|Be willing to have it so; acceptance of what has happened is the first step to overcoming the consequences of any misfortune. - William James|
No. 13, 20 January 1994
RUSSIA FEDOROV FUTURE UNCERTAIN, RUBLE PLUNGES. Speculation abounds concerning the composition of the new government under discussion between President Yeltsin and Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. Among the most important question marks is the status of Minister of Finance Boris Fedorov who, according to most Russian and Western news agencies on 19 January, has yet to receive a response to his refusal to accept a new position under the conditions offered him. Interfax, however, reported that a deal had been made, and that Fedorov would remain in his current post. The uncertainty caused by the government shake up continues to undermine the ruble, which on 19 January dropped in value against the dollar another 7% on the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange. Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc. SOSKOVETS, SHOKHIN TO STAY IN GOVERNMENT. Among the few firm decisions on the composition of the new Russian government was confirmation that Deputy Prime Ministers Oleg Soskovets and Aleksandr Shokhin would be offered posts. Government spokesman Valentin Sergeev said, according to Reuters on 19 January, that Soskovets, former head of the Soviet metallurgical industry and a conservative figure close to Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, would be given the post of First Deputy Prime Minister; Shokhin would be offered the post of economics minister, recently vacated by Egor Gaidar. ITAR-TASS reported Shokhin as saying on 19 January that he had not finally decided whether to accept; The Guardian of 20 January, however, implied that both appointments were definite. Wendy Slater, RFE/RL, Inc. YAVLINSKY WOULD ACCEPT MINISTERIAL POST; VOLSKY WOULD REFUSE. In the context of the ongoing negotiations on forming a government, two key figures revealed their attitudes to possible offers of ministerial posts, ITAR-TASS reported on 19 January. Grigorii Yavlinsky, the reformist economist who now heads the 25-member YABLOKO faction in the State Duma, said that he would agree to head a government which would take measures to overcome an economic crisis that he predicted for March. He said he would accept the hypothetical offer, however, only on condition that the president "did not interfere." Arkadii Volsky, meanwhile, the leader of the Russian Industrialists and Entrepreneurs Union (RIEU), categorically refused to enter government. Speculation that he would be offered a post emerged on 18 January, when Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets attended an RIEU meeting. Wendy Slater, RFE/RL, Inc. DEPUTY SPEAKER OF DUMA PROPOSES PACKAGE OF FEDERAL LAWS. First deputy speaker of the State Duma Mikhail Mityukov told the lower chamber of parliament on 19 January that following the approval of the new Constitution at the 12 December referendum, the parliament should move to adopt federal laws which would "clarify and confirm new political realities in Russia." Mityukov proposed the adoption of 58 laws, including those on referendum, formation and functioning of the government, the legal system, and the formation and activities of the Constitutional Court. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. DUMA INTENDS TO STRENGTHEN TIES WITH GOVERNMENT. The State Duma has decided to strengthen its ties with the government, ITAR-TASS reported on 19 January. Deputies voted for devoting the last hour of each Friday session to discussion of the government's work. In debating the Duma's priorities in drafting legislation, the majority of deputies suggested that laws on economic issues should be at the top of the agenda. Before these laws are adopted, members of the government should discuss with the parliamentarians their concept of reforms, deputies decided. On 19 January, the Duma also passed a resolution that recommended that the government promptly review its policy on agriculture. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc. SECURITY COUNCIL DISCUSSES WEAPONS POLICY. Members of Russia's Security Council, meeting on 19 January, approved a program aimed at modernizing the country's military weaponry, Russian news sources reported. Addressing the session, which was said to have been the second devoted to problems of the military-industrial complex, were First Deputy Defense Minister (in charge of military-technical issues) Andrei Kokoshin, Chairman of the Russian State Committee on the Defense Sector and Industry Viktor Glukhikh, and Atomic Energy Minister Viktor Mikhailov. In addition to the regular members of the Council, First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets and recently appointed presidential Security Advisor Yurii Baturin were present; Interior Minister Viktor Yerin and Defense Minister Pavel Grachev were not. According to Security Council Deputy Secretary Valerii Manilov, priorities were established in terms of ensuring that Russia maintained an effective defense system, taking into account Russia's new military doctrine and a realistic assessment of both the threats facing the country and Russia's economic situation. Boris Yeltsin reportedly issued orders to the relevant ministries on implementation of the council's decisions, the details of which were not made public. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. WILL TATARSTAN HOLD FEDERAL ELECTIONS IN MARCH? Tatarstan President Mintimer Shaimiev said in Kazan on 18 January that a bilateral agreement on mutual delegation of powers would be signed by Russia and Tatarstan by 13 March when repeat elections to the Russian Federal Assembly are due to take place in Tatarstan, Interfax reported on 19 January. After the 12 December elections, when no deputies were elected from Tatarstan either because not enough candidates were nominated or the turn-out was too low, Shaimiev said that he doubted that repeat elections could be held unless such an agreement was reached. The Coordinating Council of Tatarstan's Political Forces, which unites more than 30 nationalist organizations who were largely responsible for the boycott of the elections in December, has also issued a statement saying that the elections cannot be held on 13 March unless an agreement is reached, Interfax reported on 19 January. The likelihood of an agreement actually being signed would appear to be low, however, given that there is no sign that either side is ready to compromise. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. JAPAN, TURKEY REACT TO RISE OF RUSSIAN NATIONALISTS. The Japanese daily Yomiuri said on 18 January that a planned visit to Russia by Japanese Foreign Minister Tsutomo Hata may be postponed because newly empowered Russian nationalists have taken a hard line toward Japan vis-a-vis the Kuril Islands territorial dispute, AFP reported. One of the purposes of the visit, which reportedly has not yet been rescheduled, was to prepare for a subsequent visit to Moscow by Japanese Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa. Meanwhile, Reuter on 18 January quoted Turkish Prime Tansu Ciller as saying that concern over "the Zhirinovsky factor in Russia" was one reason why Ankara had decided against redeploying more troops from its northern border to fight Kurdish guerrillas in southeastern Turkey. Turkey and Russia have clashed over differing assessments of developments in the Caucasus region, and bellicose remarks by Zhirinovsky directed at Turkey have added to the existing tensions. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TAJIK REFUGEES REPORTED UNDER ATTACK. The Tajik opposition center in Moscow told RFE/RL on 19 January that two Tajik opposition leaders in Afghanistan had reported three bombing raids on Tajik refugee camps in Afghanistan during January. The two opposition leaders, Saidabdulla Nuri and former spiritual leader of Tajikistan Akbar Turadzhonzoda, attributed the raids to the forces of Afghan Uzbek leader Abdul Rashid Dostum, who has developed close contacts with Uzbekistan. Uzbek President Islam Karimov has been one of the most active supporters of intervention against the Tajik Islamic-democratic-nationalist opposition. Many of the Tajik refugees in Afghanistan are supporters of the Islamic opposition. Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS KOZYREV ON RUSSIAN ROLE IN NEAR ABROAD. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev met with US Ambassador to Russia Thomas Pickering on 19 January to clarify his position on Russia's relations with the "near abroad," expressed during a conference appearance on 18 January (see Daily Report no. 12). Speaking to Interfax afterwards, Kozyrev reiterated his position that Russian troops would be withdrawn from the Baltic States, but noted that "An orderly withdrawal under the framework of agreements will contribute to consolidation of the sovereignty of those countries." Kozyrev also stressed that Russian military forces would remain in other states only under the terms of bilateral agreements, citing Tajikistan as a prime example. He argued that if Russia did not maintain a role in the "near abroad" the result would be chaos and a flood of refugees into Russia. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. ...ON DEFENSE OF RUSSIAN SPEAKING MINORITIES. On 19 January, ITAR-TASS carried a detailed report, including a partial transcript, of Kozyrev's closing remarks at the conference, apparently in an effort to clear up the confusion caused by earlier ITAR-TASS reports. One of Kozyrev's main themes was the defense of Russian speaking people living in the near abroad. ITAR-TASS quotes Kozyrev as rejecting the use of force or ultimatums against other states, but insisting that Russia must not ignore the question of Russian minority rights. Kozyrev was particularly critical of Latvia's policy, which he said contradicted CSCE norms, and could lead to the "deportation of thousands of people." In such a case of "massive and crude violations of human rights we will react in a most strict manner" although he added that the issue must be resolved "calmly, without hysterics." He did suggest, however, that economic sanctions could be used, if necessary. While Kozyrev attempted to portray Russia's policy as a moderate one, between the extremes of total disengagement and forceful intervention, the stress on defense of Russian speakers was more explicit, stronger, and more contentious than in previous statements. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT TO DEBATE NUCLEAR DEAL. Ukrainian Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Tarasiuk commented on 19 January, according to AFP and Interfax, that a detailed agreement with Russia concerning the disassembly and transport of missiles still has to be concluded. He dismissed suggestions that Russia could transfer all the weapons from Ukraine in one or two years, suggesting that such a rapid transfer would lead to unsafe conditions in Russian storage areas. Ostankino TV reported on 20 January that a major political battle is brewing in Ukraine, where the deal is scheduled to be debated by parliament at the session which opens today. It also reported that Russia is prepared to transfer the liquid fuel (heptyl) from the SS-19 missiles for storage in Russia. Western sources have reported that Russia and the US have developed a process for turning the toxic fuel into commercially valuable chemicals. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc. CIS GRAPPLES WITH PROBLEMS OF MIGRANT LABOR. Negotiators from ten CIS member-countries ended three days of talks in Minsk on 13 January, ITAR-TASS reported. They are preparing a draft intergovernmental agreement covering migrant labor within the CIS, which is scheduled to be signed at a meeting of heads of CIS governments in March. The collapse of the USSR has created a legislative vacuum as regards migrant labor, with particular problems being posed by pension rights and medical insurance for migrant workers. CIS member-countries also plan to reinstate a system of quotas, as was the case in the USSR. At present, migrant workers are not registered and are open to abuse: they often work long hours and ignore safety standards. The only CIS-country with which Russia at present has an agreement covering migrant labor is Ukraine, but even that is not preventing an uncontrolled exodus of thousands of skilled workers from western Ukraine in search of better-paid employment in Russia, Moscow News reports (No. 1, 1994). Elizabeth Teague, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ARE SERBS AND CROATS GANGING UP ON MUSLIMS? International media on 19 January report that two parallel agreements were signed by Serbs and Croats in Geneva on taking the first steps toward establishing political and economic relations by setting up "official representations" or "bureaus" in each others' capitals. One text was signed by the foreign ministers of Croatia and rump Yugoslavia, while the other involved the foreign ministers of the self-proclaimed Croat and Serb mini-states in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The two agreements are, however, cryptic and raise more questions than they answer. The Zagreb-Belgrade pact will apparently restore telephone links, but it is not clear if it will lead to Croatia's two main demands of Serbia. These are: the recognition of Croatian sovereignty in its Tito-era borders and hence the acknowledgment by Belgrade that the Krajina Serbs are an internal affair of Croatia; and the restoration of highway, pipeline, and other infrastructure links. Krajina representatives have already told news agencies that they alone can speak for their people. Perhaps more telling, however, is the agreement between the Bosnian Serbs and Croats as reported by Vecernji list on 20 January. This states that "between them there are no outstanding questions that cannot be solved by peaceful means," and notes that each will set up a "bureau" to deal with the other by 15 February, as in the Zagreb-Belgrade text. But the Croats will set up their office in Sarajevo and the Serbs theirs in Mostar; in other words, the Croats appear to be honoring Serb claims to the Bosnian capital, while the Serbs seem to be acknowledging the Croat claims to that of Herzegovina. Both sets of claims, moreover, can only come at the expense of the Muslims, and Muslim spokesmen have told reporters that they feel the new agreements are at their expense. It remains to be seen, however, what the two pacts will mean in practice, and to what extent they might be tactical ploys of the respective signatories. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. HAVEL ADVISER NAMED CULTURE MINISTER. Pavel Tigrid, an adviser to Czech President Vaclav Havel, was named to replace former Culture Minister Jindrich Kabat who resigned last weekend, Czech TV reported on 19 January. Tigrid, 76, left Czechoslovakia in 1948. He worked for Radio Free Europe in Munich and headed a small emigre publishing house in Paris. He published contributions of many dissident authors, including Havel. He returned to Czechoslovakia in 1989 to become member of Havel's presidential collegium of advisers. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECHS TO GIVE LITHUANIA FREE WEAPONS. Czech Defense Minister Antonin Baudys said that his country will give redundant weapons and military technology free of charge to Lithuania, Western agencies reported on 19 January. Baudys made the announcement after his return from a three-day visit to Lithuania. He said that the Czech Republic has "an interest in Lithuania having a strong army." Baudys added that a Lithuanian delegation will come to Prague soon to work our concrete details of the proposal. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc. SWEDISH DEFENSE MINISTER IN BRATISLAVA. Anders Bjorck, concluding a two-day official visit to Slovakia on 19 January, held talks with his Slovak counterpart Imrich Andrejcak, as well as with Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik and other officials, TASR reports. Andrejcak and Bjorck discussed increasing military cooperation, and Bjorck offered Slovak soldiers the opportunity to attend training centers in Sweden. Both officials expressed their interest in joining the NATO Partnership for Peace initiative. Speaking about the possibility of NATO air strikes in Bosnia, Bjorck said they should be used only as a last resort. Bjorck told Slovak parliamentary deputies that NATO "must be more flexible" and that Slovakia "should become a full-fledged NATO member." Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. CE, CSCE DELEGATIONS VISIT SLOVAKIA. Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly Chairman Miguel Angel Martinez arrived in Slovakia on 19 January for a three-day visit, just a day after a group of CE experts assisting with plans for Slovakia's decentralization left Bratislava, TASR reports. Martinez, who was invited by the Slovak parliament, proposed to parliament chairman Ivan Gasparovic that the Slovak delegation in the CE assembly be enlarged to ensure better contacts with other member countries. The two also discussed Slovakia's minority problems, although Martinez noted that the trip was not "an inspection." Also on 19 January CSCE high commissioner for minorities, Max Van der Stoel, began a two-day visit to Slovakia to meet with President Michal Kovac, Premier Vladimir Meciar, Foreign Minister Moravcik, and ethnic Hungarian leaders. Van der Stoel is preparing for an upcoming visit of CSCE experts who will examine the status of the Hungarian minority in Slovakia and the Slovak minority in Hungary. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL, Inc. HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER CONCLUDES DOMESTIC POLITICAL TALKS. Hungarian media on 19 January reported that Peter Boross ended three days of consultations with nine political parties in Budapest. Boross briefed the party leaders about his talks with President Clinton in Prague. The date of the next general election in May and the coming parliamentary agenda was discussed as well. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. FASCIST PARTY ORGANIZED IN BUDAPEST. Wire services report, quoting a article in the 19 January issue of Nepszabadsag, that an extreme-right party named World National Popular Rule has been organized in Budapest. The registry court confirmed that the party is legally registered. The party's members are mostly skinheads and it has only small, fringe followings; it wants to rehabilitate the Hungarian Arrow Cross fascist leader Ferenc Szalasi, who led a reign of terror when his party was put to power by the German occupiers in 1944. The party also denies that the Holocaust ever took place and wants to run in the next general election. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. HOPE AND PROBLEMS IN BULGARIA. French President Francois Mitterrand made a one-day visit to Bulgaria on 19 January, five years exactly following his last trip there. Speaking before the parliament he praised Bulgaria for becoming a "truly democratic" country and apologized for the delay in the ratification of Bulgaria's associate status with the EU. He also pledged to seek to move that along while aiding Bulgaria in meeting its debt obligations to Western lenders, agencies report. In the economic sphere, commercial banks in Bulgaria halted trading of the lev, whose value had again tumbled against the dollar. The Central Bank set the exchange rate at 38 to the dollar on 19 January, while one year ago the rate was 24.45 leva to the dollar. A continuing fall in the lev's value could impair the government's planned austerity program. Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIA AND UKRAINE TRADE ACCUSATIONS. Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu accused Ukraine of violating the rights of the Romanian ethnic community there. In an interview with the daily Curierul national quoted by Reuters on 19 January, Melescanu said: "I cannot watch indifferently the degradation of Romanian vestiges and historical monuments in Ukraine and measures preventing the free expression of Romanian opinions there." Melescanu quoted a recent decision by Ukrainian authorities to ban the Romanian-language publication Plai romanesc. Romanian community leaders, Reuters said, have also complained about the removal of Romanian monuments and restrictions imposed on their churches in northern Bukovina, which was Romanian territory from the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy until it was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. Ukraine's Deputy Prime Minister, Mykola Zhulinski, told Reuters on the same day that statements such as Melescanu's hurt Ukraine's reputation, adding that his country is concerned itself by the situation of Ukrainians in Romania and the fast process of assimilation. He said Ukraine seeks a constructive dialogue with Romania. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PROTESTS NATIONALIST'S ACCUSATIONS. Nicolae Spiroiu has asked the chairman of the Romanian Senate to investigate criticism directed at him by Corneliu Vadim Tudor, a senator and the chairman of the extreme nationalist Greater Romania Party, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 19 January. Tudor wrote in his weekly Romania mare that the defense minister has "used blackmail and subversive maneuvers to be the only minister who has stayed in office during three governments," had been "a member of the Soviet plot that killed Ceausescu," and "is responsible for taking the national defense industry to ruins." In a letter published in the army's weekly Armata Romaniei, Spiroiu calls Tudor's allegations "calumnious and insulting" and asks the Senate's Discipline Commission to decide whether the allegations "are compatible with the status of a senator." Earlier, Spiroiu revealed that Tudor had unsuccessfully tried to have his brother, who is a colonel in the army, promoted to the rank of general by trying to use influence with the defense minister. Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. DISSENT BUILDS IN POLISH COALITION. As the Sejm has begun considering the government's proposed budget for 1994, friction between the "liberals" and "socialists" in the ruling Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) has come into the open. Fifteen deputies, most from the former official OPZZ union federation, announced the creation of a "workers' defense group" on 14 January, PAP reports. The group's leader, OPZZ deputy chairman Stanislaw Wisniewski, announced that the group will accept only deputies "with a backbone" who will not submit to pressure from SLD leader Aleksander Kwasniewski. Wisniewski, considered the chief rival of the OPZZ's more moderate chairman, Ewa Spychalska, charged that the SLD's economic policies are not "leftist" enough. He pledged on 19 January to preserve the SLD's unity, however. Dissent has also emerged within the Polish Peasant Party (PSL), where activists have charged Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak with "dictatorial" methods. Pawlak quashed a challenge from below on 15 January, when the party leadership opted not to vote on banning the simultaneous holding of party and state posts. Pawlak is PSL chairman and parliamentary floor leader as well as prime minister. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. POLISH LABOR MINISTER OPPOSES GOVERNMENT POLICY. The SLD's "socialist" wing has an ally in Labor Minister Leszek Miller, who has recently donned the mantle of a leftist opposition within the cabinet. Pursuing a well-publicized quest for additional funding for social welfare programs, Miller was one of two cabinet members to vote against the proposed budget in December. In an appearance before the Sejm's economic policy commission on 18 January, Miller complained that the proposed budget will "prevent him from fulfilling his responsibilities," and he left the defense of government spending plans to a finance ministry official. Miller told Rzeczpospolita on 12 January that the government's proposed budget "is not worth dying for." He has lobbied for a tax on stock market transactions as a means of securing new funds; the finance ministry rejects such a tax as counterproductive. Commenting on 20 January that "it is unprecedented for a minister to disagree with his own government yet not resign," Rzeczpospolita concluded that Miller's behavior reflects a deliberate government strategy designed to convince the public that the rights of the unemployed, pensioners, and the needy are being defended. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINIAN FACES ESPIONAGE CHARGES IN WARSAW. The first trial in Poland of an alleged spy from one of the countries of the former Soviet Union opened in a Warsaw military court on 19 January, Polish TV reports. Maj. Anatolij Lysenko of the Ukrainian intelligence service faces charges of spying for Ukraine and recruiting agents on Polish territory. Lysenko was arrested by the Polish State Protection Office (UOP) in August 1993, while entering Poland with his family; he says he was bringing his son to Poland for medical treatment. The Ukrainian foreign ministry and security service deny that Lysenko was in Poland on official business. Lysenko was turned in to Polish authorities by Janusz Bojarski, a 23-year-old Pole who was arrested by Ukrainian customs officials for smuggling and was apparently persuaded to provide information on political and religious developments in Poland's eastern voivodships and the mood of the ethnic Ukrainian minority there. During the first day of the trial, Bojarski retracted incriminating statements made during police interrogation and contended that his contacts with Lysenko had been "private" in nature. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc. PROTESTS IN BELARUS ON CAPTURE OF LITHUANIAN COMMUNISTS. On 19 January at a closed session of the Belarus Supreme Soviet, Interior Minister Uladzimir Yahorau said that former Lithuanian communist leaders Mykolas Burokevicius and Juozas Jermalavicius had been detained in Minsk on 15 January by local police in the presence of two Lithuanian police officers, Reuters and Interfax report. He admitted that the police did not have arrest warrants, but the matter had been discussed by his ministry and the prosecutor's office. About 100 Communists picketed the KGB headquarters in Minsk, protesting the arrests. KGB Chairman Eduard Shirkouski told the session that the KGB had not been involved in the operation and Prosecutor-General Vasil Shaladonau said that the government had not been informed in advance of the arrests and that he had not approved them. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIAN MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS IN MAY. Diena reported on 13 January that earlier that day the Saeima had adopted a law on the election of district (rayon), town and county councils, and set the date of the next elections for 22 May. According to that law, the electorate will consist of citizens of the Republic of Latvia who are at least 18 years old, and who are registered as residents of that locality or who own property there. Candidates for office must also be citizens of Latvia, residents for at least 12 months of the locality where they are running for office, and at least 21 years old. The Saeima is still considering a new law on local governments. Diena reported on 17 January that since the draft law proposed by the Council of Ministers is unsatisfactory to the association of local governments, that organization has drafted its own law for submission to the Saeima. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. MOLDOVA WORRIED BY RUSSIAN POST-SUMMIT STATEMENTS. Moldovan President Mircea Snegur's Chief Political Adviser, Viorel Ciubotaru (a leading Social-Democrat) commented to RFE/RL on 19 January on the statement by Yeltsin's Presidential Council member Andranik Migranian that, at the summit just held in Moscow, "the US side has confirmed Russia's special role in maintaining stability in the post-Soviet space" (ITAR-TASS, 17 January); and on Kozyrev's post-summit statement that "Russia's vital interests are concentrated in, and being threatened from, that space", and that Russia intends to "maintain its military presence" there (Ostankino and Russian Televisions and Interfax, 18 January). Ciubotaru said that these statements "arouse profound concern in Chisinau. Russia's peacekeeping role in the former USSR has been demonstrated in Georgia and Moldova where Russian forces started, coordinated, and then stopped military conflicts, seizing areas from those states and serving to pressure them to integrate politically into the CIS. Tajikistan is a special case but it illustrates the same tendency of imperial restoration which, if successful, may lead back to a bipolar world." Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc. TWO KILLED IN ATTACK ON TATAR LEADER IN CRIMEA. Two persons were killed and eleven injured in a gunfire attack on a prominent Tatar, Iskander Memedov, on 19 January, agencies reported. Memedov is an economic advisor of the chairman of the Crimean parliament, Mykola Bahrov. According to Lilya Budjurova, a member of the self-appointed Moslem parliament set up by the Tatar community in Crimea, the attack was politically motivated. Memedov was among the injured. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. UKRAINE AND BELARUS SIGN MILITARY AGREEMENT. On 18 January military delegations from Ukraine and Belarus signed an agreement on military cooperation in Minsk, Belarusian television reported. The agreement is similar to the one signed between the two countries on 17 December 1992, and sets the agenda for military contacts for 1994. Deputy Defense Minister Maj. Gen. Vasiliy Dzyamidzik signed the agreement on behalf of Belarus, while Ukraine was represented by deputy defense minister of armaments, Col. Gen. Ivan Olinyk. Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Patrick Moore & Stephen Foye The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail by subscribing to RFERL-L at LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU, on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. Requests for permission to reprint or retransmit this material should be addressed to PD@RFERL.ORG. Such requests will generally be granted on the condition that the material is clearly attributed to the RFE/RL Daily Report. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In North America: Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907 Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783 Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 80538 Munich Germany Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624 Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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