|The only thing one knows about human nature is that it changes. - Oscar Wilde|
No. 20, 31 January 1994
RUSSIA SKOKOV SUPPORTS CHERNOMYRDIN. The leader of the Federation of Consumer Good Producers and former Secretary of the Security Council, Yurii Skokov, told Nezavisimaya gazeta on 28 January that he will support the government of Viktor Chernomyrdin. He said his Federation will cooperate with the newly created parliamentary faction in the State Duma--the "New regional policy", headed by the head of the Union of the Oil Producers, Vladimir Medvedev. Skokov stated that reform will now be conducted by regional political and industrial leaders who will also be responsible for solving social matters. The government, he claimed has no levers to administer economy from above and also lacks financial means. Skokov, who is regarded as a possible future candidate for the state presidency, lambasted radical reform policy for having destroyed the country's financial system. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. CHERNOMYRDIN AFFIRMS COMMITMENT TO REFORM. Addressing the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland on 30 January, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin pledged adherence to the economic reform program announced last August under the previous government, according to various Russian and Western news agencies. Chernomyrdin said that inflation remained the number one economic problem in Russian and would be tackled through strict fiscal and monetary policies. The recently announced shift towards "more active structural-investment" policies was to take place within the framework of this financial stabilization, the prime minister explained. The emphasis and tone of Chernomyrdin's speech to the international audience contrasted sharply with the "end of reform romanticism" motif he has used at home. Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW ECONOMIC PROGRAM IN THE OFFING? While Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin was assuring the World Economic forum in Davos that the Russian government is adhering to the reform program adopted in August 1993 (see Delovoi mir, of 13 August 1993), Izvestiya of 29 January reported that a new program drawn up by members of ten research institutes would be submitted to the government shortly. Among the luminaries responsible for the document are Leonid Abalkin, Nikolai Petrakov, and Stanislav Shatalin. The new blueprint is said to envisage an extended, almost leisurely, transition to the market. In an interview with Interfax of 29 January, Kirill Ignatiev of "Russia's Choice" dismissed the program as "economic Gorbachevism," by which he meant a lot of talk about reforms but little or no action. Other, unconfirmed, reports from Moscow suggest that Chernomyrdin has already adopted the gradualist reform program authored by centrist economist Evgenii Yasin. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV WRAPS UP CHINA VISIT. Foreign Minister Kozyrev said during his return trip from China to Russia on 29 January that relations between the two countries were based on normal cooperation, and there is no need for any "further steering together" of the partners. During a news conference in China on 28 January, Kozyrev stressed that "China and Russia are two great regional powers, moreover in several regions simultaneously, whether it be central, western, or southeast Asia. Our regional cooperation embraces half the world." The Russian minister said that trade relations between the two countries should be expected to improve so that "higher" and "more stable" forms of cooperation could be pursued, Russian and Western agencies reported. Prime Minister Chernomyrdin is expected to travel to China in the third quarter of 1994 to prepare for a Chinese-Russian summit in Moscow later in the year. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN-CHINESE BORDER TRADE PACT. During his visit to Beijing last week, Kozyrev and his Chinese counterpart signed an agreement covering 21 border crossings, The Financial Times reported on 28 January. The agreement is intended to facilitate the flourishing two-way trade that was worth nearly $8 billion in 1993: some 80% of the total trade is channeled through border crossings along the remote frontier. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. ZHIRINOVSKY GOES TO SERBIA, SKIPS POLAND. Russian LDP leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky left the Slovenian resort city Bled on 29 January after police complained that he and his entourage had destroyed property and started fights. Before leaving Slovenia, Zhirinovsky signed a pledge to cooperate with a local nationalist leader. The LDP leader then canceled a trip to Poland and went to Serbia, where he reportedly brought crowds of Serbs to tears with his assurances that Russia would always support their country. At a news conference in Belgrade on 30 January, he said that a NATO air strike against Bosnian Serbs would be tantamount to a declaration of war against Russia. Asked how he would divide Bosnia, Zhirinovsky said: "Muslims do not exist. Let it be Greater Croatia and Greater Serbia," Western agencies reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. DEMOCRATIC REFORM MOVEMENT CONGRESS. The Russian Democratic Reform Movement (RDRM) held its second national congress on 29 and 30 January. The RDRM, which was formed two years ago and is led by former Moscow Mayor Gavriil Popov, failed to have its representatives elected to the State Duma, although its members include prominent politicians such as St. Petersburg Mayor Anatolii Sobchak. In his speech to the congress, Popov said that the December elections proved that Russia had rejected the policies pursued by the government after the attempted coup of August 1991, and he called for "the most dangerous measures of the Western reform model" to be dropped. The congress approved a call for the development of a long-term alternative program to turn Russia into "a postindustrial society." Wendy Slater, RFE/RL, Inc. REFORM OF STATE SECURITY ORGANS AND MVD CONTINUES. The Commission of the Russian Security Council for Reform of the Security Services has approved the appointment of divisional chiefs within the Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK), Segodnya, reported on 27 January and Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 28 January. The Commission, headed by the Secretary of the Security Council Oleg Lobov, is in charge of screening officers of the former Ministry of Security selected for the new service. The Commission did not report the names of the new chiefs of functional divisions, but stated that most officers of the former Ministry have no problems in passing the procedure because of their high professional standards. The Commission also reported that the regional administration of the FSK will have more liberty than in the past in defining their own structure and selecting personnel. Meanwhile, the Minister of the MVD, Viktor Erin, stated that his agency will be the next candidate for reorganization, Russian television reported on 29 January. According to Erin, the number of administrations of the MVD will be reduced and some departments, including the internal troops, will probably be subordinated directly to the President. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. UPROAR OVER ALLEGED NORTH KOREAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS. The Russian Defense Ministry and General Staff have angrily denied a report published in the Japanese weekly Shukan Bunshun that alleged that North Korea has, with the help of Russian scientists, developed several nuclear warheads and the missiles with which to deliver them. The Japanese newspaper apparently used as its source what it claimed was a top secret Russian General Staff assessment of North Korea's nuclear weapons program. Izvestiya on 27 January published its own report on the allegations, suggesting that the document quoted by the Japanese newspaper was authentic, but questioning the conclusions that were said to have been reached by the General Staff. Krasnaya zvezda on 28 January carried a rebuttal by Russian General Staff Chief Mikhail Kolesnikov in which he criticized Izvestiya for lending credence to a document that he said was obviously phony. On the same day, according to Interfax, a Russian Defense Ministry spokesman described the report as a "flagrant fabrication." Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. FAR EASTERN LEADER OPPOSES MILITARY DRAWDOWN; NIKOLAEV TO JAPAN. The governor of Sakhalin, Evgenii Krasnoyarov, has urged the Russian government to resist calls for further reductions in the armed forces based on Sakhalin and on the disputed Kuril Islands, Interfax reported on 28 January. Krasnoyarov, citing recent alleged incursions of Japanese fishing boats into Russian waters, suggested that reductions in Russia's regional military presence would constitute an invitation to Japanese fisherman to engage in more encroachments. He claimed that the withdrawal of an air force regiment from Iterup, one of the four disputed islands, has had exactly that effect. Meanwhile, Interfax also reported that the commander of Russian Border Forces, General Andrei Nikolaev, departed on 29 January for an official visit to Japan. It was not clear if the visit was related to the recent tensions over the alleged incursions. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA REFERENDUM IN KYRGYZSTAN. Reuters reported on 31 January that an official in the office of Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev told the agency's correspondent in Bishkek that the vote in the 30 January referendum on Akaev's leadership had been 96% in favor of the president. Voter turnout, according to Western and Russian news agencies, was over 95%. The referendum, which asked only if Akaev should finish out his term of office, which ends in 1996, was seen by the president himself as a question of public confidence in his economic reform program. Members of the Kyrgyz nationalist opposition and Communists in the legislature have criticized Akaev's program of rapid privatization for causing severe disruption to the economy and a sharp decline in living standards. In fact, disruption of Soviet-era economic relations have played the largest role in Kyrgyzstan's economic woes. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. NAZARBAEV IN DAVOS ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 30 January as saying that his country intends to honor the agreements on nuclear weapons that it has signed, adding that Kazakhstan never wanted to be a nuclear power. Nazarbaev said that Kazakhstan has received guarantees from the nuclear states, including China, that it will not be a target of nuclear attack, and that the US and Russia have agreed that Kazakhstan will be compensated for the enriched uranium from the warheads of its nuclear missiles that are to be scrapped. Nazarbaev also said that agreement had been reached on his country's economic integration with the West. His statements contradicted an assertion by an Iranian newspaper that Kazakhstan's ambassador in Iran had said that Kazakhstan will not give up its nuclear missiles. The ambassador denied having made the statement. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS SHUMEIKO OFFERED SHUSHKEVICH CIS POST. It was reported that the speaker of the Council of the Federation Vladimir Shumeiko called the ousted Belarus head of state Stanislau Shushkevich shortly after the latter lost the confidence vote in the parliament and offered him the job of head of the Interparliamentary Assembly of the CIS, Nezavisimaya gazeta on 28 January quoted an unnamed aide of Shushkevich as saying. The post of head of the Interparliamentary Assembly became vacant after the departure of Russian parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov last October. Khasbulatov wanted to use his position in the Interparliamentary Assembly to rebuild the Soviet Union. Shumeiko reportedly told Shushkevich that he had cleared the latter's candidacy for that post with the parliamentary leaders of the other CIS states. In an interview with Interfax on 28 January Shumeiko denied having made such an offer. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE RUSSIAN NATIONALIST WINS CRIMEAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. On 31 January Radio Ukraine announced the result of the runoff presidential election in Crimea. The pro-Russia candidate Yurii Meshkov, who has opposed both Ukrainian control of Crimea and recognition of the rights of the Crimean Tatars, won 72.9% of the votes; his opponent, the chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Crimean Republic and former regional Communist Party leader, Mykola Bagrov, who campaigned for retaining the status quo in relations between Ukraine and Crimea, obtained around 23%. The voter turnout was over 75%. Meshkov, who in the final stages of the elections, moderated his initial call for Crimea to be rejoined to Russia, proposes to hold a referendum on 27 March in which voters will be asked if they are for "an independent Crimean republic in a union with other states." According to the 1989 Soviet census, Russians constituted about 67% of the 2.7 million population of Crimea, and Ukrainians 26%. In recent years, about 280,000 Crimean Tatars have returned to Crimea from which they were forcibly deported in 1944. Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. THREE JOURNALISTS, ONE AID WORKER KILLED IN BOSNIA. On 29 January Reuters reported that Bosnian Croat forces admitted to the killing of three Italian TV journalists on 28 January. According to media reports, the three died during a mortar attack on the city of Mostar, where Muslim forces have been allegedly shelling Croat troops. In a separate incident, on 28 January the international media reported that three British aid workers were abducted when their vehicle was apprehended near Zenica, in a Muslim-controlled section of Bosnia. One of the men was killed, while the other two, wounded, managed to escape. In response to this incident, Great Britain halted its participation in UN aid convoys, but is expected to take part once again in aid deliveries starting 31 January. Also on 28 January UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali stated he would condone the use of air strikes in Bosnia if UN peacekeepers were attacked. Boutros-Ghali made his views known in a letter to the Security Council, and has evidently authorized his representative in the former Yugoslavia, Yashushi Akashi, to request the use of air power in the event that the UN command in Bosnia deems it necessary. Boutros-Ghali suggested that air power could be used, for example, at Tuzla, where the airport has been closed because of Bosnian Serb attacks, and where UN soldiers could be attacked as they attempt to re-open the airport. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. CROATIA'S FORCES IN BOSNIA. According to international media reports, troops from Croatia appear to be entering Bosnian territory in order to support Bosnian Croatian forces. Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic has estimated that at least 12,000 Croatian troops from Croatia have entered Bosnia, while in an AFP report of 30 January Bosnian General Jovan Divjak suggested that at least 14,000 soldiers from Croatia, with about 40 tanks and aircraft had come to support the Bosnian Croats. In an official statement issued on 29 January, the Croatian government flatly denied that any troops were being sent into Bosnia. Drago Krpina, head of the political department of the Croatian army, told reporters that any suggestions to the effect that Croatia was sending troops to support Bosnian Croats were utter fabrications. UN officials in Zagreb, however, have reported that some 3,000 soldiers bearing Croatia's military insignia had crossed over into Bosnia. Krpina has described these soldiers as "volunteers," who may have neglected to remove their military insignias.In a related story, officials in Belgrade have denied charges that forces from rump Yugoslavia have been sent to Bosnia. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. AUTONOMY FOR VOJVODINA HUNGARIANS? On 28 January Politika reported that Hungarian foreign minister Geza Jeszenszky had arrived in Belgrade for a two-day visit that would include talks with ranking rump Yugoslav officials including Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and foreign minister Vladislav Jovanovic. After concluding talks with the Serbian president, Jeszenszky told reporters that he was hopeful that relations with rump Yugoslavia, strained since the Serbian province of Vojvodina, which is home to a large Hungarian minority, lost its autonomy in 1990, could improve. According to a Reuters report of 28 January, Jeszenszky suggested that Milosevic, perhaps in a bid to improve relations with Hungary, was prepared to allow Serbia's ethnic Hungarian minority to exercise autonomy, at least in the spheres of culture and education. Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. OFFICIAL'S FIRING DIVIDES POLISH COALITION. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak dismissed Stefan Kawalec, the deputy finance minister responsible for the privatization of Bank Slaski [Silesian Bank], on 28 January, PAP reports. The firing set off a conflict within the two-party government. Kawalec, a member of the original Balcerowicz team, had served in the finance ministry for four years. The prime minister's press secretary initially refused all comment; a subsequent statement attributed the firing to "an overall assessment" of Kawalec's performance. Polish media immediately assumed that Kawalec was being made a scapegoat for the controversial debut of Bank Slaski on the Warsaw stock exchange on 25 January, when shares were fixed at 1,350% of the issue price. Finance Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Marek Borowski was not consulted on the firing; he expressed astonishment and told reporters that Pawlak's move violated both the "principle of cooperation among cabinet members" and the coalition agreement between his own Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) and Pawlak's Polish Peasant Party. The coalition agreement guarantees the SLD leadership a say in all major personnel decisions. Opposition leaders criticized Pawlak's move as a bad omen for privatization and a reversion to the discredited methods of the past. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND MARKS 4% GROWTH IN 1993. The Main Statistical Office (GUS) confirmed on 28 January that Poland recorded 4% GDP growth in 1993, PAP reports. Industrial production was up 6.2% but still below 1989 and 1990 figures. Industrial firms' finances improved, with 3 zloty in profits for every 1,000 zloty of turnover, well ahead of the 15 zloty in losses recorded in 1992. Housing construction collapsed, however. Agricultural production rose 2.2%. Prices rose 35.3%, an average of 2.7% per month. Although the purchasing power of wages declined 1.8% and of pensions, 2.6%, consumption rose 6-7% in 1993, as the public borrowed or drew on savings. Unemployment rose to 15.7% in December. The budget deficit of 43.8 trillion zloty (just over $2 billion) was 54% less than the planned amount of 81 trillion zloty. Revenues were 5.9% higher than planned, while spending was 2.3% lower. By the end of September, the trade deficit had reached $3.5 billion, in large part because of a 47% rise in imports attributed to the introduction of the VAT. Exports rose by 24.1%. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND, GERMANY PLAN JOINT MILITARY EXERCISES. Polish Defense Minister Piotr Kolodziejczyk made a one-day working visit to Germany on 28 January, PAP reports. German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe agreed that joint maneuvers are one good way to implement the Partnership for Peace plan. Kolodziejczyk announced that 77 joint Polish-German military activities are planned for 1994, including land and sea exercises with Denmark on the Jutland Peninsula; marine rescue exercises with other Baltic states; and computer war simulations. Poland will strive to have exercises held on its territory in order to limit costs. The two defense ministers did not discuss the possible transfer of former East German military hardware to Poland; Kolodziejczyk explained that, "We must have our honor; the issue has been dropped." Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. KLAUS IN DAVOS. Speaking to reporters at the World Economic Forum meeting in Davos on 28 January, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said that the Czech Republic has nearly completed its transformation to a free-market economy. In Klaus's opinion, the Czech Republic has crossed over from "the old political, social and economic system" to a new one. He argued that the Czech Republic is the first former East Bloc state to do so. "The Year 1994 will be the end of spectacular, visible, huge reform measures," Klaus said. He predicted that economic growth in 1994 will be 2-3% and inflation less than 10%. Unemployment is expected to rise slightly from the current 3.5%, but Klaus argued that it would stay relatively low through the creation of new jobs. During a discussion at the World Economic Forum on 29 January, Klaus said his country will take part in NATO's Partnership for Peace initiative, but is still interested in becoming a full NATO member. Also on the 29th, Klaus and Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar agreed that their two countries should sign a free trade agreement, CTK reported. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. SLOVAK PARLIAMENT REJECTS LAW ON BILINGUAL SIGNS. In its 28 January session, the Slovak parliament rejected a law allowing for bilingual city names in areas with large ethnic minorities, TASR reports. Needing only a simple majority, the law failed by only 3 votes; of 132 representatives of the 150-member parliament present for the vote, 64 voted in favor, 35 voted against, and 33 abstained. The law has been supported by members of the Hungarian minority, and its passage was recommended by the Council of Europe when Slovakia joined the organization in June 1993. Ivo Hlavacek, director of the international law and legislative section at the Foreign Ministry told TASR on 28 January that the CE recommendations are not "obligatory" or "binding." Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARY'S FREE DEMOCRATS ADOPT PROGRAM. The conference of delegates of Hungary's largest opposition liberal party, the Alliance of Free Democrats, adopted on 30 January with only two abstentions the party's electoral program, MTI reports. According to the AFD's prime minister candidate Gabor Kuncze the program aims to trim bureaucracy, cut corporate taxes to stimulate growth, provide incentives for foreign investors and enterprises creating jobs. The program also promises greater independence and more money to local governments. Characterizing the AFD as a "social liberal party of the center," party chairman Ivan Peto told the conference that the most important goal is to achieve a majority for the liberal parties at the national elections. He described the Hungarian Socialist Party, the former reform communists who now lead the polls, as the AFD's political opponent whom the party is determined to defeat in the elections. Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc. WARNING STRIKE IN ROMANIA. Three of Romania's main trade union confederations on 28 January called a one-hour warning strike to protest what they see as the government's inability to cope with Romania's economic and social problems. The strike affected factories, transportation, national television, the post office department and other branches. Radio Bucharest reported that not all members of the three union organizations, which together claim a membership of over 5 million, joined. The warning strike was the first in a series of planned labor actions, including a one-day walkout and a general strike in February. Also on 28 January coal miners at Rovinari and Motru decided to suspend a one-week-old strike for 30 days. The decision followed a ruling of Romania's Supreme Court of Justice against the strike. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc. NEW BELARUSIAN LEADER ELECTED. On 28 January the Belarusian parliament elected Myachyslau Hryb as the new Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, various agencies reported. Other candidates for the post included Mikhail Marynich, deputy chairman of the state committee for foreign economic relations, and Viktor Hanchar, deputy chairman of the Molodechnensk city council. All three candidates are considered conservatives. Hanchar dropped out of the race after coming in last in the first round of voting. Hryb was elected over Marynich in the next round by a 183 to 55 vote. As Belarus does not have a presidency, the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet is the head of state under the present Soviet-era constitution. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. WHO IS MYACHYSLAU HRYB? The new Belarusian leader, Myacheslau Hryb, was educated as a legal expert and made his career in the Belarusian interior ministry. Prior to his election he was a parliamentary deputy and headed a committee on national security, defense and law enforcement. His candidacy was supported by the conservative "Belarus" faction in parliament. Observers have said that while he is "a good professional, he is no politician," The Guardian reported on 29 January. Real power is considered to be held by the Prime Minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, the most probable contender for the post of president, if it should be introduced. Following his election, Hryb said there were no major foreign policy differences between him and his predecessor, Stanislau Shushkevich. Their views differ mainly with regard to the CIS collective security pact. Shushkevich had been opposed to the pact, while Hryb favored the treaty. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE ON CHURKIN'S VIEWS ON THE BALTICS. At a press conference on 27 January in Moscow, according to Interfax and Western agencies, Russia's Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin said that "we have major problems with the Baltic States" but that "we want to solve our problems without the use of force." While admitting that the Soviet takeover of the Baltic States in 1940 "was, of course, a mistake," Churkin claimed that "from the legal aspect, the 1940 events cannot be interpreted as an invasion or occupation" and added that "today's international law does not apply to the situation before. . . ." World War II. Accusing Estonia and Latvia of violating the rights of ethnic Russians living there, he insisted that the Baltic States, rather than Russia, had been linking the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltics to the situation of Russians living there. Regarding Estonia's territorial claims to several areas in Russia's Pskov Region, Churkin noted that "there is no need to create additional irritants, which, as a matter of fact, will bring no practical results. We can take retaliatory measures, and our Estonian partners will not like it." He felt that "the territorial issue is clear. This is Russian territory, it is controlled by Russia, and our present border with Estonia has the status of state frontier." Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. ESTONIA RESPONDS TO CHURKIN'S VEILED THREAT. The Estonian Foreign Ministry, in a first response on 28 January, expressed hope that Churkin's statements "do not represent a new, even more confrontational and threatening line in Russian foreign policy." The ministry said Estonia would like to view Russia as a normal state but that this would require Russia to "refrain from making statements which make its smaller neighbors nervous about Russia's true geopolitical intentions." The statement also disputed Churkin's interpretation of the 1940 Soviet takeover of the Baltic States, stressing that "international law did not, as Mr. Churkin claims, have its origins in 1945." Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. DEVELOPMENTS IN ALBANIA. According to Rilindja Demokratike on 30 January, the United States is planning to send two reconnaissance planes to the country with a view to providing information on Serb positions in Bosnia. In other developments, Albanian president Sali Berisha has concluded his trip to Malaysia and Brunei. Opposition media, especially Zeri i Popullit on 30 January, are ridiculing the trip as foolish at a time when the country should be placing emphasis on continued European integration and not on expanding ties with places so far away. Robert Austin, RFE/RL, Inc. RFE TO CONTINUE BROADCASTS TO SLOVAKIA. Following 11 hours of talks on 28 January between RFE Deputy Director Gary Thatcher and Slovak Telecommunications Director Vladimir Ondrovic, ST agreed to cancel its earlier decision to terminate the contract with RFE by 31 January. Thatcher told reporters that RFE is willing to help resolve technical and legal questions, but he insisted that Slovakia abide by the contract signed by RFE and the former Czechoslovakia which allows RFE to use Slovak transmitters until the end of 1995. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Kjell Engelbrekt The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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