|Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it's the only thing that ever has. - Margaret Mead|
No. 18, 27 January 1994
FEDOROV REPLACED BY DUBININ. Sergei Dubinin has been appointed Acting Finance Minister after the resignation of Boris Fedorov, ITAR-TASS reported on 26 January. 43-year-old Dubinin had been one of Fedorov's three first deputies since March 1993. Prior to that he had worked as Deputy Chairman of the State Committee for Economic Cooperation with the CIS states. President Boris Yeltsin had met with Fedorov and tried to convince him to remain in the government but rejected the minister's conditions concerning the release of Central Bank chief Viktor Gerashchenko. Later Yeltsin met another reformer, social minister and member of the liberal bloc Russia's Choice, Ella Pamfilova, who also wants to resign in protest over the change of the reform course. Yeltsin did not accept Pamfilova's resignation, and she formally remains in the government. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. SOSKOVETS SPEAKS OUT. In one of his parting shots, Boris Fedorov alleged that the new government is dominated by "red managers" and by "lifeless and illiterate state planning ideology," Reuters reported on 26 January. On the same day, First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets--the No. 2 in the government--showed where he differs from the former finance minister. As reported by an RFE/RL correspondent and Interfax, Soskovets told the State Committee on Construction that international organizations are exerting political influence on Russia but, as yet, have provided "no tangible economic aid." He also complained that "as soon as we start talking about price regulation, voices can immediately be heard saying that this is not a pro-market measure and that neither the West nor the IMF will appreciate it. But why should we use other people's wits in our own country?" Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. SHUMEIKO ON ROLE OF REGIONS IN REFORM. The speaker of the Council of the Federation, Vladimir Shumeiko, said that regions are deciding economic reform policies in Russia today, ITAR-TASS reported on 26 January. He told journalists that a major government meeting is scheduled to take place in February where the government and the representatives of the executive branches of the Russian republics and regions will decide on how to continue reform. He stated that the fact that he, Egor Gaidar and Boris Fedorov have left the government does not mean that reforms will be halted. Shumeiko indicated that the Council of the Federation has the right of legislative initiative and could, if necessary, pass laws independently of the State Duma . He said that the crucial question for the parliament is to adopt a state budget for 1994. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. MIRZAYANOV TAKEN INTO CUSTODY. The scientist Vil Mirzayanov was taken into police custody for contempt of court, "Vesti" reported on 26 January. Mirzayanov had refused to attend the court sessions, arguing that the new Russian Constitution forbids trying people on the basis of unpublished materials. Mirzayanov is being tried for his articles on the Soviet violation of an agreement on nonproliferation of chemical and biological weapons published in Russian and American newspapers in September 1992. If found guilty, he may be punished by up to eight years of imprisonment for revealing state secrets. "Vesti" quoted representatives of international human rights organizations that had expressed their concern over the case, adding that Mirzayanov's trial does not differ from those of Russia's communist past. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. ZHIRINOVSKY FACING CHARGES OF WAR-MONGERING. The office of the Russian prosecutor general has opened a formal criminal investigation into statements by Vladimir Zhirinovsky, RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent reported on 26 January. Article 71 of the Russian Criminal Code provides for punishment of three to eight years' imprisonment for propagandizing war. The probe was launched after a complaint by the human rights campaigner Kronid Lyubarsky, who is now deputy editor of the weekly New Times. Lyubarksy said Zhirinovsky made "open calls to war" in his autobiography and during the recent election campaign. Zhirinovsky denied the charges, Reuters reported, declaring that his book would soon be "compulsory reading at all Russian universities." Under Russian law, charges are not filed until investigations are completed. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. ZHIRINOVSKY DENIES LINKS WITH KGB AND COMMUNIST PARTY. Zhirinovsky is reported as having said that he had never received money from the Communist Party and has no connections with the former KGB, according to Ostankino television and ITAR-TASS reports on 26 January. Speaking at a press conference in Moscow, Zhirinovsky stressed that he was never a member of the Communist Party and that the old communist leadership of the USSR was "too greedy" to give anyone its money. Zhirinovsky also denied his alleged connections to the KGB. He said that although he always "respected" the KGB, he was never its agent because, he explained, he was never a member of the Communist Party. At the beginning of January, the mayor of St. Petersburg, Anatolii Sobchak, claimed that he had reliable information that Zhirinovsky is an officer of the KGB Active Reserve. Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc. CRISIS OVER UNPAID WAGES. The Independent Union of Coal Miners is threatening to call a countrywide strike on 1 February, RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent reported on 26 January. The union, which claims to represent 95% of Russia's coalminers, says miners are currently owed 272,000 million rubles in back pay. Meanwhile, coal is being stockpiled at the mines because railroad workers are refusing to load it; the railroad workers complain they are owed wages because the mines have not paid for previous shipments. Also threatening to strike for unpaid wages are oil workers in northern Russia's Komi Republic. In recent months, the government has been paying many salaries late in an effort to control inflation. Finally, Russia's air traffic controllers are threatening strike action; they are complaining about having to work with outdated and unreliable radar equipment. Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV IN BEIJING. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev arrived in China for a three-day visit on 26 January. He started talks on the 27th with Chinese Foreign Minister Qian Qichen. Discussions will focus on trade issues as well as on cooperation in military and political affairs. Kozyrev is expected to visit a free enterprise zone as well as meet other Chinese officials, Russian agencies reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. TRAVAILS OF THE FUEL AND ENERGY COMPLEX. Yurii Shafranik, the fuel and energy minister, has recently been issuing, almost on a daily basis, dire warnings of the imminent collapse of the entire fuel and energy complex. In his latest letter to the prime minister, quoted by Interfax on 26 January, Shafranik refers to the tense atmosphere among workers in the complex because of delays in wage payments and owing to the financial situation of enterprises. Payment arrears for fuel supplied have risen to about 11 trillion rubles, while Shafranik put the shortfall in investments in the complex at 35 trillion rubles. In a separate, somewhat specious allegation, also quoted by Interfax on 26 January, his ministry complains that oil-producing joint ventures invested only $230 million in the sector, but exported crude oil in 1993 worth more than $1 billion. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. MORDOVIA DROPS "SOVIET, SOCIALIST" FROM TITLE. On 26 January the Mordovian Supreme Soviet decided to change the name of the republic from Mordovian Soviet Socialist Republic to Republic of Mordovia, Ostankino Television reported. Last fall Moscow had requested North Ossetia, Dagestan, and Mordovia, the last three to retain "soviet, socialist" in their titles, to remove the offending words, but Mordovia had been dragging its feet over the issue. Ann Sheehy
UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT AND TRILATERAL AGREEMENT. Although the Ukrainian parliament has not yet formally debated the trilateral agreement, some key deputies are stating their positions. Yurii Kostenko, the environment minister and head of the committee that drafted the START-1 ratification resolution, has come out strongly against the agreement. The deputy chairman of the parliamentary committee on foreign affairs, Bohdan Horyn, told Interfax on 26 January that the agreement is inadequate, and suggested that its approval be postponed until after the 27 March elections. Similarly, the head of the committee on defense, Valentyn Lemish, has suggested that further negotiations be held before the agreement is approved. So far, only the parliamentary speaker, Ivan Plyushch, has endorsed Kravchuk's call for rapid accession to the nuclear non-proliferation treaty. Deputies' positions have been reported by UNIAR, Interfax, and Western press agencies. It appears that if the current parliament does formally debate the trilateral agreement, it is likely to call for further negotiations and stronger security guarantees, with a final decision postponed until after the elections. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. WHO'S MINDING THE MISSILES? Izvestiya reported on 25 January that the Ukrainian strategic rocket forces are divided on the nuclear issue. The report claims that on 21 January, the commander of the strategic rocket forces in Ukraine, Lieutenant General Vladimir Mikhtyuk, took the Ukrainian oath, although many other missile force commanders have refused to do so. Mikhtyuk has supported Kravchuk's call for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Despite the fact that Ukraine has taken over control of all nuclear facilities on its territory, Izvestiya reports that most missile troops have not taken the Ukrainian oath, presumably rendering them "stateless" soldiers, and it suggests that some are opposed to disarmament as it would leave them jobless as well. In Krasnaya zvezda of 20 January, a senior commander of the Russian strategic rocket forces claimed that one-third of the officers of the 43rd Missile Army in Ukraine have expressed their wish to be transferred back to Russia, where pay scales are much higher. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. SHORTFALLS IN OIL DELIVERIES TO CIS STATES. In 1993, despite sharply reduced output, the exports of Russian crude oil and petroleum products to countries outside the former Soviet Union rose by roughly 20%, Reuters reported on 24 January. Nevertheless, according to the State Statistics Committee, because of the fall in average unit prices, the revenue from these exports declined by almost $4 billion when compared with 1992. Deliveries of Russian energy supplies to CIS states in 1993, however, fell well short of commitments. The Ministry for Cooperation with CIS States, as quoted by Interfax on 26 January, puts the 1993 shortfalls in contracted deliveries at 16.8 million tons of crude oil and products and 16.4 billion cubic meters of natural gas. Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.
TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA
RAFSANJANI TELLS CENTRAL ASIANS TO DISTANCE SELVES FROM WEST. Iranian President Ali Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani told a meeting of foreign ministers of Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) states in Tehran that the Central Asian countries should distance themselves from the West, ITAR-TASS reported on 26 January. Rafsanjani said that the US and Europe are uninterested in resolving conflicts in the new countries of the region which do not affect their interests, and might even encourage such conflicts. In recent months Iran has been expanding relations with the Central Asian states, presumably hoping to increase its influence in the region. The five countries of Central Asia, along with Azerbaijan and Afghanistan, joined the ECO, which had previously consisted of founding members Turkey, Iran and Pakistan--in 1992. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.
CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE
PARLIAMENT VOTES NO-CONFIDENCE IN SHUSHKEVICH. On 26 January the Belarusian parliament voted no-confidence in the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, various agencies reported. Shushkevich was overwhelmingly rejected by the conservative parliament with 209 deputies voting for his dismissal, while only 36 voted in his support. The prime minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, was also put to a no-confidence vote, but he survived with 101 deputies voting no confidence while 175 voted in his favor. The stated reason for the no-confidence votes were accusations of corruption leveled by Alexandr Lukashenka, the chairman of parliament's anti-corruption commission. Shushkevich's first deputy, Vyacheslau Kuznetsou, will act as Supreme Soviet Chairman until a new chairman can be elected. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. MORE ON SHUSHKEVICH'S OUSTER. While corruption was the reason formally given for the no-confidence vote in Shushkevich, the opposition has said that it was the former communist nomenklatura's way of "getting rid of most of the people who were bothering them." AFP reported reformist deputy Vitali Malashka as warning that Shushkevich's ouster could lead to "an authoritarian regime under Vyacheslau Kebich." The opposition leader, Zyanon Paznyak, called the vote a communist "coup d'etat," and Shushkevich himself denied the charges of corruption and stated that he was willing to answer any charge Lukashenka had to level against him. Lukashenka had accused both Shushkevich and Kebich of corruption in December. According to the chairman of the Social Democratic Assembly, Aleh Trusau, the charges were merely an attempt to discredit certain members of parliament, Belarusian radio reported on 17 December. Shushkevich's ouster, following the departures of the KGB minister Eduard Shyrkouski and interior minister Uladzimir Yahorau, leaves the government firmly in the hands of conservative hard-liners. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. RUMP YUGOSLAV ARMY ACTIVE IN BOSNIA. The New York Times on 27 January quotes UN and Yugoslav sources as confirming that troops and heavy equipment of the Serbian-dominated successor to the former Yugoslav People's Army are openly taking part in operations in the neighboring republic. Their goal appears to be to offset recent gains of the mainly Muslim Bosnian army, which is numerically the largest force in the conflict but which is heavily outgunned. Belgrade claimed that its forces had left Bosnia soon after local Serbs launched their war against the Muslims and Croats in the spring of 1992. Many observers nonetheless suspected that Serbian forces in both Croatia and Bosnia were still operating under central guidance from Belgrade. Many also suspected that the Serbs were following a master plan probably approved by President Slobodan Milosevic as early as 1990, and these suspicions were reinforced by the publication of a map in Politika on 8 November 1993. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CROATIA'S MESIC CALLS FOR ALLIANCE WITH MUSLIMS. The independent Novi list in its 26 January issue runs an interview with Stipe Mesic, speaker of the lower house of parliament and well-known critic of his own party's right wing and of President Franjo Tudjman. Mesic again points out that the Croats and Muslims are "natural allies" against an aggressive common enemy, the Serbs. He refuses to assign blame for the collapse of the alliance last spring, but urges that it be revived lest the Serbs conquer more land at the expense of both. Meanwhile in the international arena, the 27 January Washington Post quotes American spokesmen as charging France with using a "strange moral calculus" in urging the imposition of a peace settlement upon the Muslims, whom Washington sees as victims in the conflict. Elsewhere, the BBC said that France has proposed that NATO carry out airstrikes if required to open the Tuzla airport and to back UN troops in Srebrenica. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. MACEDONIA WANTS MORE BUSINESS WITH SLOVENIA. Borba said on 26 January that a delegation of 20 Macedonian businessmen was in Ljubljana to drum up more business to offset Macedonia's $100 million trade deficit with the Alpine republic. The two have a history of trade imbalances dating back to Yugoslav times, but Macedonia still regards Slovenia as its leading business partner after Germany. In the discussions, which were conducted in Serbo-Croatian, the Macedonians complained about what they regard as unfair Slovene business practices. Meanwhile, some Slovenes like to joke that they have "joined Europe" and that proof of this is that their political life, like that of their neighbors Austria and Italy, is plagued by scandals. One such affair involved the discovery last year in Maribor of 120 tons of arms for Bosnia marked as humanitarian aid. Now Borba quotes the Maribor Vecer as saying that Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic has admitted that Bosnia bought the weapons abroad itself and was aware of the ploy, saying his republic had no other choice. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. SAUDI MILLIONS FOR ALBANIA. A delegation from a Saudi Arabian organization called the Company for International Investments in Albania visited Tirana to discuss possible projects with the Albanian authorities, Gazeta Shqiptare reported on 20 January. The company, which has a declared starting capital of $100 million, was founded as the result of talks between the Islamic Development Bank, the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which took place two months ago in Tirana. According to the vice president of the company, Abdullah S. Khayat, the group is willing to invest in all sectors like industry, agriculture, trade and services, and wants to build up joint ventures not just with Albanian but also with other international enterprises. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc. ALBANIAN PARLIAMENT APPROVES PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. According to Rilindja Demokratike on 27 January, the Albanian parliament has approved acceptance of the Partnership for Peace plan. The Albanian government was among the first former communist states to apply for membership in NATO and has been supportive of the US initiated alternative. Ties between the militaries of the US and Albania have been strengthened in recent months. Robert Austin, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH STOCK PRICES STIR CONTROVERSY. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak vowed on 26 January to "draw the appropriate conclusions" from the astounding debut of the Silesian Bank on the Warsaw stock exchange on 25 January, Polish TV reports. Share values were fixed at 1,350% of the issue price on the first day of trading. The chairman of the Sejm's privatization commission, Bogdan Pek, accused the finance ministry of causing vast losses to the state treasury by undervaluing shares. He claimed that bank employees, who purchased shares at preferential prices, and the bank's "strategic" investor, the Dutch ING Bank, which owns 25.9%, had reaped immense profits. The entire transaction had the "taste of scandal," Pek argued. But finance ministry officials resolutely defended the issue price, set in October 1993. They noted that only 0.35% of shares actually changed hands on 25 January; in addition, the ING Bank had pledged not to sell its shares for three years. Officials also warned against treating privatization exclusively as a source of funds to bolster the budget. Privatization Minister Wieslaw Kaczmarek conceded that the state could have earned more on the sale but argued it had lost nothing. The initial fixing was artificially high, he said; share prices will soon fall. The Silesian Bank is the twenty-third firm listed on the Warsaw exchange; 250,000 investors now play the market. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. OLECHOWSKI REASSURED ON PARTNERSHIP. During a two-day working visit to Washington on 24-25 January, Polish Foreign Minister Andrzej Olechowski expressed satisfaction at the evolution undergone by the Partnership for Peace plan since it was first proposed. Initially envisioned as a "permanent waiting-room," the plan is now "elastic" and could expand to membership in the event of a breakdown in European security. After meeting with Assistant Secretary of State Strobe Talbott and National Security Council chief Anthony Lake, Olechowski voiced optimism that NATO would choose to open its doors to the Central European democracies in the event of a "bad scenario" in the region. Olechowski announced that NATO will dispatch a mission to Warsaw at the end of January to discuss the military, technical, and financial details of the partnership plan. Poland will be the first country to receive such a visit. Warning that Poland's defense budget is strapped, Olechowski appealed for financial assistance "so that the Poles do not come to associate NATO with further belt-tightening." Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLAND STRIVES TO MEET NATO STANDARDS. At a joint press conference on 26 January, Defense Minister Piotr Kolodziejczyk and General Staff Chief Gen. Tadeusz Wilecki announced that participation in the Partnership for Peace program will cost Poland an estimated 500 billion zloty ($23 million) in 1994. No funds are available in the defense budget, but government reserves may be allocated for this purpose. Wilecki said that Polish command structures will be made "compatible" with Western forces. Funds are severely limited, however, and may allow only for "organizational" rather than "qualitative" changes in the Polish army. The 1994 defense budget of 47.8 trillion zloty ($2.2 billion) amounts to only 2.1% of GDP, whereas a minimum of 3% is needed to halt the army's "technical degradation." The most pressing task is to complete the organization of the Cracow Military District (KOW) by 1997. The KOW is designed to fill military "blank spots" left undefended under the Warsaw Pact. Kolodziejczyk announced on 25 January that the Czech Republic, Poland, and Hungary will soon hold joint antiaircraft exercises, to which the Czechs plan to invite the NATO states as well, PAP reports. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. MECIAR AND KOVAC CLASH OVER FOREIGN POLICY. On 26 January Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar criticized President Michal Kovac for failing to coordinate foreign trips with the cabinet. Meciar was particularly referring to Kovac's current visit to Poland and to the recent Visegrad summit held in Prague with US President Bill Clinton. The premier's reaction came after Frantisek Miklosko of the Christian Democratic Movement told the parliament that it was "a disgrace" that Kovac was not accompanied to Poland by Economy Minister Jan Ducky or by Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik and that the prepared agreements were not signed. Responding to Meciar's criticism, Kovac told reporters in Warsaw that there was "no disagreement between the Slovak cabinet and the Slovak president" but said that his visit to Poland had not been "sufficiently prepared" because of obstacles in communications with the cabinet. Kovac expressed his annoyance that the cabinet had not approved his request that Ducky accompany him to Poland; the only cabinet member in the delegation was the environment minister. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN MINERS' STRIKE UPDATE. More than 65,000 miners are now on strike, Radio Bucharest announced on 26 January. The leader of Romania's miners' union federation Ion Feurdean said on the same day that if back wages are not paid, the miners will stop coal supplies to Romania's largest power plant at Rovinari, where the strike began six days ago. Another union leader, Nicolae Gegau, told an RFE/RL correspondent on 26 January that the government has failed to come up with enough money to end the country's energy crisis. The government said it could provide 25,000 million lei to help the administrative board of the mining company make urgent payments, including salaries owed to employees. But Gegau called on the electricity company, which owes the coal mines a total of 100,000 million lei, to put pressure on its own debtors so that a cycle of repayments could start. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. MOURNERS AT CEAUSESCU'S GRAVE. Western agencies reported on 26 January that some 150 people gathered at the Bucharest cemetery where former dictator Nicolae Ceausescu is presumed to have been buried to pay homage on what would have been his 76th birthday. Some of the mourners waved the red flag and candles were lit on his presumed grave. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. BULGARIAN PROSECUTORS CONFIRM COMMUNIST AID TO LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARIES. According to the New York Times of 27 January, there is now new evidence that the Bulgarian communist government in the 1980s provided substantial military and financial support to revolutionary movements and parties in Latin America. The article quotes Mihail Doychev, a Bulgarian lawyer working for the Prosecutor General's Office in Sofia, as saying that investigations have confirmed that the communist leadership provided covert assistance to left-wing organizations in Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Chile. Referring to unpublished records of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, Doychev says the value of the weaponry delivered to Latin America amounts to several millions of US dollars and that Salvadorian and Chilean revolutionaries also received military training in Bulgaria. On the charges that the BCP funneled money and weapons to communist movements in the Middle East and Africa, he says the documents include proof of arms deliveries to Libya, Ethiopia, Yemen and Angola. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVA-RUSSIAN TROOP TALKS AGAIN POSTPONED. The eighth round of the bilateral negotiations on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Moldova, scheduled for late February, was postponed as a result of the Russian side's insistence on linking progress on this matter with the grant of a special political status to the Transdniester, Moldova's Defense Ministry told Basapress on 26 January. The negotiations have all along been marked by Russian delaying tactics, but a postponement a full month ahead of the scheduled date of a round is highly unusual and illustrates the existing deadlock. Also on 26 January, "Dniester republic" Supreme Soviet chairman Grigorii Marakutsa reaffirmed to Interfax that the political status at issue must take the form of turning Moldova into a confederation of three republics--rump Moldova, Dniester, and Gagauz. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIANS DELAY HANDING OVER MILITARY FACILITIES TO BALTS. The Estonian commandant's office of Paldiski, formerly a Russian naval base town, on 26 January complained that the passport office of Paldiski's Russian police has still not turned over to the Estonian authorities the files of the town's registry of residents and that this, in turn, hinders preparations for the election of a town council and establishment of normal rule in Paldiski. Justice Minister Kaido Kama noted that the Russian police files would still have to be verified by Estonian authorities once they obtained them. On 26 January BNS also reported similar delays in Latvia. Ilgonis Upmalis, head of the office overseeing Russian troop departures from Latvia, said the Commander of Russia's Northwestern Group of Forces Leonid Mayorov was waiting for additional authorization to sign around 100 documents on the takeover of military facilities by the Latvian authorities, despite the fact that the troops had vacated most of the facilities. The next round of negotiations on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia is scheduled for 7 and 8 February in Moscow. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT IN NETHERLANDS. On 26 January Algirdas Brazauskas, heading a delegation that includes Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys and Defense Minister Linas Linkevicius, flew to The Hague for an official visit, Radio Lithuania reports. Having been met with Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers, Brazauskas attended a reception hosted by Queen Beatrix and held talks with leaders of both houses of the Dutch parliament. Meanwhile, Gylys and his Dutch counterpart Pieter Kooijmans signed an Investment Protection Agreement and a Shipping Agreement. On 27 January the delegation will travel to Brussels where Brazauskas are to hold talks with leaders of Belgium, the European Union, and NATO, as well as sign a document making Lithuania a party to the Partnership for Peace program. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Roman Solchanyk and Kjell Engelbrekt The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. 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