|Standing, as I do, in the view of God and eternity, I realize that patriotism is not enough. I must have no hatred or bitterness toward anyone. - Edith Cavell 1865-1915 (Spoken to the chaplain who attended her before her execution by firing squad, 12 Oct. 1915.)|
No. 244, 22 December 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. CIS CONTINUING CONFUSION OVER UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS. Reports from Kiev have partly clarified the situation concerning the reported deactivation of some SS-24 missiles. On 21 December Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Tarasyuk held a press conference in which he confirmed reports that some 20 SS-24s will be taken off alert by the end of 1993. At a separate press conference President Kravchuk confirmed that 17-SS-24s have already been removed from alert. On the same day, however, RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent was told by Ukrainian defense ministry officials in Kiev that all SS-24s remain on alert. Part of the confusion may stem from the fact that the missiles can operate at different alert levels, and could be removed from alert status without physically removing the warheads. It is thus possible that the alert status of the missiles has already been downgraded, while the removal of warheads is still to occur. The missiles themselves will remain in their silos even after their deactivation. A similar program with 20 SS-19 ICBMs apparently entails the dismantling of the missiles as well. Reports over the past year have suggested that all the ICBMs in Ukraine were already at low alert levels. Developments on the story were reported by UNIAN and Western press agencies. -John Lepingwell PARLIAMENTARIANS REACT. Ukrainian parliamentarians reacted angrily to the deactivation announcement. According to a Reuters report of 21 December, members of the parliament's defense committee were irate that they had not been informed of the move, and suggested that it contravened the conditions imposed by parliament upon START-1 implementation. Tarasyuk claimed at his press conference, however, that the deactivation was not tied to START-1, but was rather an attempt to demonstrate Ukraine's goodwill. He pointed out that the warheads on the SS-24s being deactivated had exceeded their service lives, and that it was Russia that retained the ability to launch the missiles, so they did not benefit Ukraine's security. -John Lepingwell AGREEMENT IN THE WORKS? PRESIDENT KRAVCHUK ALSO TOLD UNIAN ON 21 DECEMBER THAT A US-RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN AGREEMENT PROVIDING FOR THE DISMANTLING OF THE WEAPONS AND COMPENSATION TO UKRAINE IS BEING PREPARED. According to Kravchuk the agreement would not compromise the interests of any of the parties. It appears that Kravchuk was referring to an agreement in principle to sign such a document-the details of its provisions have yet to be finalized. According to a 21-December report from an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington, a US State Department official noted that an agreement had not been reached but that work on the issues was continuing. -John Lepingwell WHERE WILL THE WARHEADS GO? THE DECISION TO REMOVE AN ADDITIONAL 200 WARHEADS FROM ICBMS PROMPTS THE QUESTION OF WHERE THEY WILL BE STORED. The Ukrainian government is adamant that the warheads will remain in Ukraine until all security and compensation issues with Russia are settled. The SS-24s are based in Pervomaysk, where there have already been reports of overcrowding and deteriorating conditions in warhead storage facilities. This point has been emphasized by Russia, which has repeatedly warned of a safety hazard at the site. The removal of the warheads might be the prelude to an agreement to establish international (US, Russian, Ukrainian) monitoring of weapons storage sites in Ukraine, as the US proposed in early 1993. -John Lepingwell CIS MILITARY STAFF TO SHRINK. On 21 December ITAR-TASS reported on a press conference held by General Lieutenant Leonid Ivashov, head of the Joint Staff of the CIS military. Ivashov observed that the Joint Staff is a coordinating body under the CIS Council of Defense Ministers and thus has a smaller role than the old CIS Joint Command. As a result, staff size will be "significantly reduced." At its largest, the CIS staff may have numbered only a few hundred, and the latest round of cuts will simply reflect its greatly diminished role. -John Lepingwell RUSSIA YELTSIN ON ZHIRINOVSKY'S ELECTORAL SUCCESS. In what the Russian and Western media described as an attempt to play down the political significance of the strong showing of Vladimir Zhirinovsky's ultranationalist Liberal Democratic Party in the parliamentary elections, President Yeltsin told journalists that "by voting for the Liberal Democratic Party of Zhirinovsky, those Russians who live poorly voted not for the leader of this party and not for its program. They voted against poverty." Yeltsin made his comments, in which he implicitly denied a surge of extreme nationalism in Russia, during a visit to a Moscow building exhibition on 21 December. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN ABOLISHES MINISTRY OF SECURITY. President Yeltsin has signed a decree disbanding the Ministry of Security (MB) and replacing it with the Federal Counterintelligence Service, ITAR-TASS reported on 21-December. Former chief of the MB, Nikolai Golushko was appointed as director of new service; his former first deputy, Sergei Stepashin retains the same position in the newly created entity. The new service will be directly responsible to Yeltsin. According to the decree, Golushko must present to the Russian president his proposals on the statutes of the new service within two weeks. Officers of the MB will continue their duties provisionally, but will be subject to the selection requirements of the new service. Presidential spokesman Anatolii Krasikov explained that Yeltsin considered the MB, which was the KGB's successor, to be both inefficient and detrimental to political and economic reforms. The decrees say nothing about other KGB successors agencies such as, the Main Administration for Government Protection, the Federal Agency for Government Information and Communication and the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service. -Victor Yasmann YAKOVLEV APPOINTED OSTANKINO RADIO AND TV CHIEF. Aleksandr Yakovlev was appointed chairman of Ostankino state radio and television company, ITAR-TASS and "Vesti" announced on 20 December. The post had been vacant since 16 December, when Yeltsin dismissed Vyacheslav Bragin and his first deputy. Many Russians blame television for the relatively poor performance of reformers in the recent parliamentary elections. In contrast with Bragin, Yakovlev is popular with the reform-minded Russian intelligentsia. A septuagenarian academic, Yakovlev is widely credited to have been the mind behind Mikhail Gorbachev's liberalization program. "Vesti" quoted Yeltsin as also having proposed Yakovlev for the post of chairman of a new presidential committee that will oversee television and radio broadcasting when it is set up. -Julia Wishnevsky POLTORANIN AND YUSHENKOV TO LEAVE FIC. Mikhail Poltoranin and Sergei Yushenkov decided to leave their posts of chairman and deputy chairman of the Federal Information Center (FIC), respectively, to concentrate fully on their work in the new parliament, ITAR-TASS reported on 21 December. Both officials were elected to the State Duma on the Russia's Choice party list. The FIC has ministerial status and the new Russian constitution does not allow ministers to hold parliamentary posts. But in an appendix to the constitution, describing Russia's constitutional system in the next two years (the period of transition), this restriction was dropped. Both Poltoranin and Yushenkov stressed that the decision to leave the posts was their own. Considerable restructuring, or even abolition of the FIC has been considered for a long time. -Vera Tolz COMMUNIST LEADER DISCUSSES HIS PARTY'S POLICY. The leader of the Russian Communist Party, Gennadii Zyuganov, told ITAR-TASS on 21 December that his party was open to alliances with other groups in the new parliament whose goal is to correct Russia's economic course. Zyuganov, whose party came third in the parliamentary elections, said the communists were against creating an anti-fascist front in the parliament to oppose Vladimir Zhirinovsky's faction. The communist leader said the creation of such a front at this time "could lead to civil war." He also said he did not view Zhirinovsky's party as fascist and there were some people within that party "with whom it is possible to cooperate." -Vera Tolz ZHIRINOVSKY IN MUNICH. Zhirinovsky arrived in Munich enroute to Austria, German TV (ARD) reported on 21 December. He was greeted at the airport by Gerhard Frey, the leader of a major German right-wing party. Zhirinovsky told journalists in broken German that he favors the establishment of a new Russian-European alliance for the safeguarding of peace in Europe. In an interview with Reuters, he said that Russia would need 15 years of authoritarian rule before it could embark on the path toward stability, economic growth and democracy. He also stated that if he becomes president he would purge communists and rule the country with the help of state security forces. He warned the West not to intervene in Russian politics. -Alexander Rahr DEFENSE MINISTRY WANTS TO DUMP RADIOACTIVE WASTE. Reuters and other Western press agencies reported on 20 December that the Russian Ministry of Defense has requested Russian government permission to resume the dumping of radioactive wastes at sea. According to a defense ministry spokesman, the ships holding the waste are full, and must be emptied in order to accommodate new waste. A previous round of dumping was suspended in October after strong protests from Japan. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA NEW TENSIONS IN EASTERN, SOUTHERN GEORGIA. Relations between Russian troops stationed in the east Georgian town of Telavi and members of Dzhaba Ioseliani's Mkhedrioni paramilitary have deteriorated into a "permanent bloodfeud" which has already claimed fatalities on both sides, according to ITAR-TASS of 21-December. Tensions also persist in the raions of Bolnisi and Marneuli south of Tbilisi, where the predominantly Azerbaijani population is being subjected to thefts and kidnappings. Meeting with Azerbaijani representatives from the area on 20 December, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze announced the creation of a special forces unit to stabilize the situation there, Iberia reported. -Liz Fuller TAJIK OPPOSITION WILLING TO SHARE POWER. Muhammadsharif Himmatzoda, chairman of the Tajik Islamic Renaissance Party, told an AFP correspondent in Kabul that his party now is willing to share power with the present neocommunist government of Tajikistan, the French agency reported on 21 December. Party members participated in a coalition government in 1992, but the party was banned in June 1993 by the present Tajik leadership. Throughout 1993 supporters of the Islamic Renaissance Party have been conducting raids across the Tajik-Afghan border against Tajik government troops. Himmatzoda was quoted as saying that continued fighting only plays into the hands of Russian nationalist extremists. -Bess Brown RUSSIAN NATIONALISTS MOBILIZE IN NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN. Attendees at a gathering of Russian societies in Northern Kazakhstan told journalists on 20-December that Kazakhstan's nationality policy is forcing Russians to leave the country, Russian TV reported. Spokesmen for the groups claimed that Russian speakers in Kazakhstan cannot obtain citizenship nor can they buy or sell housing, and that local Cossack groups cannot obtain official recognition. The statement concluded with an appeal to the governments of Russia and Kazakhstan to agree on dual citizenship and consider the creation of a free economic zone in Northern Kazakhstan. In fact, the oblast has been able to establish official ties with neighboring oblasts in Siberia, to the disquiet of Kazakh intellectuals. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOROSS SWORN IN AS HUNGARY'S NEW PRIME MINISTER. On 21 December parliament elected by a vote of 201 to 152 and 5 abstentions former Minister of the Interior Peter Boross as Prime Minister, MTI and Western news agencies report. In a speech to parliament prior to the vote, Boross pledged to honor the political heritage of Jozsef Antall and to carry out Antall's government program. Boross said that his government will focus on solving economic problems, giving priority to reducing the number of unemployed and encouraging the flow of foreign capital into the country. He also promised to fight corruption in a "most determined way" and to speed up the privatization of state property. The parliamentary group of the Democratic Forum elected Ferenc Kulin as its leader, replacing Imre Konya whom Boross appointed as Minister of the Interior. Konya's appointment was the only change in the government. President Arpad Goncz swore in the prime minister and the government, and appealed to parliamentary parties to cooperate during the period leading up to the 1994 national elections. -Edith Oltay SLOVAK PARLIAMENT ON HUNGARIAN AUTONOMY. On 21 December the Slovak parliament discussed the Hungarian autonomy movement in southern Slovakia and approved a resolution stating that the Komarno initiative "oversteps the legal decree" defining the establishment of non-political organizations in towns and villages. The resolution says that implementation of the plan can "split the territorial integrity of the country and disturb the coexistence of citizens and the cooperation between different nationality groups." Parliament also proclaimed that the plan contradicts the constitution and the recommendations of the Council of Europe, TASR reports. The parliament demanded that the organizers postpone the scheduled 8 January meeting, where they plan to further discuss the establishment of an autonomous region. Stefan Pasztor, Komarno mayor and leader of the group that initiated the move for autonomy, said that his association and leaders of ethnic Hungarian parties decided on 20 December that the 8 January assembly will not be postponed. The parliament is expected to continue discussions of the 1994 budget during its 22 December session. -Sharon Fisher BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS CONTINUE. Western agencies report that Geneva talks aimed at bringing peace to war-torn Bosnia ended on 21 December with no agreement on territorial settlements. According to a representative from the Bosnian Muslim side, Mirza Hajric, Bosnia's Muslims failed to gain the territory they demanded in western and eastern Bosnia. Moreover, Hajric alleged that the Croatian side involved in the negotiations had made inadequate provisions for Muslim access to the Adriatic port of Neum. Media coverage of the talks focused on meetings between Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, who between themselves had agreed on a territorial division of Bosnia, allotting one third of the land to the Muslims and roughly 17.5% to the Croats. On 22-December peace talks between Bosnia's warring factions and European Community foreign ministers will resume in Brussels. In other news, both HINA and Bosnian state radio reported on 21-December that UN aid flights to Sarajevo were temporarily suspended after an aircraft was fired on as it attempted a landing at Sarajevo airport. -Stan Markotich SOCIALISTS MOVING TOWARDS MAJORITY IN SERBIAN ELECTIONS. According to international media on 21 December, with roughly 95% of ballots counted in the Serbian parliamentary elections, the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia is moving towards a majority government, albeit a slim one. Estimates suggest that the SPS has secured 123 seats, and is set to gain enough representatives to form a government on its own. On 22-December the Belgrade daily Borba estimates that the coalition Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DEPOS) will win 44-seats, the Serbian Radical Party 41 seats, the Democratic Party 29 seats, and the Democratic Party of Serbia 7 seats. DEPOS leader Vuk Draskovic has expressed his dismay over the electoral returns and has alleged that the Socialists are culpable of electoral irregularities. Draskovic has said that opposition parties may ask for new elections in some districts. -Stan Markotich DIMITROV STAYS AS UDF LEADER. RFE/RL's Bulgarian service reported on 21 December that Filip Dimitrov was re-elected to a one-year term as chairman of the National Coordinating Council of the Bulgarian coalition Union of Democratic Forces by delegates representing the parties in the UDF. The UDF remains the leading opposition to the supposedly non-partisan government, elected with the mandate of the Bulgarian Socialist Party and the ethnic Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF). The UDF is, however, experiencing some infighting largely due to disagreements over policy questions such as how best to entice the MRF, currently aligning with the Socialists, into shifting its allegiance back to the UDF. -Stan Markotich CZECH CONSTITUTIONAL COURT UPHOLDS ANTICOMMUNIST LAW. In its first public hearing since it was established in July 1993, the Czech Constitutional Court rejected an appeal by 41 left-wing deputies of the Czech parliament to abrogate a law that declares the former Czechoslovak regime "illegitimate" and "criminal" and provides for the lifting of the statute of limitations for ideologically motivated crimes committed during the communist era. The law was passed by the Czech parliament in July 1993. CTK reports that the court ruled that the law "speaks only about moral and political responsibility of the former Communists," and does not accuse them, as a whole, of criminal behavior. The court further argued that the law is mostly declaratory and the parliament adopted it to prompt people "to think about the past." -Jiri Pehe ANTI-GOVERNMENT DEMONSTRATIONS MARK ROMANIAN UPRISING ANNIVERSARY. The fourth anniversary of the overthrow of Ceausescu's regime was marked by anti-government demonstrations in Bucharest. Several thousands gathered in the center of the town, demanding, among other things, the resignation of president Ion Iliescu and the return of former king Michael. Leaders of two organizations whose members participated in the uprising met Iliescu and asked him to resign, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 21-December. Adrian Dumitrescu, chairman of the 21 December Association, said the two groups, his own and the Students' League, asked Iliescu to resign because they hold him responsible for what they consider to be the deadlock in the country's economic, social and political life. They also urged the president to accelerate investigations into the killings during the uprising that toppled Ceausescu. According to Rompres, Iliescu said he would ask the Prosecutor General to accelerate the investigations. A spokesman for the Students' League said that police prevented about sixty students marching towards Iliescu's residence from reaching their destination. King Michael broadcast a message from his exile in Switzerland, paying homage to "all those who gave their life to win freedom" and expressing regrets that he cannot be with the people on the occasion of the anniversary and the forthcoming holidays. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN OPPOSITION WILLING TO PARTICIPATE IN GOVERNMENT. Corneliu Coposu, the leader of the National Peasant Party Christian Democratic, says his party is willing to enter the government if the ruling party gives up its monopoly, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 21 December. Coposu said the NPPCD would, however, not accept "a decorative role " in a coalition government. The NPPCD also wants the ruling Party of Social Democracy in Romania to break with the extreme nationalist parties and to grant total freedom to democratic opposition parties to organize the government departments they will head. Coposu's remarks follow a statement by Iliescu on 20 December that he would start talks with every parliamentary party to find ways out of the country's political situation. Two other opposition party leaders-Petre Roman of the Democratic Party and Horea Rusu of the Liberal Party '93 said on 20 December that they would consider entering a coalition government if they were granted real access to power. -Michael Shafir WALESA PROMOTES WACHOWSKI. Seemingly thumbing his nose at his critics, Polish President Lech Walesa on 21 December promoted his right-hand-man, Mieczyslaw Wachowski, to the post of "minister of state" in the president's office. In an open letter on the occasion of Wachowski's forty-third birthday, Walesa expressed florid gratitude to his aide. "You were always there when I needed you most," the president wrote, "your humor and wit, your friendly irony, and at times your gentle mocking worked to relieve many a tense moment." Wachowski, who previously had the rank of presidential "secretary of state," is viewed by many politicians and journalists to exert a sinister influence on Walesa. -Louisa Vinton NEW US AMBASSADOR IN WARSAW. The new US ambassador to Poland, Nicholas Rey, presented his credentials to President Lech Walesa on 21 December. A finance executive who recently served as deputy director of the Polish-American Enterprise Fund, Rey is a direct descendant of Mikolaj Rej, the 16th-century nobleman and author. Rey was born in Poland but emigrated to the US with his parents after the outbreak of World War II. -Louisa Vinton NEW US AND UKRAINIAN AMBASSADORS IN SLOVAKIA. On 16 December US Ambassador Theodore Russell and Ukrainian Ambassador Petro Danilovich Sardachuk presented their credentials to Slovak President Michal Kovac, TASR reports. Russell announced that he has three primary tasks in his new post: to manage the embassy, to provide a true picture of Slovakia to the US government and to cooperate with Slovakia. Sardachuk stressed his interest in developing bilateral contacts between his country and Slovakia. -Sharon Fisher UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT ADOPTS ECONOMIC AND MEDIA LAWS. On 21 December the Ukrainian parliament approved two more important documents aimed at improving the economic situation in Ukraine, Ukrainian media reported. They are a "State Program on the Demonopolization of the Economy and the Development of Competition" and a "Concept of the Social Protection of the Population." On 17 December parliament approved in principle a program proposed by the government to stabilize the economic situation, the details are which are still being worked out and debated, as well as a law on a state program designed to encourage foreign investment in Ukraine. On 21-December the parliament also adopted a law "On Television and Radio," which, among other things, provides for the establishment of a National Council For Television and Radio to oversee these media. Four of the eight-member Council will be appointed by parliament and four by the president. Passed against the background of continuing complaints by democrats about political censorship, the law forbids censorship and state interference in radio and TV. -Bohdan Nahaylo DEVELOPMENTS IN UKRAINE'S AIR FORCE. On 21-December UNIAN reported that Ukraine's defense ministry collegium has decided to support proposals by the Minister of Defense, Vitalii Radetsky, to suspend the process of merging the air defense forces with the air force and creating a single unit, the Air Defense Troops. This process was to be completed by the end of 1995, but opponents of the merger have argued that the state lacks the necessary funds for the unification. In line with the collegium's decision, Radetsky issued an order to reduce the command of the Air Defense Troops from 180 to 30-40 persons. These individuals will no longer be in charge of the air force and air defense forces, but will conduct a feasibility study of possible ways to combine the forces. -Ustina Markus SHUSHKEVICH IN HOSPITAL AGAIN. Various agencies reported on 21 December that the Chairman of the Belarusian Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, has been hospitalized again. This is the second time Shushkevich has gone to a hospital in less than a week. On 16 December Shushkevich had to be taken to the hospital following a parliamentary session during which he was accused of corruption. He was diagnosed as suffering from hypertension and released the following day. -Ustina Markus BELARUSIAN ASSOCIATION OF SERVICEMEN ON ZHIRINOVSKY. The Executive Council of the nationalist Belarusian Association of Servicemen (BZV) transmitted an appeal over Belarusian radio on 21 December, in which they expressed concern over the electoral success of Zhirinovsky's Liberal Democratic Party. The appeal said that Zhirinovsky's threats against almost all of the countries bordering on Russia could lead to war or international conflict which would affect Belarus. The appeal warned that Russian nuclear weapons deployed on Belarusian territory were a direct hazard and proposed that the Supreme Soviet appeal to the international community to legally proclaim the republic's neutrality. The appeal also declared that, "To survive, we need guarantees that we do not become hostages to experiments of the great Eastern neighbor." -Ustina Markus PROGRESS IN POLISH-LITHUANIAN TALKS. Concluding a one-day unofficial visit to Warsaw on 21-December, Lithuanian Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius expressed confidence that work on the long-delayed Polish-Lithuanian bilateral treaty will conclude in January 1994. He invited Polish Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak to visit Lithuania at that time, presumably for the signing ceremony. Slezevicius said that talks in Warsaw on 21 December had made a "big step" toward finding "formulations satisfactory to both sides." He refused to give details, but unofficial sources quoted by PAP report that Lithuania has agreed to accept the designation of Vilnius as "the historical capital of Lithuania" rather than insist that Poland renounce its "invasion" of the region in 1920. Slezevicius also met with Democratic Left Alliance leader Aleksander Kwasniewski, and the two "postcommunist" leaders agreed to intensify cooperation between their parties. Slezevicius was in Poland at Kwasniewski's invitation. -Louisa Vinton ESTONIA UNITES DEPARTMENTS OF MIGRATION AND CITIZENSHIP. On 21 December the Estonian government decided to transform effective 15 January the Departments of Migration and Citizenship into the single Department of Migration and Citizenship, Baltfax reports. Population Minister Peeter Olesk said that the new department would implement the law on citizenship and regulate the registration of the population. He regretted that the Russian embassy did not provide the Estonian authorities with information about the republic's permanent residents who had acquired Russian citizenship, noting that the fears that some sanctions would be imposed on them were groundless. -Saulius Girnius LAST PUBLIC STATUE OF LENIN REMOVED IN ESTONIA. On 21 December, while about 30 Russian pensioners and war veterans protested, a crane in Narva removed the last public statue of Lenin in the Baltic States, Western agencies report. Since August 1991 Narva officials had resisted pressure from the Estonian authorities to take down the three-meter statue, but after the local elections in October the new Narva council approved its removal. According to the new mayor, Raivo Murd, the statue was a purely ideological symbol and its presence raised question marks about the local government's commitment to reforms and discouraged investment. -Saulius Girnius LATVIAN-LITHUANIAN OIL TERMINAL PROJECT. On 21 December in an interview in Tiesa Lithuanian Energy Minister Algimantas Stasiukynas said that if Lithuania and Latvia fail to coordinate the main documents for building a joint oil terminal at Liepaja, Latvia by 15-January Lithuania would continue construction of its floating oil terminal at Butinge, Baltfax reports. On 17-December the prime ministers of the two states had signed a protocol of intent for the project. Lithuania would have a 51% share of the Liepaja terminal while Latvia would have a 49% share. The Liepaja terminal would cost about $50 million less than the Butinge terminal and was more likely to gain support from international financial institutions. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by John Lepingwell and Edith Oltay THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.23 December 1993 1 23 December 1993 1 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 245 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 245 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 245
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