|Experience is in the fingers and head. The heart is inexperienced. - Henry David Thoreau|
No. 242, 20 December 1993
RUSSIA FINAL REFERENDUM RESULTS. On 20 December the Central Electoral Commission reported final figures on the vote on the proposed new Russian constitution: 54-percent of Russia's 106,170,335 eligible voters took part in the referendum, and 58.4% of those voting supported the draft. The delay in reporting the final results, as well as differing reports on the number of eligible voters, had caused rumors of vote tampering to spread. Even with the highest number of reported eligible voters (107.6 million), however, turnout would have been sufficient for the referendum to be valid. -John Lepingwell CHERNOMYRDIN CRITICIZES GAIDAR AND CHUBAIS. In an interview with Trud on 18-December that was widely cited by agencies and the press, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin blamed Egor Gaidar and Anatolii Chubais by name for the disappointing showing of reformist groupings in the 12 December election. "We should face the truth and admit that many people voted against the hardships and the mistakes of the current reforms . . . The election defeat is a personal evaluation of Gaidar. The same goes for Chubais. They have a lot to think about now." Chernomyrdin ruled out any further "shock therapy," and emphasized the need for investment in industry and the restoration of output growth. -Keith Bush FORMATION OF ANTI-FASCIST FRONT. Representatives of public organizations, politicians and the intelligentsia at a meeting in Moscow on 18 December announced the creation of an anti-fascist movement and adopted several statements, including an appeal "to save Russia from fascism." Among the political organizations which participated were Russia's Choice, the Agrarian Party, and the Democratic Russia Movement, Interfax reported. They expressed concern over the apparent willingness of the presidential apparatus to look for "a consensus" with the extreme-right Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). However, although the meeting was called in response to the election victory of the LDP, Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais stressed that the movement should oppose all manifestations of fascism in Russia. -Wendy Slater COMMUNISTS COURTING INDEPENDENT DEPUTIES. Gennadii Zyuganov, leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, was quoted by Interfax on 16-December as saying that Communist deputies to the new parliament will ally with deputies from the Agrarian Party but that the Communist block is also sounding out each independent deputy individually to determine possibilities for future cooperation on specific issues. -Elizabeth Teague PARLIAMENTARY AGENDA. Meeting on 16 December, a presidential commission drew up a list of 60-proposals to be put to the new parliament when it meets in January. Mikhail Mityukov, chairman of the president's commission for legislative proposals, told RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent that priority should be given to bills on the introduction of a state of emergency and martial law, the Supreme and Constitutional Courts, public associations, rallies and demonstrations, and citizens' appeals to state bodies, among others. The commission has proposed that the new parliament set up committees on constitutional and legal reform, human rights, defense, security, and international affairs. -Elizabeth Teague ARBITRATION COURT ON CAMPAIGN ABUSES. The Arbitration Court set up by President Yeltsin to monitor conduct during the Russian election campaign issued a statement on 17-December saying violations of campaign regulations had been committed by the media and individual candidates. The statement singled out for criticism an Ostankino TV program which depicted Vladimir Zhirinovsky in a negative light on the eve of the elections. The court said the program should not have been broadcast because it insulted Zhirinovsky. In an interview with the Moscow newspaper, Kuranty, the same day, former chairman of Ostankino Vyacheslav Bragin defended the program saying it was shown to "sober up" people who might be tempted to vote for Zhirinovsky. But Bragin's critics say the tactic backfired, and instead worked to Zhirinovsky's benefit. The court's statement also said that some election candidates committed "illegal acts," Interfax reported. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN CREATES OWN SECURITY SERVICE. President Yeltsin signed a decree on the creation of a Presidential Security Service headed by Maj.-Gen. Aleksandr Korzhakov, Radio Rossia reported on 17 December. The new entity will be independent of the Main Administration for Government Protection (MAGP ) headed by Mikhail Barsukov. During 1993, the MAGP, which is the successor of the KGB Ninth Main Administration was responsible not only for the protection of Yeltsin and the central government, but also for the security of Russian regional executives. Following the October events, the Ministry of Security pressed Yeltsin to return the task of providing protection of regional authorities to the Ministry of Security. -Victor Yasmann KOZYREV SEEKS GERMAN SUPPORT. Following talks with German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel near Moscow, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev called on Germany to continue supporting Russian reforms following the strong showing of Vladimir Zhirinovsky. According to unnamed aides to Kinkel, Kozyrev expressed fears that Russia would become internationally isolated because of the surge of support for the LDP. The two foreign ministers met in Suzdal on 18-19 December to discuss the Russian elections, the NATO summit scheduled for January, the situation in the former Yugoslavia, and Ukraine's stance on nuclear weapons, AFP reported. -Suzanne Crow RUSSIA OPPOSES UN SANCTIONS FOR DPRK. Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Georgii Kunadze was quoted in a South Korean press report on 19 December as saying that Russia opposes the use of United Nations sanctions to pressure North Korea into accepting international inspections of its nuclear facilities. According to Yonhap, as reported by AFP, Kunadze said that UN sanctions applied to the DPRK could lead to war, explaining that Pyongyang has said in the past that it would take self-defensive measures against this kind of action by the United Nations. Kunadze argued that the dialogue underway between the United States and North Korea would not be aided by the discussion of sanctions. -Suzanne Crow NEW AGRICULTURAL CREDITS AND INFLATION. President Yeltsin has authorized a new package of subsidized loans to agriculture totaling $120 million, the New York Times and Reuters reported, citing Interfax, on 17 December. The inflationary implications of the measure were noted. In addition to what seems to be a relaxation of its economic austerity policy, evidence is mounting that the government will miss its year-end inflation target. After a decline from 24.5% in October to 17% in November, according to the government's Center on the Economic Business Cycle, the weekly rate of Russian inflation for the first week of December is reported (in Izvestiya 15 December) to be 2.9%. While one of the year's lowest, it is higher than that recorded for the last week of November and, if not reduced in the remaining weeks of December, will mean that the government's year-end goal for monthly inflation of 10% or less will not be achieved. -Erik Whitlock WORKERS AT NUCLEAR PLANTS DISSATISFIED. The trade union leader at Arzamas-16-told Interfax on 17-December that workers at the nuclear weapons research center are still dissatisfied, even though the government has taken steps to pay their overdue wages. He said the workers have no guarantee that wages will not be held up again in January, and that the deputy director of the center will hold talks in Moscow with the government on 20 December. During the summer, workers at Arzamas-16 and at Chelyabinsk-70, another nuclear weapons center, threatened to strike, and on 30 November they issued a joint appeal for increased state spending to finance the work of their centers. -Elizabeth Teague TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM APPROVED-MORE OR LESS. On 17 December, the presidium of the cabinet approved "in principle" the draft program for privatizing state-owned and municipal enterprises. According to ITAR-TASS, qualified approval was given only after two-and-a-half hours of heated debate. Among the critical voices raised were those of Igor Shurchkov, the chief of the Committee for Industrial Politics, and Oleg Lobov, the secretary of the Security Council. The document is to be finalized within one week and then submitted for approval by President Yeltsin. -Keith Bush ABKHAZIA-GEORGIA ROUNDUP. Talks in Moscow on a potential political settlement to the Abkhaz conflict ended on 17 December in "total failure", an aide to Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze told Interfax. The warring sides held an exchange of prisoners on 19 December as provided for under the terms of the UN-mediated Memorandum of Understanding signed in Geneva earlier this month. According to Interfax the Georgian Defense Ministry rejected as "misinformation" Abkhaz claims that 25 Georgians were killed when Georgian troops who crossed the River Inguri into Abkhaz territory on the night of 18-19 December were beaten back by Abkhaz forces. -Liz Fuller TAJIK PRIME MINISTER RESIGNS. Tajikistan's Prime Minister Abdumalik Abdullodzhanov resigned on 18-December, Russian and Western news agencies reported the following day. Abdullodzhanov, who has been active in arranging Russian aid for Tajikistan's civil war-ravaged economy, was proposed for the vacant post of Tajik ambassador to the Russian Federation. Some observers in Tajikistan suspect that the former businessman from Leninabad Oblast, one of the few government officials to retain his post after the Communist restoration in December 1992, may have been one of the targets of an accusation in the press by National Security Committee (formerly KGB) Chairman Saidamir Zukhurov that a top-ranking official is involved in corruption. -Bess Brown CIS UKRAINE, RUSSIA, US DISCUSS ARMS URANIUM. Western press agency reports that an agreement has been reached on compensating Ukraine for the value of the fissile material in the nuclear warheads on its territory appear to be premature. Ukrainian TV and radio reports, citing presidential advisor Anatolii Buteiko and Deputy Prime Minister Valerii Shmarov indicate that there were substantial discussions with a team consisting of US Deputy Defense Secretary William Perry, US Ambassador at Large Strobe Talbott, and Russian Deputy Defense Minister Georgii Mamedov on 17 December. However, no final agreements on the issue appear to have been reached, although there was apparently some progress on the topic of compensation for tactical warheads removed from Ukraine in 1992. -John Lepingwell CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BELARUS TO PREPARE FOR MONETARY UNION WITH RUSSIA. A Belarusian-Russian bilateral commission meeting in Minsk on 17 December has called on Belarus to modify, by the beginning of the new year, economic legislation relevant to achieving monetary union with Russia, ITAR-TASS reported. The commission instructed the Central Bank of Russia and the National Bank of Belarus to produce a draft agreement by 28 December, under which the two nations' currencies would be held at a stable exchange rate for a period preceding currency union, and the mechanism for subsequently replacing the Belarusian ruble with the Russian ruble. The finance ministries of the two nations have also been instructed to prepare a draft agreement on unifying state fiscal arrangements as required by the currency union. No target date for the currency union was provided. -Erik Whitlock SERBIAN ELECTION RETURNS. On 19 December citizens of Serbia went to the polls to elect representatives to the republic's 250-seat parliament. According to Reuters, early returns suggest that President Slobodan Milosevic's ruling Socialist Party of Serbia will emerge as the single largest party, but will probably fail to secure an absolute majority. Statements issued by the campaign office of coalition Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DEPOS) leader Vuk Draskovic suggest that the SPS has taken the early lead, securing about 30% of the vote. Belgrade TV reported that voter turnout was low, but officials from the electoral office estimated that some 20-25% of Serbia's eligible 7 million voters turned out during the first three hours of balloting. Official results are not expected before 21 December. -Stan Markotich KOSOVO ALBANIANS BOYCOTT SERB ELECTIONS. AFP reported on 19 December that Kosovo's more than 90% ethnic Albanian majority appears to have followed the Kosovar political leadership's call for a boycott of the Serb elections. Ibrahim Rugova, the president of the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo, has argued that the Serbs under Milosevic destroyed the legal bond between Kosovo and Serbia in 1990 when Belgrade eliminated the autonomy Kosovo enjoyed under the 1974 Yugoslav constitution. Consequently, the Albanian leadership refuses to take part in Serbian political life, insisting that Kosovar politics are now independent of the Serbian framework. The Albanians have since set up a shadow state, and it appears that at least half of the official Serb government polling stations did not even bother to open for the election. No station opened at all in Glogovac, which is 99% Albanian, and all of Kosovo's 24 seats in parliament are likely to go to Serbs. Ethnic Turks and Slavic Muslims also seem to have followed their own leaders' calls for a boycott. -Fabian Schmidt SERBS AND MONTENEGRINS RESETTLE FROM ALBANIA TO RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. More than 1,000 Serbs and Montenegrins have recently migrated from Albania to Montenegro, Borba reported on 15 December. The Yugoslav federal government and the Serbian state plan to build some 350 houses to accommodate them. According to the paper, the refugees, who fled "over the walls of the Italian, French, German and Greek embassies," refused to live together with Albanians in Yugoslavia, because "they already experienced such a life in Albania." The situation of the tiny Serb minority in Albania was the subject of a conference in Sremski Karlovci on 26 September, when the rump Yugoslav Minister for Human Rights and Minorities, Margit Savovic, claimed that "Tirana has recognized only now that there are Serbs in Albania." -Fabian Schmidt HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER LAID TO FINAL REST. More than 200,000 people filed past the coffin of Jozsef Antall as it lay in state in parliament on 17 December, and thousands more lined the streets as Antall's body was carried to the Budapest Kerepesi cemetery on 18-December, MTI and Western news agencies report. Leaders from Eastern and Western Europe paid tribute to Antall, including US Vice President Albert Gore, Britain's former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Polish President Lech Walesa, Israel's Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, and Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus. Foreign leaders and Hungarian speakers praised Antall for leading the most stable post-communist government in the region, and for his efforts to integrate Hungary into European economic and political structures. National Assembly Chairman Gyorgy Szabad told the crowd of mourners that "What Jozsef Antall has sown, the nation may harvest." The writer Andras Suto, an ethnic Hungarian from Romania, praised Antall for supporting the rights of ethnic Hungarians in neighboring countries pointing out that "no one who succeeds him [Antall] can surpass him in what he did for the Hungarian community beyond the country's borders." President Arpad Goncz plans to nominate caretaker prime minister and interior minister Peter Boross as Antall's successor on 20-December. -Edith Oltay KRAVCHUK ATTENDS ANTALL'S FUNERAL, MEETS WITH GORE. Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk attended the funeral of Antall, Ukrainian media reported on 18 December. While in Budapest he met with US Vice President Gore, the president of Hungary and the president and prime minister of Slovakia. According to Ukrainian media, improving bilateral economic relations and the issue of Ukraine's nuclear disarmament were the main topics of Kravchuk's discussions with Gore. -Bohdan Nahaylo SLOVAK PRESIDENT HOLDS MEETINGS ON HUNGARIAN ISSUE. On 17 December Michal Kovac met with a delegation of ethnic Hungarian mayors from the Association of Zitny Ostrov Towns and Villages, which recently demanded self-rule for southern Slovakia. The purpose of the meeting was to explain to Kovac the goals of the association. Komarno mayor Stefan Pasztor, who heads the group, said he appreciated Kovac's willingness to attend, noting that he was "the first state official to officially notice the existence of their association," TASR reports. Presidential spokesman Anton Bodis later told journalists that Kovac said the group's complaints are "justified" since the government has never paid attention to their demands. The president asked the group to make two concessions-to forget the idea of establishing a Hungarian province in Slovakia and to postpone the meeting scheduled for 8-January to further discuss autonomy. On 18 December Kovac held a meeting with his Hungarian counterpart Arpad Goncz in Budapest to discuss minority rights, and on 19-December Kovac met with deputies from Slovakia's parliamentary parties to discuss modifications in minority legislation. Meanwhile, during a 18 and 19 December visit to Bratislava, Hungarian Socialist Party Chairman Gyula Horn told TASR that he "can see problems in bilateral relations between Slovakia and Hungary." Horn said his party would like to conclude a basic treaty between the two countries stating that each country will "secure all rights for national minorities," including educational and cultural autonomy and the right to self-administration. -Sharon Fisher WESTERN GROUP BUYS STAKES IN HUNGARIAN MATAV. Hungary's Minister for Transportation and Telecommunications Gyorgy Schamschula told a press conference on 19-December that the Hungarian government has approved a German-US group's bid to pay $875 million for a stake in MATAV, Hungary's state telecommunications company, MTI and Western news agencies report. MTI described the purchase by Deutsche Bundespost Telekom and the Ameritech corporation of a 30% stake in MATAV as the biggest privatization deal in Eastern Europe to date. According to the Hungarian Minister in charge of privatization Tamas Szabo, the deal represents more than half of the annual investment capital flow into Hungary. Around $ 400 million of the revenue will remain with MATAV via a capital increase that will help finance modernizing Hungary's outdated telephone system and ensure that every village is tied into the international communications network by 1996. -Edith Oltay CZECH MINISTER MEETS VW CHIEF. On 17 December, Czech Industry and Trade Minister Vladimir Dlouhy met with the Chairman of Volkswagen's Board of Directors, Ferdinand Piech, in the Bavarian town of Ingolstadt to discuss VW's intention to cut by almost half its originally planned 7 billion mark investment in the Czech automaker Skoda. Dlouhy told journalists after the meeting that he understands VW's decision in view of the difficult economic situation but that even with smaller investment VW can fulfill its pledge to modernize and diversify Skoda's production in the Czech Republic. Piech said that the Skoda plant in Mlada Boleslav is the only one in Europe which can compete with the Japanese in cost terms and that VW will therefore use the plant "in excess." According to Dlouhy, the 1991 agreement between the Czech government and VW will have to be renegotiated in light of VW's decision. -Jiri Pehe RUSSIAN INTELLIGENCE OPERATES IN CZECH REPUBLIC. In an interview with CTK on 17 December, a spokesman for Russia's intelligence service, Yuri Kobaladze said that Russian intelligence officers continue to operate in the Czech Republic. According to Kobaladze, the officers use only civilized methods in gathering information. He said that blackmail and bribery are not used and that Russia has not been working to change the Czech government. He revealed that information is sometimes purchased from volunteers, and that collaborators are sometimes recruited from among local people. Kobaladze stressed that "everything is voluntary" and no pressure or compromising materials are used. -Jiri Pehe POLISH SEJM ABOLISHES EXCESS WAGES TAX. The Sejm voted on 17 December to abolish the controversial "tax on excess wages" [popiwek] as of 1 April 1994, PAP reports. Yielding to government pleas, the Sejm rejected demands from trade unionist deputies to lift the tax immediately and agreed to the delay in order to give the government time to propose an alternative method to limit wage growth. The abolition of the tax was the first piece of legislation in the new Sejm proposed by a group of deputies; it threatened to open a rift between the "liberals" and the "socialists" in the ruling Democratic Left Alliance and Polish Peasant Party. Finance Minister Marek Borowski argued that the immediate removal of the tax would prompt a new surge of inflation. Despite the three months' respite granted the government, it is not clear what alternative wage-control method it will propose, nor whether this proposal will win the Sejm's approval. Several deputies argued during the debate that doing away with the tax without anything prepared to replace it was like "leaping into an empty swimming pool." -Louisa Vinton ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT NARROWLY SURVIVES NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE. Nicolae Vacaroiu's minority left-wing government on 17 December narrowly survived the third no-confidence vote since it came to office a year ago. The stormy parliamentary session ended with a 236 to 223 vote against the motion, which had been introduced by the centrist Democratic Convention and the Democratic Party-National Salvation Front. In a key address broadcast by Radio Bucharest, Vacaroiu defended his cabinet against accusations that it has stalled the reform process and created economic chaos in Romania. He tried to blame many of the country's economic problems, including rampant inflation and unemployment, on the previous two post-communist governments. The vote's narrow margin exposed a recent erosion of support from the traditional allies of the ruling Party of Social Democracy of Romania, and especially from the ultra-nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity. In a related development, the PRNU announced on 19 December the setting up of a close alliance with the Democratic Agrarian Party, another group known for having supported the PSDR in the past. The leaders of the two parties criticized the government, suggesting that the newly created National Unity Bloc will call another motion of no-confidence in February. Mircea Druc, the chairman of the Party of National Reunification, which advocates Romania's unification with the Republic of Moldova, said that his party was contemplating the idea of joining the bloc. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN THE USA. Teodor Melescanu paid three-day official visit to the United States. On 16 December he met with US Secretary of State Warren Christopher and other senior US officials. Speaking to reporters, Melescanu pledged that Romania will respect CSCE standards on human rights and combat extreme nationalism and intolerance. At a conference staged by the Center for Strategic and International Studies on the same day, the Romanian foreign minister reiterated his country's interest in joining NATO, citing the outcome of the recent Russian elections as a strong argument in favor of NATO membership. Melescanu signed a bilateral agreement on boosting and protecting investments. In an interview with Radio Bucharest on 19 December, Melescanu described the visit as "probably the most important action" of the Romanian diplomacy in 1993. -Dan Ionescu CSCE MEDIATORS URGE TIRASPOL TO ALLOW NEW TRIAL FOR ILASCU. A four-member team of CSCE mediators met with Tiraspol authorities on 17 December, AFP reported, and urged that the pro-Romanian Moldovan Popular Front activist Ilie Ilascu, whom a Tiraspol court recently sentenced to death in the case of the "Tiraspol Six" for "terrorism," be given a new trial (See RFE/RL Daily Report, no.238). There has been international concern about the fairness and legitimacy of the trial of the "Tiraspol Six" in the self-proclaimed Dniester Republic. -Bohdan Nahaylo BALTIC PRIME MINISTERS MEET IN VILNIUS. On 17-December Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian Prime Ministers Mart Laar, Valdis Birkavs, and Adolfas Slezevicius discussed the recent Russian elections and efforts to strengthen economic, political, and military cooperation with NATO and the European Union, BNS reports. They concluded a memorandum on regulating consular relations and decided to introduce stricter control over their eastern borders while simplifying border regulations among themselves. Latvia and Lithuania signed an agreement on avoiding double taxation as well as a protocol of intentions on forming a joint company for constructing an oil terminal in Liepaja, Latvia, and discussed their sea borders. Lithuania retained the right to build an oil terminal at Butinge. -Saulius Girnius LITHUANIAN PARLIAMENTARY LEADER IN POLAND. During a two-day visit to Warsaw on 16-17-December, Lithuanian parliamentary chairman Ceslovas Jursenas met with Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak and other government and parliamentary officials, PAP reports. Jursenas predicted that the much-delayed bilateral treaty on friendship and cooperation will be signed in the first weeks of 1994 but stressed his country's demand for an explicit guarantee of Lithuania's "territorial integrity" and its control over Vilnius. Progress on the treaty has been delayed in the past by Lithuania's demand for a formal condemnation of the "invasion" of Vilnius by Polish troops in 1920. During an address to the Polish Sejm on 17-December, Jursenas urged the two nations to look to the future rather than to dramatize the conflicts of the past. Lithuania's Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius is scheduled to make a working visit to Poland on 21 December. -Louisa Vinton SAJUDIS HOLDS 4TH CONGRESS. On 18 December the 4th Congress of Sajudis, attended by about 500-delegates, decided to transform itself from a public political movement into a public organization, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reported on 19 September. Sajudis adopted a new program and charter, and elected 56year old assistant professor of history at the Vilnius Pedagogical University Romas Batura as chairman of its 15member council. The charter says that members of other political and public organizations can join Sajudis, but excludes members of the ruling Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party and persons who did not end their ties with the Communist Party and KGB after Lithuanian independence was restored. Sajudis has about 12,000 members, many of whom joined the Homeland Union (Conservatives of Lithuania) that was founded on 1 May 1993. -Saulius Girnius 6TH CONGRESS OF POPULAR FRONT OF LATVIA. On 18 December in Riga the extraordinary 6th Congress of the Popular Front of Latvia decided not to disband or become a political party, Diena reports. The front that had played such an important role in achieving Latvia's independence failed to have any of its candidates elected to the parliament. Front chairman Uldis Augstkalns said that the front should together with the Movement for Latvia's National Independence and other parties unite the country's conservative forces for the local government elections. The Congress expressed its opposition to the policies of the current ruling coalition of Latvia's Way and the Farmers' Union. -Saulius Girnius SHUSHKEVICH BACK FROM HOSPITAL. The Belarusian Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, was discharged from the hospital and is home in satisfactory condition, Reuters and Interfax reported on 17 December. Shushkevich was rushed to the hospital on 16 December, and diagnosed as suffering from hypertension after a parliamentary session during which he was accused of corruption by the head of a committee investigating businesses run by central and local authorities, Aleksandr Lukashenka. Shushkevich had denied the charges. -Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by John Lepingwell and Edith Oltay THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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