|Настоящий мир - наилучший. - Г. Лейбниц|
No. 1, 3 January 1994
RUSSIA YELTSIN PLEDGES TO PROTECT RUSSIANS OUTSIDE RUSSIA. In his New Year's broadcast, Russian President Boris Yeltsin pledged to defend the interests of Russians living outside Russia's borders (by implication, in the countries of the former Soviet Union), saying that "on the basis of law and solidarity, we defend and will defend your and our common interests." The position of Russians living abroad was a constant complaint of the opposition to Yeltsin during 1993. Assessing the past year, Yeltsin said that there had almost been civil war in Russia. He was optimistic, however, about the adoption of the new Russian constitution which he said would be the foundation "for the construction of a democratic state and free society." Wendy Slater CANDIDATES FOR STATE DUMA CHAIRMAN. The leaders of the principal political parties continued negotiations on 31 December over candidates for the chairmanship of the State Duma. Interfax reported that the meeting was attended by Yegor Gaidar (Russia's Choice), Grigorii Yavlinsky (the Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin bloc), Vladimir Zhirinovsky (the Liberal Democratic Party), Nikolai Travkin (the Democratic Party), Ekaterina Lakhova (the Union of Women of Russia), Mikhail Lapshin (the Agrarian Party), and Gennadii Zyuganov (the Communist Party). The Party of Russian Unity and Concord was not represented. The LDP, CP, and Agrarian parties, which control 43% of the parliamentary seats between them, want to nominate Ivan Rybkin, former leader of the Communists of Russia faction in the Supreme Soviet. His candidacy is opposed by Russia's Choice. Wendy Slater PREDICTIONS OF CABINET RESHUFFLE. The government newspaper Rossiiskie vesti said on 31 December that a cabinet reshuffle is expected soon, Reuters reported. The newspaper suggested that the changes will increase the influence of the industrialist lobby at the expense of radical economic reformers such as Finance Minister Boris Fedorov. Interfax also suggested that there will be changes in the status of some ministers, and predicted that those who were successful in the recent parliamentary elections will be asked to choose between holding a government post or working in the new parliament. Interfax said that Deputy Prime Ministers Sergei Shakhrai and Aleksandr Shokhin were likely to resign, as was First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko should he be elected speaker of the upper house of the new parliament. Wendy Slater RUSSIAN REACTION TO TALBOTT NOMINATION. Izvestiya commented on 30 December that Strobe Talbott's nomination as Deputy Secretary of State marked the unusually rapid rise of a journalist through the ranks of diplomacy. On Talbott's politics, Izvestiya commented that Talbott's "main weakness according to his critics...is his excessively strong leaning toward Russia and his overestimation of its significance for the fate of this part of the world and the world in general." Izvestiya added that "surely more than anyone else in the U.S. political establishment, Talbott understands that Russia's peacemaking efforts in this part of the world are indispensable." On the same day, Pravda offered a similar summary of Talbott's stance on Russia's relations with its neighbors and also commented that Talbott's new job may have "far-reaching consequences for Russian-American relations." Suzanne Crow WHO VOTED FOR ZHIRINOVSKY? Izvestiya on 30 December reported that, according to Moscow's respected All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion, Zhirinovsky's supporters in the December elections came from two distinct groups. The first are young males aged between 25 and 40. The second group are also males, but they are older and less educated. Despite the difference in their ages, the groups share several characteristics. Most are blue-collar workers in state-owned industrial enterprises, earning average or higher-than-average wages. What distinguishes them from other members of the Russian population is their concern about the breakdown of law and order in Russia. While those who voted for the Communist Party were likely to complain about declining living standards in their own towns, Zhirinovsky's supporters complained more about the "anarchy" and "weak government" threatening Russia as a whole. Elizabeth Teague FOREIGN CURRENCY BAN. At midnight on 31 December, the ban on all cash transactions conducted in foreign currency went into effect. The regulation, issued by the Russian Central Bank (RCB) in early October (see ITAR-TASS of 5 October), is designed to make all Russian stores and establishments accept only rubles for cash sales, although non-ruble credit and debit card purchases will be permitted. The RCB ban followed a regulation effective 1 March that Russian-made goods must be sold for rubles (Interfax, 25 January), an RCB ruling that Moscow hard-currency stores must accept rubles as well as foreign currency (ITAR-TASS, 10 February), and considerable debate within the government on the wisdom of enhancing the acceptability of the ruble by decree. At this writing, no reports had been received on how the ban is working. Keith Bush DEBT RESCHEDULING ARRANGEMENTS LAPSE. As the Financial Times of 31 December noted, Russia's debt rescheduling arrangements with Western governments lapsed that day. Under an agreement reached in April 1993 by the Paris Club of creditor governments, more than $15 billion of the $20 billion in capital and interest due in 1993 was rescheduled over ten years. But no rescheduling has been arranged for the roughly $16 billion due in 1994, as well as the additional arrears on payments due since April. The rescheduling agreement was also conditional on the conclusion of a standby agreement with the IMF by October: this condition was not met. Separate talks on the roughly $25 billion owed to Western banks have failed to produce any long-term rescheduling, and 90-day rollovers have been substituted. Keith Bush QUESTIONS ON THE BUDGET DEFICIT. News reports suggest that the government's success in reining in the Russian state budget deficit to 10% of GDP is largely illusionary. On 24 December the Financial Times reported that the government would delay 6 trillion rubles of deficit spending, accounting for it in 1994, in order to meet commitments made to the IMF. This maneuver may explain a decree issued by President Yeltsin on 30 December, according to Russian television, which requires the Central Bank to lend the government 7.5 trillion rubles in the first quarter of 1994. Various members of government including deputy prime ministers Oleg Soskovets and Aleksandr Shokhin, not to mention Russian Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko, had admitted in recent weeks that the deficit target for the year was unrealistic. Erik Whitlock CHECHEN CLANS POSTPONE CONGRESS FOR SECOND TIME. The Council of Chechen teips (clans and families) has put off its congress for the second time in order to avoid bloodshed, Interfax reported on 2 January. The congress, which was to demand early parliamentary elections, was originally to have met in Groznyi on 25 December, but over 800 delegates were prevented by armed supporters of President Dzhokhar Dudaev from reaching the meeting place. It was then rescheduled for 2 January in Shali, where the mayor was favorable to the congress and the local tank regiment said it would not allow Dudaev's supporters into the town. Dudaev responded by dismissing the mayor, and the commander of the tank regiment was persuaded to agree to Dudaev's order to open fire on delegates if the congress took place. The council's headquarters has announced that delegates will be given only a few hours' notice of the date and place of the congress to prevent Dudaev's troops arriving before the congress had reached a decision. Ann Sheehy RALLY IN MAKHACHKALA DEMANDS DISMISSAL OF DAGESTAN PARLIAMENT. A rally in Makhachkala, held to mourn Arsen Bairamov, a murdered candidate for the Russian Federal Assembly who was backed by the Kumyks, Cossacks, and Russians, passed a resolution saying that it would ask Yeltsin to disband the Dagestan parliament which "has completely compromised itself and is an obstacle to the development of the republic," Interfax reported on 31 December. The resolution referred to the wave of political assassinations, terrorism, and violence in the republic that has claimed dozens of lives, and claimed that members of some governmental bodies had contacts with the criminal world. It demanded that the results of the elections in Dagestan to the Russian Federal Assembly be declared invalid, and that a commission be sent to the republic to investigate its law enforcement agencies. Ann Sheehy SHANIBOV AGAINST CONFEDERATION OF PEOPLES OF CAUCASUS HAVING OWN ARMED FORCES. The president of the Confederation of Peoples of the Caucasus (CPC) Musa Shanibov has said that the creation of the confederation's own armed forces was in breach of the federal and republican constitutions and that the decision to appoint a commander and chief of staff of such forces, adopted at a CPC congress in Groznyi in early December, must be suspended, Interfax reported on 31 December. Shanibov said that the confederation has no forces of its own, and volunteer units fighting in Abkhazia were placed under the command of the Abkhaz defense ministry. Ann Sheehy CIS UKRAINE WANTS TO BEGIN SWAPPING WARHEADS FOR NUCLEAR FUEL. Trilateral talks between Ukraine, Russia and the United States on the issue of Ukraine's nuclear disarmament were due to be resumed in Washington on 3 January, according to the Los Angeles Times and UNIAR of 2 January. The newspaper reported that it had been told by Ukrainian Vice Premier Valerii Shmarov that while the tricky negotiations about meeting Ukraine's concerns about security and proper compensation continue, Ukraine is still prepared to begin handing over some of its nuclear warheads to Russia in return for nuclear reactor fuel and that it intends to propose a trial swap on this basis. Shmarov also hinted that Ukraine would like to see reciprocal gestures from the US, suggesting that "if we take off ten weapons, be so kind as to reduce ten weapons that are now aimed at us." Bohdan Nahaylo UKRAINE AND RUSSIA AT ODDS OVER AFGHAN POW NEGOTIATIONS. A spokesman for the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Grigorii Karasin, has criticized Ukraine's proposal for using an ethnic and selective approach to resolve the issue of former Soviet POWs in Afghanistan, Interfax reported on 28 December. He made the statement with reference to a meeting between Ukrainian representatives and leaders of the Islamic Party of Afghanistan led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar in the Pakistani city of Peshawar. The meeting focused on freeing former Soviet servicemen of Ukrainian nationality held by the faction. Karasin pointed out that Moscow favored the interaction by all CIS states in any resolution as stated in the CIS agreement of 28 April 1993 which envisions joint measures for finding and freeing prisoners-of-war regardless of their nationality or citizenship. He pointed out that the leaders of ten CIS countries, including Ukraine, had put their signatures on the document. Ustina Markus TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA NIYAZOV IN IRAN. Turkmenistan's President Saparmurad Niyazov arrived in Tehran on 2 January for an official visit that is to include the signing of ten cooperation agreements, Western and Russian news agencies reported. Among the issues to be discussed are cooperation in the development of Turkmenistan's gas and oil resources: Niyazov told reporters at Tehran's Mehrabad Airport that Turkmenistan hopes to tap Iran's expertise in various fields. The two countries have developed excellent relations since Turkmenistan became independent. When questioned earlier if he did not fear Islamic fundamentalism promoted by Iran, Niyazov denied that there could be any danger. Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE FIGHTING IN SARAJEVO CONTINUES. The international media report that the shelling of Sarajevo continued throughout the New Year weekend, with the heaviest fighting coming on New Year's Eve, and that the city has once again been left without water and electricity. On 1 January Sarajevo Radio stated that at least five persons were killed and 38 injured in clashes the previous night. Western agencies reported that on 1 January a building used by UN troops was shelled and badly damaged, but there were no casualties. On 3 January Reuters reported that the Bosnian Muslim government has threatened to besiege the Lasva Valley in central Bosnia should the 65,000 Croats in the region fail to leave peacefully. In his New Year's address, reported by Sarajevo Radio, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic exhorted Muslims to fight against the forces of "destruction" and expressed his regret that the Western powers were not doing their utmost to end the fighting in Bosnia. In an interview on 3 January on Deutschlandfunk, Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic called on the international community "to do its duty" and intervene in the Bosnian conflict in support of the Muslim side. Stan Markotich COT DEPLORES SITUATION IN BOSNIA. On 1 January AFP reported that the UN commander in former Yugoslavia, General Jean Cot, stated that he was no longer willing to let the UN troops in Bosnia be the targets of "humiliation and deception" by the three warring factions. Cot told AFP he was preparing to deal with the situation, but did not elaborate. According to the general, all three sides were guilty of disrupting the UN peacekeeping efforts but the Serbs' "humiliation of the armed representatives of the international community has reached its limits." Stan Markotich CROATIAN PRESIDENT CLAIMS PEACE POSSIBLE IN 1994. According to Vecernji list of 31 December, President Franjo Tudjman, in his New Year press conference, speculated that 1994 might be a year for peace and could see the end of hostilities in Bosnia. While reaffirming his commitment to working for peace, however, Tudjman in an interview with Croatian TV on 30 December also renewed the threat of invading Bosnia and Herzegovina should Muslim forces continue their attacks against ethnic Croats. On 31 December Bosnian Prime Minister Silajdzic, speaking on Sarajevo Radio, charged that the Croatian military was already involved in Bosnia. On 2 January Reuters reported that the Croatian Helsinki Committee alleged that the Croatian army is drafting men of Bosnian ancestry to fight in Bosnia, forcibly and against their will. The Croatian government has flatly denied these allegations. Stan Markotich GREEK-MACEDONIAN ISSUES. Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov in a year-end speech before the parliament on 30 December said that Macedonian sovereignty is vital to Greece. According to Nova Makedonija, he expressed the hope that his country would soon become part of the CSCE and NATO's "Partners for Peace" program. On 1 January Greece took over the presidency of the European Union. Diplomats are waiting to see how Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou, who will chair the EU, approaches the Macedonian issue. AFP reported on 2 January that some 8,000 demonstrators in northern Greece protested the diplomatic recognition accorded Macedonia by several members of the EU, including Germany, Great Britain, France, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Duncan Perry WALESA MAKES SOMBER NEW YEAR'S ADDRESS. In a televised New Year's address, President Lech Walesa expressed the hope that the "year of promises" marked by the 1993 elections would not be followed by a "year of disappointment" in 1994. Walesa said that the first chapter in the history of the Polish Third Republic had been closed with the transfer of governmental power from the Solidarity elite to the postcommunist forces. Solidarity's bitter election defeat was unjust, Walesa said, but its contribution would be more favorably assessed with the passage of time. He expressed the hope that the forces now in power would demonstrate the wisdom to repair what needs fixing without destroying what has begun to bear fruit. Louisa Vinton CHARGES FILED AGAINST RAKOWSKI, POLISH GENERALS. The Warsaw prosecutor's office filed criminal charges against former Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski on 30 December, PAP reports. Rakowski, the Polish communist party's last first secretary, is being charged with illegal currency dealings in connection with the CPSU's secret loan of $1.2 million and 500 million zloty to the Polish party before its final congress early in 1990. On 8 December, an investigation into the role of current Labor Minister Leszek Miller in repaying the loan was dropped. The Warsaw prosecutor's office on 31 December also pressed new charges against the two secret police generals who are now on trial for supervising the 1984 murder of Father Jerzy Popieluszko. The two generals, Wladyslaw Ciaston and Zenon Platek, and five other former police officials now face charges of "running a criminal organization" in 1981-84 with the purpose of intimidating and repressing Catholic priests and opposition activists. Ciaston was head of the communist security police; Platek ran the notorious Fourth Department, which conducted surveillance of the Catholic Church. A verdict in the Popieluszko murder trial is expected in March. Louisa Vinton POLISH MINERS' STRIKE SETTLED. Miners at the bankrupt Boguszow barite mine suspended a week-long occupation strike on 31 December, after an agreement was reached between the Lower Silesian Solidarity organization and the Ministry of Industry. In the terms of the settlement, the government agreed to provide 20 billion zloty ($943,000) to the Walbrzych Regional Development Foundation to help restructure the Boguszow region, fund overdue wage payments to the miners, and prepare the indebted Boguszow mine for sale at auction. The Boguszow miners struck for the entire month of November; after three days back on the job, they began a new strike on 8 December. Louisa Vinton HAVEL'S NEW YEAR SPEECH. In a New Year's message broadcast on Czech radio and television, President Vaclav Havel said the country's economic transition can now be considered irreversible. The Czech Republic's most important achievement in 1993, he said, was the sustained high tempo of change from a centrally planned economy to one based on the free market. He called on the government to use the planned state administrative reform to give municipalities and regions more power; and to introduce legislation on nonprofit organizations. Havel also argued that the most important goal now is to build "civil society." The Czech people knew, he said, that national awareness could not be the sole purpose of a nation's existence. The experience of World War II and the Yugoslav conflict had shown Europe the dangers of believing in an ethnically pure state. Havel also warned against belief in the possibility of establishing a religiously pure state, noting that this had led to religious fundamentalism in some Muslim countries. Jiri Pehe FORMER CZECHOSLOVAK AMBASSADOR TO US DIES. Rita Klimova, one of the most prominent figures of the "velvet revolution" in 1989 and former Czechoslovak Ambassador to the US, died on 30 December at the age of 62. Klimova had taught political economics at Prague's Charles University in the 1960's but was expelled from the Communist Party and fired from her job during purges that followed the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Klimova, who spent her childhood in New York and was a fluent English-speaker, worked in the 1970's and the 1980's as a translator for dissident publications. She became a spokesperson for the opposition movement during the "velvet revolution." She was named ambassador to the United States at the beginning of 1990. Shortly after her arrival in the US she was stricken by leukemia. At her own request, she was replaced as ambassador in September 1992. Jiri Pehe SLOVAK-RFE TALKS END IN DEADLOCK. Talks between Slovak authorities and Radio Free Europe on 30 December ended without agreement and are scheduled to resume in late January. Slovakia's Transportation and Communications Minister Roman Hofbauer plans to cut RFE broadcasts from medium-wave transmitters in Slovakia. RFE says its contract for use of these transmitters is binding until the end of 1995. Hofbauer told RFE officials that its programs were biased against the government. RFE Director Robert Gillette, who met in Bratislava with Hofbauer and other officials, said that RFE broadcasts "meet high standards of objectivity, fairness and accuracy." Sharon Fisher KOVAC ASSESSES SLOVAKIA'S FIRST YEAR. In his New Year's address on Slovak radio and television on 1 January, President Michal Kovac said that Slovakia's existence is "an irreversible fact" which should be recognized even by those who had regretted its creation. Noting that gloomy predictions of economic collapse had not materialized, he complained about the unstable political situation: political scrambling and scandals had discredited politics in public eyes, while "the failure to unite political and nonpolitical forces" had created additional problems. Kovac advocated the creation of "a broad coalition government which would mobilize all the best brains of [Slovak] society in order to solve problems and complete tasks." On 1 and 2 January, several members of opposition parties said Kovac's address was "realistic," TASR reports. Sharon Fisher HUNGARIAN SOCIALISTS LEAD IN OPINION POLL. According to a poll published in Magyar Hirlap on 29 December, five months before the forthcoming general election, the Hungarian Socialist Party (HSP) is leading public opinion polls for the first time since the democratic changes. HSP took the lead from the Association of the Young Democrats (AYD), according to the poll conducted at the beginning of December by Median Inc. The reform-communist HSP tallied 19% support among the respondents; followed by the AYD with 15%, the Association of the Free Democrats (the largest opposition party in parliament) with 10%, and the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum with 9%; 19% of those polled were undecided and 8% did not reveal their party preference. Karoly Okolicsanyi BULGARIAN GYPSIES DEMAND BAN ON "FASCIST" ORGANIZATIONS. At a meeting on 30 December in Sliven in eastern Bulgaria, several influential Bulgarian Roma lobby groups agreed on an open letter demanding a ban on all "fascist" parties and organizations, BTA reports. The letter, which was endorsed by the United Roma Alliance, the Democratic Roma Union, and the Roma Intellectuals, was evidently prompted by a number of recent public appearances by Father Gelemenov, leader of the openly racist Vazrazhdane organization. Leaders of all three Roma formations qualified the views of Gelemenov as "extremely dangerous." Gelemenov said, in an interview with Trud on 29 December, that he has abandoned traditional nationalism for the Nazi ideology, and that he favors "subordinating" the country's Gypsy and Turkish minorities to the Bulgarian majority. The Roma leaders also criticized Bulgarian media, including state television, for having repeatedly offered Gelemenov opportunities to air his extremist views. According to the final count of the December 1992 census, 313,000 Bulgarian citizens say they belong to the Roma minority. Kjell Engelbrekt ROMANIAN OPPOSITION SAYS RULE BY DECREE IS UNCONSTITUTIONAL. The main opposition alliance, the Democratic Convention of Romania, said in a statement released on 30 December that the law allowing the government to rule by decree during the January parliamentary recess is unconstitutional, Reuters reports from Bucharest. DCR President Emil Constantinescu said the alliance has appealed to the Constitutional Court. An RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest reported that the DCR called for a new opposition alliance, to oppose the anti-reform process. On the same day, the Permanent Bureau of the Chamber of Deputies announced that a special session of the chamber will convene on 3 January at the request of 118 members of the opposition. Michael Shafir ROMANIAN COALITION TALKS. Following a meeting between representatives of the ruling Party of Social Democracy in Romania and of the nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity on 29 December, the PRNU vice chairman, Ioan Gavra, said the two sides had agreed on a "government pact" and on ways of implementing it, Radio Bucharest said. Each side will be represented in the executive according to its parliamentary strength. He added that the distribution of portfolios will be discussed next week and that "the new government formula" should be ready in January. Meanwhile, President Ion Iliescu is continuing talks with other political formations. It is unlikely that the Democratic Convention of Romania, the main opposition alliance, will agree to join a government set up according to the formula announced by Gavra. Michael Shafir. BALTIC PRESIDENTS WANT RUSSIAN TROOPS WITHDRAWN IN 1994. In a joint New Year's statement, the presidents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania urged Russian President Boris Yeltsin to complete the pullout of all Russian troops from the region, as promised, in 1994, Interfax reported on 1 January. They expressed regret that part of the Russian forces still remain in Latvia and Estonia. They added that while each of the Baltic countries could claim domestic political and economic achievements in 1993, several important goals have yet to be attained. Dzintra Bungs MERI CRITICIZES YELTSIN'S SPEECH. Estonian President Lennart Meri told the press on 1 January in Tallinn that Russian President Yeltsin's New Year speech was "most unfortunate and unusual" and called on the West to condemn it. Meri criticized especially those statements that suggest Russia has "chosen to use the aggressive policies of the former Soviet Union," and added that Russia's leadership may be using the election success of nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky as an excuse to adopt a tougher policy toward the former Soviet republics. Meri also took issue with Yeltsin's affirmation of Russia's intention to defend Russians living outside its borders, Western media reported on 1 January. Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIA TO OPEN CONSULATE IN KALININGRAD. Lithuania will open a consulate in Kaliningrad this month, Radio Lithuania reported on 3 January. Kaliningrad plans to establish an economic office in Vilnius, comparable to one that the Lithuanian Ministry of Industry and Trade will open in Kaliningrad. Saulius Girnius ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN LITHUANIA. Consumption of oil increased from 1.106 million tons in 1992 to 1.186 million tons in 1993, BNS reported on 29 December. Due to soaring prices the consumption of natural gas decreased from 3.4 billion cubic meters to 1.6 billion cubic meters. Electricity consumption decreased by 25%, from 9.84 billion kilowatt hours in 1992 to 7.34 billion kilowatt hours in 1992. In the early part of the year electricity use was 60% below comparable 1992 levels, but grew rapidly in the second half reaching 99% of the December 1992 level by the end of the year. Saulius Girnius REFERENDUM ON UKRAINE'S POLITICAL SYSTEM? During a meeting with representatives of the Ukrainian media on 30 December, President Leonid Kravchuk said that he planned to appeal directly to the people and call for a referendum on the type of political system Ukraine should have on 27 March, the same day as the forthcoming parliamentary elections. He noted that during three years' work the present parliament had been unable to adopt a democratic constitution reflecting the new political realities, even though two drafts had been prepared and presented for its consideration. To end the deadlock and open the way for political and economic reforms, Kravchuk reaffirmed the need for a Law on [Political] Power, defining the nature of Ukraine's political system and the division of powers at the center, and between the center and the regions. Once again, he opted for a compromise between presidential and parliamentary systems. Bohdan Nahaylo [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Elizabeth Carlson & Anna Swidlicka The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG Љ1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
©1996 "Друзья и Партнеры"
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.