level as the basis for negotiations" by the Moldovan side. At the same time Botnaru ruled out "federalization or partition," Basapress reported on 1 February. The CSCE plan, worked out by its Mission to Moldova and endorsed by the CSCE Foreign Ministers' meeting in Rome last December, is designed as a "basis for negotiations" and proposes a far-reaching degree of autonomy for Transdniester short of federalization. The "Dniester republic" leaders for their part have in recent statements continued to insist on full-fledged statehood for Transdniester in a nominal confederation with Moldova. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. US RENEWS SUPPORT FOR RUSSIAN TROOP PULLOUT FROM LATVIA. On 1 February a twelve-member Latvian delegation, led by Foreign Minister Georgs Andrejevs, concluded its US visit and left for Stockholm. While in Washington, the Latvians met with Secretary of State Warren Christopher and other top US officials and members of the Congress to discuss primarily Latvian-Russian relations. Christopher reiterated that "the United States places a very high importance on the prompt and unconditional withdrawal of the Russian troops from Latvia," and counseled the Latvians to show "concern and sensitivity for the Russian minority" in Latvia. Details of the various discussions have not been announced and it is, therefore, not possible to clarify the US views and possible role in seeking a resolution of the question of continued Russian control of the Skrunda radar in Latvia--one of the principal obstacles to the signing of a formal accord on the pullout of Russian troops from Latvia. Andrejevs told the press that "without US help, not a single guarantee is good enough for Latvia." Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIANS IN ESTONIA. According to data of the Russian embassy in Tallinn, thus far 42,300 persons have registered as citizens of Russia living in Estonia, BNS reported on 24 January. Estonia's Minister of Population Peeter Olesk noted that since the embassy does not reveal the names of these Russians, however, it is not clear whether some of the Russians might be citizens of both Estonia and Russia (Russian law allows for dual citizenship). Olesk said that since Estonia regained its independence about 11,000 persons have become naturalized citizens of Estonia. Russians, who comprise about 30% of the total population of about 1.5 million, have via their principal organization--the Assembly of the Russian-Speaking Population of Estonia--periodically been issuing complaints of discrimination by the Estonian authorities against the Russophone population. At its latest meeting on 29 January, the organization proposed commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of "Estonia's liberation from fascist occupation" and demanded that Estonia's 1938 law on citizenship and naturalization--which contrary to existing legislation does not require applicants for citizenship to pass an Estonian language test--be enforced in full, BNS reported on 1 February. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Kjell Engelbrekt The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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