|If there is technological advance without social advance, there is, almost automatically, an increase in human misery. - Michael Harrington|
No. 14, 21 January 1994
RUSSIA GOVERNMENT RESHUFFLE. After several days of negotiations with Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, President Boris Yeltsin signed a decree on 20 January ordering a reshuffle in the government, Interfax and other agencies reported. Yeltsin's decree appointed Oleg Soskovets as first deputy prime minister, and named Aleksandr Zaveryukha, Anatolii Chubais, and Yurii Yarov as deputy prime ministers. The new government thus reduces the number of deputy prime ministers from nine to four. Among the casualties were three former deputy prime ministers, including economic reformers Boris Fedorov and Aleksandr Shokhin, and Sergei Shakhrai, who was appointed minister for nationalities and regional policy. Other minor changes were made, reflecting the restructuring of the government to reduce the number of ministries and state committees. The security, defense, and foreign affairs portfolios remained unchanged. Wendy Slater, RFE/RL, Inc. FEDOROV RESIGNS, SHOKHIN HOPEFUL. Following release of the presidential decree outlining changes in the government of Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Boris Fedorov told a press conference on 20 January that he was resigning from his current position, Russian and Western news agencies reported. President Yeltsin and Chernomyrdin had offered Fedorov the position of Finance Minister, but stripped him of his status as deputy prime minister. Fedorov said he anticipated that the policy intentions of the new government would lead by April to a catastrophic rise in the inflation rate. Aleksandr Shokhin, also stripped of his status as deputy prime minister, but switched to the office of Minister of the Economy, told a Biznes-TASS correspondent on the same day that he remained committed to continuing market reform and that he hoped to be given the powers to do so. Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc. GERASHCHENKO: MARKET ROMANTICISM OVER. While pledging that reform in Russia will be continued and deepened, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin told a press conference on 20 January that the "period of market romanticism had ended" and that economic policies would be corrected "to make people's lives easier," Russian and Western agencies reported. Chernomyrdin suggested that one of the first actions of the new government would be to pay off the enormous backlog of delayed budgetary payments to various industries, agriculture and state financed organizations. The Prime Minister also mentioned that the 1994 inflation projections made by the government at the end of last year were too low. He anticipated that during the first six months the inflation rate would be on the order of 15-18% monthly and that it would fall to 8-9% by the end of 1994. Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc. DEPUTIES REJECT COMPOSITION OF COMMITTEE ON GEOPOLITICS. The State Duma has confirmed the membership of 22 parliamentary committees, failing to approve the composition of only one committee, that which is to deal with issues of geopolitics. This committee is dominated by members of Vladimir Zhirinovsky's Liberal Democratic Party. The committee's chairman and one of its deputy chairmen are from the LDP; altogether nine out of the committee's thirteen members are Liberal Democrats. ITAR-TASS reported that the majority in the Duma found this situation unacceptable. Meanwhile, the Duma is debating an amendment to its rules that will bar from participation in the body's sessions those deputies whose statements and actions are damaging to the dignity of the parliament. The plan to introduce such an amendment was prompted by the antics of Zhirinovsky. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. DEPUTIES SET HIGH SALARIES FOR THEMSELVES. Deputies of the State Duma have voted to pay themselves a salary comparable to that of a federal minister, ITAR-TASS reported on 20 January. Deputies will now receive a salary of 1.5 Million rubles a month, and the State Duma will cost Russian taxpayers 7 billion rubles per month. A proposal by deputy Andrei Volkov to set the salary of deputies at the equivalent of $3,000 in rubles was rejected. However, deputies voted in favor of a proposal made by Zhirinovsky that gives deputies the same access to medical and social care as federal ministers. Deputies also voted to give themselves the right to enter all government and state institutions, as well as all state enterprises; they will have the right to use public telephone lines for free. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc. DUMA REJECTS COMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE OCTOBER EVENTS. The State Duma rejected on 20 January a proposal to set up a committee to investigate the clashes that took place in Moscow in October 1993, ITAR-TASS reported. Only 187 of the 444 deputies supported the proposal, which was put forward by Nikolai Travkin of the Democratic Party of Russia. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. RUTSKOI NOT GUILTY OF CORRUPTION. The 20 January afternoon edition of Ostankino TV "Novosti" quoted the office of the Moscow state prosecutor as announcing that former vice-president Aleksandr Rutskoi was not connected to a secret account in the Swiss bank Indosuetz. In dismissing the case against Rutskoi the prosecutors reportedly raised another charge--that Rutskoi himself had been slandered. The culprit in this matter is likely to be the lawyer Andrei Makarov, former head of the Administration on Securing the Activities of the Joint Commission for Combating Crime and Corruption. Yeltsin set up this agency to counterattack against accusations of corruption and embezzlement among Yeltsin loyalists that were raised by Rutskoi on the eve of the April 1993 referendum. In August 1993 Makarov accused Rutskoi of having channeled state money to the Swiss bank account. The next day, Yeltsin released Rutskoi of all his duties as vice-president. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc. KOLESNIKOV ON MILITARY DRAFT. The Chief of the General Staff, Mikhail Kolesnikov, held a press conference on 20 January during which he described the current call-up as a "very difficult" one. According to reports from Interfax, Russian TV and Ostankino TV, he stated that the number of enlisted personnel now stands at only 54% of the required level, but that he expected this number to grow to 65% and then 95% after the spring and fall call-ups, respectively. By the end of the year, the Russian military would have 2.0 million troops, some 100,000 less than previously announced. Military units (such as construction battalions) attached to civilian ministries will be dissolved, with the troops going to combat units. Kolesnikov also called for a reduction in draft exemptions, noting that only 20% of youths are eligible for conscription. Part of the draft shortfall will evidently be made up by signing up an additional 150,000 volunteer soldiers. The Surgeon General of the Armed Forces informed reporters that the health of new draftees is poorer than before, with more conscripts entering the military with records of drug addiction or criminal behavior. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. UPDATE ON RUSSIAN SUB SALE TO DPRK. The New York Times reported on 20 January that North Korea has used a small Japanese trading company to purchase secretly forty aging submarines from the Russian Pacific Fleet. The number of subs involved, which is considerably higher than earlier estimates, has puzzled experts monitoring the situation; some have suggested that North Korea may hope to rebuild them to augment its own fleet or to cannibalize them for spare parts. Russian officials have insisted that the vessels are being sold solely as scrap metal. The US government is reportedly pressing Moscow for an explanation. The New York Times quoted the president of the Japanese company involved (Toen Trading Co.) as saying that the vessels, most of them believed to be Foxtrot class diesel submarines, were being towed intact from Russian naval bases in Vladivostok to the nearby North Korean port of Najin. Experts have pointed to the possibility that close ties still exist between formerly allied Russian and North Korean military commanders, and have suggested that Pacific Fleet commanders may be acting on their own initiative. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. KOZYREV TO VISIT CHINA; TROUBLE WITH AIRCRAFT DEAL? A Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman said on 20 January that Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev would visit China at the end of the month to exchange views with his Chinese counterparts on bilateral relations and on regional and international issues. The spokesman, who described Sino-Russian relations as "very good," provided no further details on the talks and said that the exact date of the visit had not yet been fixed. He also declined comment on a report recently published in Jane's Defense Weekly, which alleged that a row had arisen between Moscow and Beijing over technology transfers involved in the sale of Russian Su-27 fighters to China. The disagreement was said to have stalled delivery of a second batch of the aircraft to China. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIA SUPPORTS PROLONGING IRAQI SANCTIONS. The Russian Foreign Ministry announced on 20 January that it would support the UN Security Council's decision to impose sanctions against Iraq for another 60 days, ITAR-TASS reported. At the same time, Russia favors lifting the oil embargo against Iraq if Iraq complies with UN resolutions on disarmament. The Foreign Ministry's statement said that Russia resolutely and invariably stands for the fulfillment by Iraq of all other resolutions of the Security Council on the settlement in the Persian Gulf, including the resolution on the demarcation of the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border. Only then can the issue of lifting all other sanctions can be considered, the Foreign Ministry said. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS KOZYREV TOUGH ON CRITICS. On 20 January, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev expressed continued exasperation with reaction to his comments at an 18 January meeting of Russian ambassadors to the CIS and Baltic states. "Strange" and "hysterical" were the words Kozyrev used to describe the response in the Baltic states. Rather than attempting to reassure his critics, Kozyrev toughened his rhetoric even more: he warned that Russia would not sit still if the rights of Russian speakers in the Baltic States were violated. Kozyrev complained that current negotiations on the question of Russian speakers in the Baltic States were not proceeding "normally." He said it would be possible to use stronger measures if a violation of international legal norms took place in the Baltic States, Interfax reported. Thus far, international organizations have found no evidence of human rights violations of ethnic Russians in the Baltic states. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc. INITIAL DEBATE ON TRILATERAL DEAL. On 20 January the Ukrainian parliament held an initial discussion of the trilateral nuclear weapons agreement and decided to postpone a full debate until 25 January, by which time the relevant committees will have examined the agreement. Reports from Reuters and The Washington Post indicate that there were attacks on Kravchuk and the deal, but the Post noted that many moderate parliamentarians are withholding judgment, or even supporting the deal. One of the committees examining the deal is headed by Yurii Kostenko, an outspoken opponent of denuclearization who told Reuters he expected the deal to be rejected. In Moscow a "high-ranking Russian diplomat" told Interfax on 20 January that the warheads could be withdrawn from Ukraine within two years, as specified in the Massandra agreement of September 1993. The diplomat called for the withdrawal to begin immediately, although he noted that the issue of compensation would not be fully solved until May, when experts from the three states will meet to discuss the valuation of the warheads. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATIAN OPPOSITION SLAMS PACT WITH SERBS. The Zagreb dailies on 21 January report that the Croatian opposition is furious over the agreement that President Franjo Tudjman and his Serbian counterpart Slobodan Milosevic reached two days earlier on taking the first steps toward normalizing relations. The politicians repeat their long-standing charge that Tudjman is wrong to sit down and bargain with the aggressor and that, if he does so, he must insist on Serbia's recognition of Croatia's Tito-era frontiers, including the Serb-held Krajina region, as a precondition. Vjesnik quotes the Croatian People's Party statement as reminding Tudjman that Milosevic has taken him to the cleaners before and may well have done so again. The leading opposition grouping, the Croatian Social-Liberal Party, says that Croatia has no business talking to an aggressor but should rather be improving its relations with the fellow victim, the Muslims. The Socialist Party of Croatia has similar misgivings, but nonetheless calls the pact a step in the right direction of normalization, which is also the stand of the Serb minority's Serbian People's Party as well as the theme of an editorial in the Belgrade daily Borba. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. BOSNIAN CONFLICT ON HOLD? Following the collapse of the Bosnian peace talks on 19 January and their adjournment until next month, international media reported on 20 January that the European Parliament has recommended that mediator Lord Owen be replaced by someone with a fresh mandate. Owen, who is widely regarded by Croats and Muslims as pro-Serb and whose name lends itself to an unkind pun in Serbo-Croatian, said, however, that he would not step down. Elsewhere, French officials and UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appear to be jockeying for advantage in their dispute over possible air strikes against Serb positions. Meanwhile in Bosnia itself, Reuters on 21 January quotes military experts as saying that the Muslims are using attrition rather than a direct attack on the Croats in the strategic, central Bosnian Lasva valley lest they lose their politically important image as victims in the conflict. Finally, the British tabloid The Sun has pronounced a fitting epitaph on the latest round of Bosnian peace talks, saying that "the UN [has] never stopped bickering and the bloodthirsty tribes are further from a settlement than ever." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. ETHNIC ROMANIANS CLAIM UKRAINE BARS THEM FROM PARLIAMENT. The Christian Democratic Alliance of Romanians of Ukraine complained on 20 January that Kiev has curbed Romanian political rights by drawing up electoral boundaries to exclude them from parliament, Reuters reported on the same day. The statement said the Romanians' rights had been restricted by the constituencies established in Cernovitsy, where the authorities had attached districts with a Romanian majority to areas with a Ukrainian majority when drawing up the constituency boundaries. "Under the circumstances, the Romanians' chances to have, at long last, their own representatives in parliament in Kiev are considerably reduced." The alliance proposed creating two "national constituencies" to include ethnic Romanian villages, saying this would secure the election of two Romanian deputies to the Ukrainian parliament. The official Romanian news agency Rompres carried excerpts of the statement. The Chernovitsy chief electoral officer told Reuters on the same day the two Romanian-majority districts had not been deliberately split up. He said he received no complaints about the way the district boundaries were drawn for the elections scheduled for March. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. ILIESCU, NASTASE ON FUTURE COALITION. President Ion Iliescu said on 20 January that a future coalition between the ruling Party of Social Democracy in Romania and the nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity was " not absolutely necessary, but inevitable" in order to give the executive "a certain amount of stability." Iliescu spoke at a meeting with a delegation of the PSDR headed by executive president Adrian Nastase, Radio Bucharest reported the same day. Ioan Gavra, PRNU vice chairman , said at a press conference that the agreement between the two parties was in the stage of finalization and Nastase said the last details were being worked out. Iliescu said a distinction should be made between a "social pact" between all parties, and this should be pursued with intensity, and a "political pact" which might change the configuration of the coalition. Concerning the latter he said his impression was that it would be difficult to achieve; his talks with the opposition Democratic Convention of Romania, Iliescu added, had shown large differences exist not only between the PSDR and the DCR but also within the DCR. The president also said a dialogue with the trade unions should start as soon as possible. The largest trade union federations have called strikes for next month to demand early elections and faster economic reforms. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. ZHELEV TO SHUFFLE ADVISORS? The UDF's Demokratsiya reports on 21 January, that Bulgaria's President, Zhelyu Zhelev, is contemplating changing certain advisors and presidential appointees in an effort to mend fences with the Union of Democratic Forces. The paper singles out people close to the president of whom the UDF has been critical, including Brigo Asparuhov, head of the National Intelligence Service, and Ani Kruleva, director of the National Investigative Service. Of late, Zhelev has been attempting to effect reconciliation with the anti-communist UDF coalition which he helped found in 1989. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN DEMOCRATIC FORUM'S CHAIRMAN TO VISIT SLOVAKIA'S HUNGARIAN MINORITY. MTI reports that Executive Chairman Sandor Lezsak and two vice chairmen of the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) will pay a three-day visit, starting 21 January, to Slovakia's Hungarian-minority populated areas. Lezsak is the top officer of the governing MDF and was invited by Miklos Duray, the chairman of the Hungarian Coexistence Movement, the largest party representing the interests of the 600,000-strong Hungarian minority in Slovakia. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. CSCE COMMISSIONER ENDS VISIT TO SLOVAKIA. On 20 January the CSCE high commissioner for minorities, Max Van der Stoel, ended his two-day visit to Slovakia, TASR reports. Meeting with President Michal Kovac, Premier Vladimir Meciar, Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik, and ethnic Hungarian leaders, Van der Stoel was preparing a visit of CSCE experts scheduled for mid-February to examine the status of the Hungarian minority in Slovakia and the Slovak minority in Hungary. In his meeting with Kovac, Van der Stoel said he appreciated the president's efforts to hold round table discussions with ethnic minorities. He said that "whatever the solution to ethnic questions may be, the territorial integrity of Slovakia cannot be affected." During the CSCE visit in February, the minority situation will be examined particularly in relation to the new alternative education system and the plans for the country's decentralization. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. FRAGMENTATION IN THE CZECH PARLIAMENT. Nine deputies representing the coalition of communist and post-communist parties, the Left Bloc, left the coalition's caucus on 19 January and founded their own caucus, CTK reported on 20 January. The caucus of the Left Bloc, the second largest group in the 200-seat parliament, has thus been reduced from 35 to 26 members. On 18 January, Tomas Jezek, chairman of the National Property Fund, resigned from the parliamentary caucus of Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus' Civic Democratic Party and from the party itself. He did this in protest against some of the party's policies, such as its approach to the regional administration reform. With Jezek's departure the CDP's caucus has 65 members. Following the latest round of political defections, the number of groups represented in the parliament has risen to 12 (plus one independent deputy) from the original 9. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. BALTIC PREMIERS SAY KOZYREV'S STATEMENT A THREAT. In a communique adopted at their meeting in Jurmala on 19 January, the prime ministers of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania said that Kozyrev's address of 18 January included statements that were "directed against the sovereignty" of the Baltic States. The communique noted that Kozyrev's statements suggest that Russia has a new foreign policy concept which differs significantly from the one that was recently enunciated; therefore, the essence of the Partnership for Peace program is put into question. The communique also states that a new approach by Russia to the Baltic States would complicate the negotiations on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia and Estonia and that this approach could effectively derail further negotiation processes on other Baltic-Russian issues, Baltic media reported on 19 January. Kozyrev's remarks also elicited swift and strong reactions by other Baltic leaders even before the prime ministers had met. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. BALTIC PREMIERS STRESS SECURITY. At their meeting in Jurmala, the Baltic prime ministers focused on security issues and discussed Russian interests in the Baltic States. They agreed to strengthen their borders with Russia and to form a Baltic peacekeeping battalion. They also discussed ways to further economic cooperation, accords concerning consulates and the establishment of a common visa area, and matters relating to fuel and energy (especially what steps to take in case of a Russian oil embargo), Baltic media reported on 19 January. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT VISITS FINLAND. On a 13-hour visit to Helsinki on 20 January, Algirdas Brazauskas held talks with Finnish President Mauno Koivisto, Prime Minister Esko Aho, Foreign Minister Heikki Haavisto, and business leaders, Western agencies report. He told a press conference that while Lithuania has applied for full membership in NATO, "it is a pretty long way to NATO membership." He noted that the Baltic States should not be in the Russian sphere of influence and that there was a democratic, constructive government in Moscow with which he was able to do business. It was too early to judge the impact of ultra-nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky since he was still not in power. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. PROGRESS TOWARDS POLISH-LITHUANIAN ACCORD? Polish Deputy Prime Minister Marek Borowski and Lithuanian Finance Minister Eduardas Vilkelis signed a bilateral agreement eliminating double taxation on 20 January in Warsaw, PAP reports. The agreement will facilitate cooperation between Polish and Lithuanian firms; there are already 500 firms in Lithuania operating with Polish capital. Poland has signed similar arrangements with Estonia and Latvia. Both ministers stressed the political significance of the economic agreement; they said it will help break an impasse of several months in Polish-Lithuanian relations and may promote the conclusion of the long-delayed bilateral friendship treaty. Polish TV reports that only two of twenty-six clauses in the treaty are still contested: the historical assessment of Polish-Lithuanian relations and the legal status of the Polish minority. Some new friction was caused by a petition addressed to the Polish government on 7 January by seventy-two Sejm deputies, most from the ruling Democratic Left Alliance and Polish Peasant Party (PSL), who demanded "administrative autonomy" for the Polish minority in Lithuania. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak, the Polish foreign ministry, and leaders of both coalition parties have since condemned the petition as "irresponsible." Many deputies have withdrawn their signatures, prompting PSL leaders to remind party members to read documents before signing them. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. WORLD BANK OFFICIALS IN VILNIUS. On 20 January Basil Kovalsky, the director of the World Bank's Europe and Central Asia department, told a press conference that excessive bureaucracy and imperfect laws were hindering Lithuania's economic reforms, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. He noted that more than 75% of the $60 million credits given Lithuania earlier had been used primarily to purchase fuel and food. He said that the World Bank was discussing giving credits in 1994 for projects in agriculture, housing construction, environmental protection, and social security. He also thought that it was necessary to increase the capital of Lithuania's commercial banks and deal more effectively with inflation. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. DNIESTER BANS ELECTIONS. The "Dniester republic's" President Igor Smirnov and Supreme Soviet on 19 January forbade the holding of Moldova's parliamentary election in the territory under their control and declared a state of emergency until 1 March, banning public gatherings, imposing restrictions on the media, stipulating criminal prosecution of persons engaged in electoral activities, and alerting the Dniester paramilitary forces, Basapress reported. Moldova's elections are scheduled for 27 February, but the Dniester communist authorities have not accepted the multi-party system. On the same day the "Dniester republic" introduced customs duties for goods transiting its territory, except those of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus; and Smirnov threatened to cut off the flow of electricity and gas to Moldova on grounds (which Chisinau disputes) that Moldova had not paid for them, Interfax reported on 20 January. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. LEBED THREATENS DNIESTER LEADERS. The state of emergency also responds to the escalating anti-corruption campaign being waged by Lt.-Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army, against the Dniester leadership. The latter on 19 January cabled the Russian Federation's leadership asking for sanctions against Lebed, Russian TV reported. The 14th Army's military council had the previous day made public a statement threatening the Dniester leadership with retaliation for unspecified "offensive" acts against Army facilities and personnel, Moldovapres reported. The same day Lebed called in Izvestiya for elections in the "Dniester republic" to "oust the odious characters and bring more credible figures to power." Lebed has over the last year sought an alternative to the hardline communist leaders in Tiraspol but it is not clear whether he has found one and whether he has Moscow's support in this effort. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. NAZARBAYEV IN KIEV. On 20 January the president of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, arrived in Kiev for a two-day meeting with President Leonid Kravchuk, UNIAN reported on 21 January. During the visit the two presidents signed a declaration in which they expressed concern over inter-ethnic conflicts and attempts to destabilize newly independent states from outside. The document goes on to say that NATO's Partnership for Peace plan has a great positive potential. Also signed were a Treaty on Friendship and Cooperation and eight agreements which regulate mutual indebtedness and establish further cooperation in the space, military and industrial spheres. At a press conference following the signing of the agreements, Nazarbayev said he wished to introduce a single monetary unit called "altyn" on the territory of the former Union and also travel cards which would ensure freedom of movement on the territory of the CIS states. The two presidents also expressed their negative attitudes towards dual citizenship in the CIS, and reiterated their desire to develop bilateral relations. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE IN SHUSHKEVICH? The Belarusian parliament has been meeting behind closed doors since 19 January in a debate over the handling of the "Lithuanian case," Reuters, Belinform and Interfax reported on 20 January. The incident involves the handing over of two Lithuanian communists accused of involvement in crushing anti-Soviet protests in Vilnius in 1991 by the interior ministry to Lithuanian authorities. The action has been criticized by a number of deputies and Prime Minister Vyacheslau Kebich who sees it as an illegal kidnapping. Deputies have reportedly called for the resignation of the interior minister, Uladzimir Yahorau, the minister of KGB, Eduard Shirkouski, and the prosecutor general, Vasil Shaladonau. Although the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, was not himself involved in the affair, he was reportedly put under pressure and offered to have his record put to a vote of confidence on 21 January. Rather than sacking the interior minister and KGB chief, deputies have reportedly accepted the confidence vote option. Yahorau and Shaladonau have admitted that there were violations of the law in the way in which the two Lithuanians were handed over to Vilnius. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Stephen Foye & Patrick Moore The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. 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