|A man should never be ashamed to own he has been in the wrong, which is but saying, in other words, that he is wiser today than he was yesterday. - Jonathan Swift|
No. 239, 15 December 1993
RUSSIA ZHIRINOVSKY'S PRESS CONFERENCE. At a press conference on 14 December, Vladimir Zhirinovsky tried to soften some of his pre-election statements, in what journalists characterized as his attempt "to look less frightening" to the world. Whereas Zhirinovsky's party electoral platform said the party "stands for the restoration of the Russian state in the borders of the former USSR," at the press conference Zhirinovsky stated that he was "decisively against any territorial expansion of Russia." He added, however, that he believed that in the next few years the former Soviet republics would beg Russia to take them into the Russian state. The media quoted the nationalist leader as denying that he was promoting anti-Semitism. Zhirinovsky added, however, that he agreed with Russian voters who would like to see "good Russian faces speaking good Russian" on national television screens. -Vera Tolz ZHIRINOVSKY HOPES TO BECOME NEXT RUSSIAN PRESIDENT. At the press conference Zhirinovsky said he expected to win the next presidential elections regardless of whether they were held in June 1994 or in 1996. He also said he expected to meet President Boris Yeltsin in the next few days to discuss new government appointments. Zhirinovsky introduced members of his party's "shadow cabinet of ministers." Yeltsin's spokesman told RFE/RL that the president was not planning any meeting with Zhirinovsky and any such meeting would have to be on Zhirinovsky's initiative. -Vera Tolz GAINS FOR RUSSIA'S CHOICE IN EARLY RESULTS FOR CONSTITUENCY SEATS. The first returns for the State Duma's single-mandate constituency seats, numbering half the chamber's 450 seats, show a slight gain for Russia's Choice. The Central Electoral Commission said on 14 December that preliminary results from 83-constituencies give Russia's Choice 11 seats and the Liberal Democrats four. The Agrarian Party has won eight seats and the Communists three. The majority of seats counted so far, however, have been won by candidates terming themselves "independents." The results were reported by Reuters. An RFE/RL correspondent reported that the President's office claimed a decline in support for Zhirinovsky in the votes for party lists in the Western regions of Russia, where his party was said to be gaining some 16% of the vote. -Wendy Slater PRESIDENTIAL ADVISOR ASSESSES ELECTIONS. In an interview with ITAR-TASS on 14-December, Sergei Stankevich, the political advisor to President Yeltsin, predicted serious conflict within and outside the new parliament. The new constitution, however, would go some way to containing this conflict. Stankevich criticized the reformist forces for complacency, saying that they had relied excessively on the results of the April referendum and failed to understand that popular support for them could be undermined; they had also underestimated "the scope of discontent in society." The democratic forces should now consolidate their actions and adopt a two-year joint program. (The next parliamentary elections are due in two years' time.) Stankevich, unlike another Yeltsin ally Gennadii Burbulis, praised the President for not having supported any political party in the campaign. He also rejected any political alliance with Zhirinovsky, whilst noting that some contact with him was inevitable. -Wendy Slater YAVLINSKY ON ALLIANCE WITH RUSSIA'S CHOICE. Grigorii Yavlinsky, the reform economist whose bloc has taken sixth place in the parliamentary elections according to preliminary results, rejected the claim by Egor Gaidar of Russia's Choice that the reformist forces' defeat by Zhirinovsky and the Communists was caused by fragmentation in the reformist camp. In remarks to Interfax on 14 December, he blamed the rise of nationalism and communism on the economic crisis, two years of the government's "mishandling of the economy," and the crushing of the parliamentary opposition in October. Had his party merged with Russia's Choice before the elections, he said, the electorate would not even have voted, because it rejected the government's economic policy, which is associated with Russia's Choice. Yavlinsky described Gaidar's call to form a broad "anti-fascist coalition" in the new parliament as "sensible," however. -Wendy Slater LIBERAL RUSSIAN PRESS ON ZHIRINOVSKY, NEW CONSTITUTION. The liberal Russian press expressed shock and dismay over the apparent victory of extreme nationalists in the parliamentary elections. Most liberal newspapers did not hesitate to brand Vladimir Zhirinovsky a fascist. "Country, what have you chosen?" asked Izvestiya on 14 December, drawing a parallel between Zhirinovsky's rise and that of Hitler in Weimar Germany. Views in the liberal press on the new constitution, which had been heavily criticized on the eve of the constitutional referendum for giving too extensive powers to the president, have divided. Otto Latsis, a political analyst for Izvestiya, said on 14-December that the new constitution, by giving most of the decision-making power to Yeltsin, was offering remarkable safeguards against what might be undertaken by extreme nationalists in the new parliament. The independent newspaper, Segodnya, on the contrary, posed the question "The Constitution is Passed, Will Zhirinovsky Use It? "referring to Zhirinovsky's statements that he would be Russia's next president. -Vera Tolz COMMUNIST PARTY ON ELECTION RESULTS. The leaders of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, still holding third place in the election results, said at a news conference on 14 December reported by Russian agencies, that they expect to receive 70-80 seats in the 450-seat State Duma. Party leader Gennadii Zyuganov said that the Communists will create a center-left coalition in parliament and will propose its candidate for the chairmanship of the State Duma. He evaded answering directly the question of cooperation with Zhirinovsky's Liberal Democratic Party, saying that the communists would cooperate with all forces which shared their ideas. He rejected extreme nationalism and expansionism, however. Responding to Gaidar's invitation to form an anti-fascist front, Zyuganov said that the government should introduce changes to its economic policy instead of forming blocs. In an interview with Sovetskaya Rossiya of 14 December, Zyuganov emphasized this point, and called for the formation of a government of national confidence. -Wendy Slater GORE ARRIVES IN MOSCOW. US Vice President Albert Gore arrived in Moscow on 14-December and chose to avoid making extensive comments on the results of the Russian election. Western reports said the Clinton administration has decided to take a cautious approach to the surprisingly strong showing by Zhirinovsky's Liberal Democratic Party. A State Department spokesman on 14 December did, however, note that Zhirinovsky's views are "anathema to the principles of democracy." While in Moscow, Gore is to meet with Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin to discuss joint Russian-US space programs. Gore's first visit was to the Russian space flight control center. -John Lepingwell RUSSIA'S CHOICE TO BECOME POLITICAL PARTY. Gennadii Burbulis, who headed the Russia's Choice bloc electoral campaign, announced that the movement's executive committee had voted to preserve Russia's Choice as a political movement and to establish a political party based on it. In remarks to the Interfax news agency reported on 14 December, Burbulis also said that the movement's leadership had also discussed its future relations with the President and the Russian government (many members of which belong to Russia's Choice) "under conditions which demand the maximum consolidation of all democratic and reformist forces." -Wendy Slater RUSSIA'S CHOICE PERFORMS WELL IN MOSCOW DUMA ELECTIONS. According to the preliminary results, 19 of the 35 seats in the Moscow city duma have been won by candidates from the pro-reform Russia's Choice bloc, ITAR-TASS reported on 14 December. (The elections to the city duma were held on 12-December, simultaneously with the nation-wide parliamentary elections.) Two seats in the duma have been won by other reformist and centrist blocs. The remaining seats were won by independent candidates. -Vera Tolz SEVERAL REPUBLICS FAIL TO ENDORSE CONSTITUTION. At least nine republics either did not hold the referendum on the constitution (Chechnya), had a turnout that was too low to validate the referendum (Tatarstan, Komi, Khakassia, and Udmurtia) or voted against it (Bashkortostan, Chuvashia, Dagestan, and Tuva), Russian media reported on 13-14 December. In Dagestan only 20 percent of a turnout of over 60 percent (or little over 12 percent of registered voters) voted in favor of the draft, ITAR-TASS reported on 14 December. -Ann Sheehy REPUBLIC LEADERS ELECTED TO FEDERATION COUNCIL. The results published so far show that in at least ten of the 19 republics where elections to the Federation Council were held, the president of the republic (Ingushetia, Kalmykia, and Sakha) or the speaker of the parliament where there is no president (Altai, Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Dagestan, Karelia, Komi, and North Ossetia) were elected to the Federation Council. The Kalmyk President Kirsan Ilyumzhinov received 76 percent of the votes in a turnout of 60-percent, which is many more votes than when he was elected president in April 1993, Interfax reported on 14-December. In Bashkortostan, Karelia, and North Ossetia the prime minister was also elected to the Council. In Chuvashia, however, the speaker Eduard Kubarev failed to gain election, and got a mere 3.7 percent in the vote for republican president. The limited data available on the support for political parties in the republics would indicate that Zhirinovsky gained a lower share of the vote than elsewhere. This could have been expected in view of his strong Russian nationalist views. -Ann Sheehy NORTH OSSETIAN REACTION TO YELTSIN'S DECREE ON INGUSH REFUGEES. North Ossetian speaker Akhsarbek Galazov told a joint session of the presidium of the parliament, the council of ministers, and the security council of North Ossetia on 14 December that he had telephoned Yeltsin to warn him that to force the process of the return of Ingush refugees to the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia, as envisaged in Yeltsin's decree of 13 December, could lead to a new tragedy, ITAR-TASS reported. Galazov later appeared on local television where he read out the text of a joint appeal to Yeltsin from the presidiums of the parliament and council of ministers, which said that Yeltsin's decree had been received with anxiety and had led to protest meetings in Prigorodnyi raion, and warned that using force to resettle the refugees could lead to bloodshed -Ann Sheehy CIS DOUBTS RAISED ABOUT RUSSIAN SPACE CAPABILITY. According to an article in the Los Angeles Times of 15 December, the Chairman of the House Space Science and Technology Committee, Representative George Brown and a group of experts visited the Baikonur launch site in Kazakhstan last week to assess its capability to support joint US-Russian space projects. The group reportedly found that the support infrastructure at the base was inadequate, with many buildings not even heated. The article states that Brown expressed misgivings over the proposed joint US-Russian space station, both because of its overall cost and the difficulties of ensuring Russian participation. He noted that up to $100 million might have to be invested in the Baikonur site to bring its facilities up to Western standards. -John Lepingwell CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERIOUS FIGHTING IN SARAJEVO. International media report on 14 December that fighting, the heaviest in several weeks, has flared again in and around the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo. The reports say at least ten people have died so far and up to twenty have been wounded. It is believed that most of the dead and wounded are the victims of Serbian artillery. Reports of fighting in other areas of Bosnia also continue to circulate. In other developments, Bosnian Croat forces have freed several hundred Bosnian Muslim prisoners from a camp by Mostar, and pledged to release the remaining several thousand prisoners soon. On 14-December the Sarajevo daily Oslobodjenje (Liberation) was awarded the Sakharov Prize, an international human rights award. According to AFP, Zlatcko Dizdarevic, the paper's editor, claimed the prize and used the opportunity to criticize Western nations for allegedly supporting the reprehensible policy of partitioning Bosnia. -Stan Markotich KRAJINA ELECTION RETURNS. On 14 December Borba summed up the state of the ballot counting in the recent elections held in the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina with the headline "Babic Ahead of Martic." Elections in the RSK, which was formed out of Croatian territory in 1991 as rebel Serbs objected to Croatian independence, were held on 12 December for an 84-seat parliament and a president. Milan Babic and Milan Martic, along with at least five other contenders, are vying for the presidency and both are regarded by the Croatian state media and the Croatian government as extremists and harmful Serbian nationalists. Croatian media say both men are bent on gaining independence for the RSK, which lacks international recognition, and are unwilling to compromise or negotiate with Zagreb. On 14-December Reuters notes that Martic is the candidate who has received the backing and blessing of Serbia's president, Slobodan Milosevic. The ballot counting, in an election which has been denounced as illegal by Zagreb authories, may continue for several more days. -Stan Markotich WILL MILOSEVIC'S PARTY FORM A COALITION? AFP ON 15 DECEMBER SAYS THE SOCIALIST PARTY OF SERBIA (SPS), HEADED BY PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC MAY HAVE TO FORM A PARLIAMENTARY COALITION WITH SEVERAL OTHER PARTIES AFTER THE 19 DECEMBER ELECTIONS. AFP cites recent polling data which suggest that only 25.5% of committed voters will support the Socialists. The news agency speculates that the Socialists may form a minority government with Zoran Djindjic's Democratic Party, supported by about 6% of voters, and notes that the SPS will receive backing from Zeljko Raznjatovic, the extremist nationalist leader of the Serbian Unity Party. -Stan Markotich CZECH PRIME MINISTER ON RUSSIAN ELECTIONS. Speaking on Czech Radio on 14-December, Premier Vaclav Klaus said that the Russian election results are by no means encouraging but, at the same time, "it would not be good to sound alarm." Klaus argued that the period of transformation in Russia will be much longer than in the Czech Republic. He said that-in the interest of Russian citizens and all of Russia's neighbors-the period of transformation must be as peaceful as possible. President Vaclav Havel said on 13 December that he would comment on the Russian elections when the results are more complete. -Jiri Pehe MECIAR ON RUSSIAN ELECTIONS. In a 14 December address on Slovak Television, Premier Vladimir Meciar said Russia will be threatened with fascism if democratic forces fail to win the next presidential elections and that the current Russian president and government will require much support to counterbalance Zhirinovsky. -Sharon Fisher POLAND AGHAST AT RUSSIAN ELECTIONS. The mood in Poland in the wake of the Russian elections was one of restrained horror. Gazeta Wyborcza on 14-December quoted Zhirinovsky's statement that "Germany and Russia should again share a common border," while Polish TV reported on a recent interview with a German neo-Nazi paper in which Zhirinovsky called for a renewal of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. While some Polish observers argued hopefully that the Russian election results will encourage the more rapid incorporation of the Eastern European democracies into Western security structures, many privately expressed deepened pessimism about Poland's chances for NATO membership. Warsaw seems to sense that the West will now become even more hesitant to extend security guarantees, in keeping with the perceived need to buttress Yeltsin against right-wing foes. In an interview with CBS television on 14 December, President Lech Walesa nonetheless urged the West not to allow Russia to assume the role of the "the world's policeman" and to resist "blackmail" on the question of expanding NATO. The Polish government is withholding comment until the final election results are made public, PAP reports. -Louisa Vinton OLECHOWSKI PRESSES FOR SECURITY COMMITMENT. Opening a three-day official visit to Washington on 14 December, Polish Foreign Minister Andrzej Olechowski said that the news from Russia is "undeniably bad." Olechowski nonetheless urged circumspection until the final results are in. During a meeting with US Secretary of State Warren Christopher on 14-December, Olechowski pressed for assurance that the "partnership for peace" proposal is something more than a hollow substitute for security guarantees. Excluding Poland from NATO, Olechowski said, "would be an invitation to rivalry or collusion between our two mighty neighbors," Western agencies report. Despite an assurance from Christopher that NATO does not rule out admitting new members in the future, Olechowski told reporters that an explicit timetable and clear criteria for membership are essential immediately for the Visegrad countries. Before leaving for the US, Olechowski warned in a 12 December New York Times interview that the West is "too optimistic about Russia" and is "playing into Russia's hands by not seeing the signals of imperial thinking." -Louisa Vinton MORE ON UKRAINIAN REACTION TO RUSSIAN ELECTION RESULTS. Ukrainian leaders have continued to express alarm over the stunning election success of the Russian chauvinist politician Vladimir Zhirinovsky, Ukrainian media report. President Leonid Kravchuk emphasized at a press conference on 14 December that what was so shocking was that "so many people" had voted for Zhirinovsky's platform "who favors restoring the tsarist empire." He said that he hoped that President Yeltsin would not allow an imperial policy of "revanchism" with respect to the non-Russian states that were formerly part of the Soviet empire to become state policy for this would have "cataclysmic" consequences for Europe and the world. The head of the parliamentary foreign affairs commission, Dmytro Pavlychko, said the election results had confirmed that Ukraine had been right to hold on to part of the nuclear arsenal on its territory and that he hoped that the West would now show more understanding for Ukraine's security concerns and approach to nuclear disarmament. Meanwhile, more radical deputies, such as Ihor Derkach and Stepan Khmara, have begun urging that Ukraine now secure "operational control" over the nuclear weapons on its territory. -Bohdan Nahaylo HAVEL UNDER ATTACK FROM FORMER DISSIDENTS. Czech and international media report that Czech President Havel and a former fellow Charter 77 signatory, Petr Cibulka, clashed in court on 14 December over the issue of using communist secret police files to identify alleged police collaborators. Havel was summoned to appear in court because Cibulka and another former dissident, Lubos Vydra, both of whom Havel had publicly condemned for publishing lists of alleged secret police collaborators and thus causing human tragedies, filed a libel suit against him. In his court speech, Havel condemned witch hunts for communist collaborators, saying that he had evidence that people attempted suicide after their names appeared on the unofficial lists of some 140,000 alleged collaborators. Havel said that the lists were of "thoroughly dubious origin," riddled with mistakes and were probably designed by the former secret police to undermine any future democracy. "I am ashamed that your names once appeared under Charter 77," Havel told Cibulka and Vydra. Cibulka, in turn, called Havel "a pig" and "a brute." It is not know whether Havel plans to press defamation charges. -Jiri Pehe SLOVAKIA'S ETHNIC HUNGARIANS DEMAND AUTONOMY. On 14 December the Slovak daily Republika published a translation of a document which was approved by ethnic Hungarians on 6 December in Komarno, calling for self-administration in southern Slovakia. The document, entitled "The Declaration of the Association of Towns and Villages of Zitny Ostrov," calls for another session on 8 January 1994 to further discuss the establishment of "a province with special status and an independent self-government and public administration." In a 14 December press conference of the ethnic Hungarian Coexistence Movement, the group said it was taking such actions because the Slovak cabinet "has no interest in listening to the opinions of the representatives of the Hungarian minority." The party further said that if Slovakia will be divided into regional administrative zones, "then one must belong to the Hungarian minority." In a press conference of the Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement, Chairman Pal Csaky complained that the parliament has yet to deal with the minority legislation presented by his party earlier this year. The declaration caused an uproar among Slovak politicians. Slovak National Party Chairman Ludovit Cernak held a special meeting with President Michal Kovac to discuss the declaration, which he called unconstitutional. Cernak also said "some Hungarian parties provoke friction because they want to test the resistance of the Slovak independent state." -Sharon Fisher OLSZEWSKI OUSTED AS PARTY CHAIRMAN. Former Polish Prime Minister Jan Olszewski failed to win reelection as chairman of his own party, the Movement for the Republic (RdR), at its second congress on 12-December, PAP reports. Olszewski was defeated 106-100, by Romuald Szeremietiew, a former deputy defense minister. Olszewski and his supporters stormed out after the vote, which reflected support for cooperation with the coalition recently formed by three other leading "center-right" parties, rather than the confrontational stance advocated by Olszewski. Szeremietiew also argued that "radical anticommunism will not win us support." The RdR, founded by Olszewski after his government fell in June 1992, failed to win any seats in the recent elections. -Louisa Vinton SEKULA NAMED POLISH CUSTOMS CHIEF. Ireneusz Sekula, a former deputy prime minister for economic matters in the communist government headed by Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski, was named to head the Main Customs Office on 11 December. Sekula, a veteran communist functionary, has since 1990 served as chairman of the board of Polnippon, a Polish-Japanese joint venture. He belongs to the Democratic Left Alliance's "liberal," pro-business wing. Sekula told PAP on 13-December that he favors more liberal customs duties rather than "political methods" as the best means to fight smuggling. -Louisa Vinton ROMANIAN SENATE VOTES ON INFORMERS. On 13-December the Senate approved by a vote of 104 to 2 with two abstentions a proposal that could pave the way for exposing communist-era securitate informers. Radio Bucharest says the motion, which calls for barring those who served the political police as informers between 1945-1989 from public service, was presented to parliament by Constantin-Ticu Dumitrescu, a Senator for the National Peasant Party Christian Democratic and chairman of the Association of Former Political Prisoners in Romania. Before becoming law, the proposal has to be adopted by the Chamber of Deputies, parliament's lower house. Previous efforts to expose securitate members and collaborators have been blocked by the ruling left-nationalist coalition. -Dan Ionescu CORRUPTION CHARGED IN BELARUSIAN GOVERNMENT. At a parliamentary session on 14 December Aleksandr Lukashenka, head of a provisional parliamentary commission checking the operations of businesses run by central and local governmental bodies, blasted the finance minister, the head of the State Committee on Industry, the head of the National Bank and other senior officials, charging them with corruption, Radiofakt and Interfax reported. Among other allegations, Lukashenka charged that money was funneled from the national stabilization fund into private companies. He alleged that the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, and Prime Minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, were aware of many of these offenses. Lukashenka said his commission had concluded that businesses run by governmental bodies were generally engaged in criminal activities. Since the beginning of the year the Belorusian KGB sent the government over 200 reports of offenses in foreign trade and privatization, but parliament's leaders have not investigated a single case. -Ustina Markus BELARUS TO FREE ENERGY PRICES. A representative of the Committee for Foreign Relations, Uladzimir Radkevich, announced that it has been decided to completely free the price of gas and oil used internally in Belarus and allow it to reach the market level, Radiofakt reported on 14 December. He said this was the only way in which the republic would be able to pay Russia for its energy. Radkevich added that while Russia has a monopoly on Belarus's energy supplies the republic is looking for alternative suppliers. -Ustina Markus UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT PRESENTS ECONOMIC PROGRAM. On 14 December, the Ukrainian government presented parliament with a program for overcoming the economic crisis and its provisions are being debated, Ukrainian media reported. The program does not provide for the introduction of a state of emergency as had been speculated in the press earlier. According to the Minister of Economy, Roman Shpek, the government wants to stabilize the economy by privatizing state owned firms and forcing those remaining in state hands to be profitable. Most state firms will have to buy oil and gas themselves next year. Other measures to limit inflation include forbidding emissionary credits which have bloated the money supply and driven inflation to 70% per month. -Ustina Markus and Bohdan Nahaylo MEETING OF BALTIC PRESIDENTS. On 15 December at the invitation of Estonian President Lennart Meri his Latvian and Lithuanian counterparts Guntis Ulmania and Algirdas Brazauskas will take part at the opening of the Baltic Institute for Strategic and International Studies, BNS reported on 14 December. They will meet separately to discuss the recent Russian elections, greater Baltic economic, political, and security cooperation, and relations with NATO. The presidents will attend the opening session of the institute's conference on 16 December. -Saulius Girnius LATVIAN CITIZENSHIP AND IMMIGRATION DEPARTMENT HEAD DISMISSED. On 14-December the Latvian government dismissed Maris Plavnieks for gross breaches of law, Baltfax reports. A report in November by "Helsinki Watch" had pointed to gross violations of human rights of Latvian permanent residents who were not citizens. A parliamentary human rights committee, appointed to investigate the charges that Plavnieks had refused to register several thousand individuals who were entitled to registration and repeatedly ignored court decisions declaring his actions unlawful, determined that all the accusations were grounded. The committee also said that the department had illegally used state funds to pay for insurance policies for its leaders. -Saulius Girnius ESTONIAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATS PROPOSE TAX HIKES. On 12 December the annual meeting of the Estonian Social Democratic Party suggested that taxes should be raised to provide for larger pensions, BNS reported on 13 December. The options proposed were raising the valued-added tax from 18% to 20%, introducing an additional 3-4% social welfare tax on employees, or hiking the employer-paid social welfare tax from 20% to 21.5% and introducing an employee social welfare tax of 2-3%. The party proposed a gradual increase in the monthly child benefits especially after the birth of a third child. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Liz Fuller and Edith Oltay THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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