|Greatness lies not in being strong, but in the right use of strength. - Henry Ward Beecher|
No. 238, 14 December 1993
RUSSIA LATEST UNOFFICIAL PRELIMINARY RESULTS. On the morning of 14 December, the Central Electoral Commission provided the following preliminary results based on returns from 77 out of 89 regions, Reuters reported. Eight electoral associations had passed the 5% threshhold. The Liberal Democratic Party was leading with 24%, followed by Russia's Choice (15%); Communist Party (11%); Women of Russia (8.7%); Agrarian Party (8%); Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin Bloc (7%); Party of Russian Unity and Accord (5.7%); and the Democratic Party of Russia (5.5%) -Keith Bush ZHIRINOVSKY ELABORATES ON HIS PLATFORM . . . Vladimir Zhirinovsky told RFE/RL on 13 December that he hoped his party would not find itself in confrontation with any other bloc in the new parliament. He said he was ready to take the responsibility for forming the new Russian government if President Yeltsin asked him to do so. He added that if his party was not asked to form a new government, then it would try to play the role of "constructive opposition." -Vera Tolz . . . AND CALLS FOR GREATER RUSSIA. Talking to Russian and Western journalists the same day, Zhirinovsky reiterated that he "would not allow Russia's borders to be shrunk further," but instead Russia should be recreated within its "former borders." He denied any ambition to reassert Russia's prerevolutionary control over Finland, but he insisted that the former Soviet republics in Central Asia, the Caucasus and the Baltics must be brought back into Russia's orbit and that Russia would never relinquish control over the Kuril Islands. He also said his party opposes the existence of ethnically-based republics within the Russian Federation and wants instead to see Russia re-divided into 40 or 50 non-ethnic region. -Elizabeth Teague RUSSIA'S CHOICE PROPOSES ANTI-FASCIST COALITION. At a meeting on 14 December members of Russia's Choice bloc were expected to discuss the creation of a coalition to counter the influence of the Liberal Democratic Party and its leader, Vladimir Zhirinovsky. Interfax and Western news agencies quoted Russia's Choice member Sergei Kovalev as saying Zhirinovsky's rise to power would mean "war and the final downfall of Russia." He said that it was therefore important to form an "anti-fascist parliamentary bloc," which the communists could also join. On 13-December Reuters quoted Russia's Choice leader Egor Gaidar as saying that it would be "an enormous danger not only for Russia but to all humanity if there is the slightest chance that this man [Zhirinovsky] could really become the president of Russia." -Vera Tolz PRO-REFORM BLOCS WILL NOT FORM MAJORITY. A member of Russia's Choice bloc, Arkadii Murashev, told RFE/RL on 13 December that the three pro-reform blocs that had overcome the 5 % barrier in the parliamentary elections would not apparently be able to form a majority coalition. The pro-reform blocs are Russia's Choice, Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin bloc, and the Party for Russian Unity and Accord. The fourth reformist bloc, the Russian Movement for Democratic Reform, gathered less than 5 % of the vote. Murashev said President Yeltsin's idea of getting a parliament supportive of reforms was not realized. -Vera Tolz WHERE WILL THE COMMUNISTS STAND? THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (CP-RF) REPORTEDLY CAME THIRD, GAINING SOME 11 PERCENT OF THE VOTE. As yet, however, it is unclear whether it will form an alliance with other parties in the new parliament. CP-RF leader, Gennadii Zyuganov, reacting to the apparent victory of the extreme right Liberal Democratic Party told Interfax on 13 December that he regretted "fascist demagogy" had so influenced the voters, but said that the LDP nonetheless included moderate and cautious politicians with whom the CP-RF could cooperate. -Wendy Slater GOOD SHOWING BY CONSERVATIVES. Aleksandr Nevzorov, anchor man of the ultra-right TV show "600-Seconds," which had been closed down by the authorities in the aftermath of the president's showdown with the parliament in October, won a seat in St.-Petersburg, Ostankino TV 's "Novosti" reported on 13 October. Other prominent conservatives elected to the parliament include two leaders of the August 1991 coup against Mikhail Gorbachev-the farm lobby leader Vasilii Starodubtsev and the former speaker of the USSR parliament Anatolii Lukyanov, plus Sergei Baburin, the leader of the conservatives in the former parliament and the weightlifter Yurii Vlasov. All of these were elected as indivual candidates and not on party tickets. The most prominent winner among the centrists appears to be Vasilii Lipitsky, aide to Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi and a leader of the People's Party of Free Russia; he was elected in Novosibirsk. -Julia Wishnevsky YELTSIN LOSES GROUND IN SVERDLOVSK. Only 48% of the electorate in Sverdlovsk region, once regarded to be Yeltsin's powerbase, turned out to vote and only 49% of these voted in favor of the new constitution, Interfax reported on 13 December. The vote for the constitution has been generally regarded as a vote of confidence in Yeltsin personally, similar to the referendum the president had won there in April of this year. The reason for such a switch in public support appears to have been Yeltsin's firing of the regional head of administration, Eduard Rossel, and his dissolution of the regional council following their attempt to establish the Ural Republic. On the same day, Rossel was elected to the higher chamber of the new parliament, the Federation Council, while another seat went to Galina Karelova, the former deputy chairwoman of the regional council. -Julia Wishnevsky WESTERN REACTION TO RUSSIAN ELECTIONS. Western officials expressed varying degrees of concern over the strong showing of Vladimir Zhirinovsky and the possible changes in Russian foreign policy that his success might herald. NATO officials commented that East European states' desire to join the Atlantic alliance were prompted in many ways by fears of resurgent Russian nationalism. Norwegian Foreign Minister Joergen Holst observed that the influence of Zhirinovsky's party would make it more difficult for Russia to make concessions on disputed territorial waters. Germany's Klaus Kinkel, already showing sensitivity to Russia's right, said, "we still want to be extremely cautious, and we should think of that especially after the result of these elections. . . . Russia is watching with high sensitivity to see what will happen at the upcoming NATO summit" scheduled for January. The United States stressed the positive aspect of the elections, the adoption of a new constitution. Vice-President Al Gore, on a visit to Kazakhstan, observed that the far-right showing in Russia is "in a way . . . a reflection of the integrity of the election process," Western agencies reported. -Suzanne Crow SWEDEN WILL NOT REMAIN NEUTRAL. Swedish Defense Minister Anders Bjoerck warned on 13 December that his country would not remain neutral if any of the Baltic states were attacked. His comments came in response to the success of the party of Zhirinovsky, a politician who views many areas on Russia's periphery, including the Baltic states, as belonging to the territory of Russia. Bjoerck added that Sweden has "no intention of fighting a war abroad, nor does it have the military means to do so." Prime Minister Carl Bildt, who has made similar statements in the past, said the election results were "disturbing." Bildt said he believes that the election results reflect the fact that the "red-brown forces" had conducted an aggressive and skilful campaign, and he expressed confidence that there exists in Russia a basic desire for stable government and an improved economy, AFP and Reuters reported. -Suzanne Crow KOZYREV, HURD WRITE ON PEACEKEEPING. Izvestiya carried a joint article in its 14 December edition by Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd entitled, "Europe Will Not Enter CIS 'Hot Spots,' Nor Will It Give Russia a Free Hand." The article emphasized that Russia's concerns over conflicts near its borders and the safety of ethnic Russians were legitimate ones. At the same time, it said that while the West could not afford play a large part in peacekeeping efforts, the West would also not give Russia a free hand in the region. This would be tantamount to Western endorsement for Moscow to play the very same role which it played in the Soviet empire, the article said. -Suzanne Crow CONFUSING REPORTS ON CONSTITUTIONAL VOTE. The Central Electoral Commission published the official preliminary results in the voting for Russia's new constitution, AFP and Izvestiya reported on 13 and 14-December. In its statement, the commission said that of Russia's 105,284,000 registered voters, 55,987,000 or 53.2% participated and 29,337,000 voted in favor. The commission failed, however, to give the percentage of votes in favor, simply claiming that "around 60% of voters who took part in the vote were in favor of the adoption of the Russian Federation Constitution." The actual percentage of those in favor, on the basis of the commission's figures, is 52.3%. Over 50% of voters had to participate to validate the referendum but the total number of eligible voters given by the commission was lower than the figures it had published previously, which varied from 107,000,000 to 106,241,000. (The latter figure excluded voters in Chechnya, which boycotted the ballot.) Officials explained the discrepancy by blaming incorrect earlier information from local election commissions. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN ISSUES STATEMENT ON NEW CONSTITUTION. President Yeltsin said on 13 December that the passage of a new constitution gives Russians a "common hope for the revival of a great and powerful Russia." ITAR-TASS quoted the president as saying the new constitution "guarantees the conditions for the stable development of reforms and democracy." He pledged, as president of the Russian Federation, to "act firmly on the basis of the new constitution." -Vera Tolz TUVIN CONSTITUTION APPROVED. In a referendum held simultaneously with the Russian elections and referendum, voters in Tuva have approved a new republican constitution that conflicts with the new Russian constitution, ITAR-TASS reported on 13 December. While only 32.7 percent of those who voted supported the new Russian constitution, 62.2 percent were in favor of the republican constitution, the agency said. A commission is to be set up to reconcile the two documents, but for the time being the Russian constitution will be regarded as valid only in so far as it does not run counter to the new Tuvan constitution. -Ann Sheehy YELTSIN ISSUES DECREE ON INGUSH REFUGEES. As promised during his recent visit to the North Caucasus, on 13 December Yeltsin signed a decree ordering that a start be made in December to return Ingush refugees to the villages of Chermen, Dongaron, Dachnoe, and Kurtat in the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. Interfax says the decree confirms that Prigorodnyi raion, much of which is claimed by Ingushetia, is part of North Ossetia. It also deals with the general problem of refugees in North Ossetia and Ingushetia. There are tens of thousands of South Ossetian and other refugees in North Ossetia. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA KAZAKHSTAN RATIFIES NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY. On 13 December, while US Vice President Albert Gore was visiting Kazakhstan, the parliament voted 283 to 1 to accede to the nuclear non-proliferation treaty, the Washington Post reported on 14 December. The move fulfills President Nazarbaev's earlier promise that Kazakhstan would accede to the treaty before the end of 1993. Gore and Nazarbaev also signed an umbrella agreement governing the payment of US denuclearization aid. Some $70 million will be provided to dismantle SS-18 silos, while an additional $14 million will be spent on nuclear weapons safety and emergency response equipment. This decision would seem to open the way to the removal of the nuclear weapons in Kazakhstan, although full implementation of the START1 accord is still dependent upon Ukraine's unconditional ratification of the treaty. -John Lepingwell KYRGYZ GOVERNMENT DISSOLVED. Kyrgyzstan's Supreme Soviet failed to obtain a two-thirds majority for a vote of no confidence in the country's Prime Minister, Tursunbek Chyngyshev, but President Askar Akaev dismissed the country's government anyway, ITAR-TASS reported on 13 December. Supreme Soviet deputies had accused Chyngyshev of illegal export of part of the country's gold reserves, and much of the current session of the legislature has been taken up with disputes between the deputies and the prime minister. Chyngyshev described the dismissal of his government as a counterrevolution and warned that there is danger of a coup against Akaev. RFE/RL has learned that Akaev has asked Apas Dzhumagulov, Kyrgyzstan's last Communist premier, to form a government. -Bess Brown RENEWED FIGHTING IN NAGORNO-KARABAKH. Renewed fighting in the Beilagan raion of Nagorno-Karabakh on 11-12 December resulted in heavy casualties, reported Interfax and ITAR-TASS. The Azerbaijani government and the Karabakh Armenian authorities have accused each other of beginning the new offensive. Both claim that the enemy lost up to 200 men plus armored vehicles or tanks in the fighting. Addressing refugees in Beilagan, Azerbaijani President Geidar Aliev affirmed that the Azerbaijani government is seeking to resolve the conflict by political means, but that strong defensive capabilities are a necessary precondition for doing so, according to Interfax of 13 December. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE MAZOWIECKI IN BOSNIA. Former Polish prime minister and current UN special envoy on human rights Tadeusz Mazowiecki answered reporters' questions in Zagreb on 13 December after arriving in the Croatian capital from a weekend visit to Bosnia. Mazowiecki spent his time in the Tuzla region, situated in northeastern Bosnia, and described living conditions there as "dramatic." According to Reuters, Mazowiecki stressed that the hardships in the area were being caused largely by the blockade of relief convoys. He laid the blame for this squarely on Bosnian Serb forces, which, he alleged, had shut down the flow of humanitarian aid to the area. Mazowiecki stressed that only 14% of the aid needed in Tuzla was able to get through and observed that Croat forces, who continue to hamper aid efforts, have recently become more cooperative. He also stressed that conditions in other Bosnian regions, such as Maglaj and Srebrenica, are far more critical than they are in Tuzla. -Stan Markotich SERBIAN ELECTION UPDATE. On 13 December Vreme reported extensively on the elections slated in Serbia for 19 December, and speculated that 16 December would be a critical day in the campaign. On that date, Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic is scheduled to appear publicly in a media blitz designed to win votes for his Socialists. Vreme hinted that Milosevic's performance on the 16th could mean the difference between a parliamentary majority for the Socialist Party of Serbia or simply a minority government. On 10 December NIN reported on voters' attitudes on the current elections and published a poll which suggested that voters considered that a politician's age was an important variable. According to the poll, 51.0% of the respondents thought that a younger leader was preferable, while only 13.5% felt the same way about an older or middle-aged person. About 32.5% of those surveyed felt that age was not an important criterion for determining leadership quality. -Stan Markotich NOMINEE FOR HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER ELECTED. The national steering committee and parliamentary faction of the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum (HDF) elected Interior Minister Peter Boross (65) as its nominee to become Hungary's next prime minister, Hungarian and foreign media report. Boross ran against two other candidates, Defense Minister Lajos Fur, and Finance Minister Ivan Szabo, and received the 50% plus one vote required for the nomination only in the second round of voting. Boross was Antall's substitute during the Prime Minister's illness and currently heads the caretaker government. Boross told Radio Budapest that he would not run for the position of chairman of the HDF because he felt that there were appropriate candidates for the post among the party's founding members. Boross has a reputation for toughness and the opposition parties in parliament might vote against him. -Judith Pataki CZECH FOREIGN MINISTER IN ISRAEL. Josef Zieleniec, on three-day visit to Israel, held talks with Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres on 12 December and with Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and President Ezer Weizman on 13 December. CTK reports that Zieleniec and Peres signed a Czech-Israeli agreement on preventing double taxation. Peres told journalists after the meeting that "Israel sees the Czech Republic as a friendly state, open to cooperating with Israel." During the Zieleniec-Rabin meeting, the Israeli prime minister urged the Czech Republic not to export nuclear technology to Iran, arguing that if Iran possessed nuclear or other non-conventional weapons it would "threaten to destabilize" the whole region. Zieleniec said contracts planned with Iran would not be implemented because of Iran's shortage of foreign exchange and that his country would "not undertake any move harming the Czech Republic's friendly policy toward Israel." -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK FOREIGN MINISTER IN GERMANY. On 13-December Jozef Moravcik visited Germany, where he met with his German counterpart Klaus Kinkel and German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe. Moravcik and Kinkel focused their discussions on the relations between the European Union and the Visegrad countries but also spoke about bilateral relations and the German minority in Slovakia. Moravcik asked Kinkel for his support in Slovakia's integration into European security and economic organizations. Discussions between Moravcik and Ruehe are expected to lead to the signing of a military cooperation agreement between the two nations in the near future, TASR reports. -Sharon Fisher MECIAR SAYS ZLATA IDKA TEXT HAS MISTAKES. On 13 December Slovak National Party Chairman Ludovit Cernak said that according to Premier Vladimir Meciar, the authenticity of Meciar's speech at Zlata Idka is being carefully examined. Meciar said that in relation to the SNP, which is his party's coalition partner, "there are nine deliberate mistakes which distort the meaning of the text." In response to Meciar's statement, Dusan Klinger, editor-in-chief of Slovensky vychod, which was the first daily to publish the text, said "Meciar said what we published;" there are no mistakes, intentional or unintentional. Klinger further stated, "I can confirm the authenticity of the transcript of Vladimir Meciar's speech at Zlata Idka and can provide it to Slovak Radio if they ask for it." Although the entire speech was not published because of lack of space, Klinger said the published text was "authentic." Meciar refused to comment on the matter, saying, "Do not bother me with that. Do not insult me and disgrace me," TASR reports. The Zlata Idka controversy came about after several dailies published a private speech given by Meciar at a party meeting on 27 to 28 November which has been criticized by various Slovak parties and organizations. -Sharon Fisher GM SIGNS POLISH AUTO DEAL. The Polish government and the FSO auto plant in Warsaw signed a joint venture agreement with General Motors Europe on 13-December. GM plans to assemble 10,000 Opel Astra automobiles annually, from imported parts. By the terms of the agreement, GM will invest an initial sum of DM 35 million and employ 250 workers, with investment rising to DM 75 million and employment to 1,000 a year after production begins. If demand is sufficient, production could rise to 33,000 autos annually. Negotiations on the agreement lasted three years; the delay was reportedly the result of not only of Poland's political instability but also of GM's demands for tax concessions. In the end, GM received tax breaks equal to the total of the firm's initial investment in the FSO plant. The first Astras are to be ready within nine months, PAP reports. GM also pledged to assist FSO in designing a successor to the outmoded Polonez. -Louisa Vinton THOUSANDS OF STUDENTS ON STRIKE IN ROMANIA. Thousands of students went on strike in Romania on 13 December, protesting against poor living conditions and a decision of the government to enforce new examinations. An official of the ministry of education said the strike was not general and that students will not receive grants while they boycott classes. -Michael Shafir SECOND BULGARIAN STRIKE WAVE. Following the ore miners' strike launched by the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in Bulgaria the previous week, Podkrepa-the second major Bulgarian union-on 13 December called out thousands of coal miners and medical workers, agencies report. While the CITUB, which two days earlier reached a tentative agreement on quick payment of overdue wages, has asked its members to resume their work, Podkrepa is raising new demands. The anticommunist union says its miners seek a development program for their industry, laws allowing foreign investment and tax-free import of input materials, and higher pensions. On behalf of medical workers, Podkrepa is demanding increased government spending on health care plus the immediate resignation of health minister Tancho Gugalov, who is held primary responsible for what is described as a gradually worsening situation. The current government recently admitted it has experienced considerable difficulties in collecting budget revenues and that transfers to the public sector as a consequence have been delayed. -Kjell Engelbrekt BALTIC REACTION TO RUSSIAN ELECTION. Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar noted that the Russian election results should prompt the European Union to integrate the Baltic States more quickly and NATO to provide security guarantees, BNS reported on 13 December. Latvian President Guntis Ulmanis said that "Zhirinovsly's victory is linked to the weakness of President Boris Yeltsin's policies in the last six months." He repeated his desire to meet Yeltsin and said that he would also like to meet Zhirinovsky. Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas sent a telegram to Yeltsin congratulating him on the approval of the new Constitution. He said that the democratic forces in Russia should create a strong parliamentary coalition and hoped that Lithuania's relations with Russia would continue to develop on the basis of friendship and cooperation. -Saulius Girnius RUSSIANS' VOTE IN BALTIC STATES. Russian citizens in the Baltic States voted against the new Constitution and supported the Communist Party and Zhirinovsky's Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Baltfax reported on 13-December. Of the 9,886 Russians (about 25% of total) voting in Estonia (5,908 in Tallinn and 3,978 in Narva), 65.5% opposed the new Constitution with 47.7% supporting the LDP and 19.2% the Communists. Of the 23,000 registered Russian citizens in Latvia 3,762 voted in Riga and about 3,000 in 25 closed constituencies for the military. About 80% opposed the Constitution with the Communist Party receiving 49% and the LDP 32% of the votes. Of the 12,000 Russians in Lithuania about 3,500 voted (2,000 in Vilnius, 800 in Siauliai, and 729 in Klaipeda). The Russian Embassy in Vilnius said it would announce the results only after the all-Russia votes are revealed. In Klaipeda 543 opposed the Constitution with 296 voting for the Communists and 261 for the LDP. -Saulius Girnius UKRAINIAN POLITICIANS ALARMED BY RUSSIAN ELECTION RESULTS. The initial reaction by political leaders in Ukraine to the gains made by Zhirinovky's chauvinist Liberal-Democratic Party and the Communists in Russia's elections has been one of alarm and increased concern about threats to Ukrainian national security, Ukrainian and Western media report. Typically, the leader of the Rukh opposition party, Vyacheslav Chornovil, told RFE/RL on 13 December that Russian imperialism was still strong and that demands from Western powers that Ukraine "give up all nuclear arms immediately" are now even more unrealistic. Speaking on Radio Ukraine, a leader of the Democratic Party of Ukraine, Voleslav Heichenko, compared Zhironovsky with Hitler, warning that his views about Russia and the need to protect Russians living abroad were reminiscent of Hitler's attitude towards the Sudeten Germans; he also called on the West not to make the mistake of "appeasing" Zhirinovsky and those who think like him. Other democratic leaders, such as Volodymyr Yavorivsky, have also called on Ukraine's democratic forces to heed the lesson of their Russian counterparts and to form a united front for the forthcoming parliamentary elections scheduled for next March. -Bohdan Nahaylo SHUSHKEVICH CONCERNED ABOUT ZHIRINOVSKY'S GAINS. The Chairman of the Belarusian Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, is reportedly concerned over Russian nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky's strong performance in the Russian election, Interfax reported on 13 December. A Shushkevich advisor, Valyeri Tsepkalo, said that if Russia's major political parties failed to form a coalition Zhirinovsky stood a very good chance of "winning" the elections and his party would try to implement his plans for "the territorial unification of the Russian empire." On 12-December Reuters reported that in contrast to Shushkevich's position, Semyon Sharyetsky, an economic advisor to the conservative Prime Minister Vyacheslau Kebich, feels if reformers win and Russia continues to move towards a market economy at its current pace, this would provoke instability. The liberal minority, (which is not wholly supportive of Shushkevich), has said that an inconclusive result may make Russia concentrate on its own problems more and dominate affairs in Belarus less. -Ustina Markus SNEGUR ON RUSSIAN ELECTION RESULTS. Moldovan president Mircea Snegur said on 13 December that a Russian parliament with a Liberal Democratic majority was bound to affect Russia's attitude to other CIS states, Interfax reported. Snegur said that in his election campaign the party's leader, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, had treated Moldova as a province of a greater Russia, whose governor-general was the present commander of the Russian 14th army. -Ann Sheehy DNIESTER REPUBLIC REFUSES TO HAND OVER TIRASPOL SIX. The self-styled Dniester republic has refused to hand over to Moldova the six members of the pro-Romanian Moldovan Popular Front sentenced for terrorists activities on 9 December, Reuter reported on 13 December citing ITAR-TASS. The chairman of the Dniester parliament Grigorii Marakutsa argued that people convicted on similar charges in Gagauzia who had been handed over the Moldovan authorities had never served their sentences. Earlier it had been stated that the question of their transfer could only be considered after they had appealed for mercy to the Dniester parliament, which Ilie Ilascu, sentenced to death, had said he would not do. Moldovan President Mircea Snegur has appealed to both the UN and CSCE to intervene in the case. -Ann Sheehy UKRAINIAN AND MOLDOVAN PRESIDENTS SIGN ACCORDS. During an official visit to Kiev by Moldovan president Mircea Snegur, he and his Ukrainian host, President Leonid Kravchuk, signed several accords expanding bilateral cooperation, especially in the economic and legal spheres, Ukrainian agencies reported on 13 December. Kravchuk said after the signing that he had reiterated Ukraine's position upholding the territorial integrity of the Moldovan state and seeking a peaceful settlement of the conflict affecting "our closest neighbor." "Ukraine," he declared, "will never make territorial demands of Moldova, and I hope that it will not do so with respect to Ukraine." -Bohdan Nahaylo [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Edith Oltay THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.