|If there is technological advance without social advance, there is, almost automatically, an increase in human misery. - Michael Harrington|
No. 236, 10 December 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN APPEALS TO POPULATION ON CONSTITUTION. Amid signs that the leadership is seriously concerned that the draft constitution may be rejected in the referendum on 12-December, either because of a "no" vote or because apathy leads fewer than the requisite 50% of the electorate to go to the polls, Boris Yeltsin issued a last-minute appeal to the electorate. Appearing on Ostankino TV on 9 December, the president acknowledged that it was impossible to draft an ideal constitution that would satisfy everyone and last for all time, but warned that, as long as the country was without a constitution, Russia would remain under the threat of civil war. -Elizabeth Teague OPPOSITION CLAIMS ELECTIONS MAY BE RIGGED. Starting on 4 December, various opposition figures have been speculating that the results of the 12 December elections and/or referendum may be falsified. Such claims were voiced by the leader of the Democratic Party of Russia, Nikolai Travkin, Aleksandr Tsipko of the centrist Civic Union, Mikhail Lapshin of the Agrarian Party, and Sergei Dergunov of the ultranationalist Liberal Democratic Party (Interfax, 8 and 9 December). On 4 December, Moscow human rights activist Gleb Pavlovsky told the Ostankino TV show "Politburo" of his fears that the vote-counting in Moscow may be rigged. Pavlovsky said that the Movement for Democracy and Human Rights, of which he is a leader, was going to appeal to Western observers to monitor more closely the votes counted in the capital. -Julia Wishnevsky ELECTORAL BLOCS COMPLAIN TO YELTSIN OVER HOUSING OF NEW PARLIAMENT. Six blocs handed an official protest to President Yeltsin over the future housing of the new parliament on 9 December. The parties, which include Russia's Choice, the Democratic Reform Movement, the Agrarians, Cedar, the Party of Unity and Concord, and "Russia's Future-New Names," objected to Yeltsin's proposal to house the two chambers separately-the State Duma in the Moscow Mayor's Office, and the Federation Council in the Russian Press House. Reuters suggested that Yeltsin was unwilling to give "even ceremonial importance to the new parliament." In an interview with ITAR-TASS, Gennadii Burbulis, a candidate for Russia's Choice, said that a more suitable location for the new legislature would be either the Kremlin or the former Russian parliament building, the White House, after its restoration. -Wendy Slater REPUBLICAN ELECTIONS AND REFERENDUMS ON 12 DECEMBER. In some republics voters will also be taking part in republican elections and referendums on 12 December. New republican parliaments are being elected in Kabardino-Balkaria and Marii-El, presidential elections are taking place in Bashkortostan and Chuvashia, and referendums are being held in Dagestan, Karelia, and Komi on the introduction of a presidency, and in Tuva on the new Tuvin constitution. Candidates for the presidency in Bashkortostan are the speaker, Murtaza Rakhimov, and the 38-year-old president of the "Vostok" commercial bank Rafiz Kadyrov, both Bashkirs. In Chuvashia the candidates include the speaker Eduard Kukarev, and former Russian Minister of Justice Nikolai Fedorov. Buryatia, North Ossetia, and Udmurtia will be holding presidential elections in early 1994. Mordovia, which abolished the presidency earlier in 1993, is the only republic currently without a president that is not considering introducing one. -Ann Sheehy BASHKORTOSTAN SPEAKER WIRES YELTSIN ON FILATOV'S REMARKS. The chairman of the Bashkortostan parliament, Murtaza Rakhimov, sent a telegram to Yeltsin on 9-December, expressing surprise at the statement by the head of the Presidential administration, Sergei Filatov, on 8 December accusing Bashkortostan, together with Tatarstan and Tuva, of declaring war on the draft Russian constitution, Interfax reported. Rakhimov said that preparations for the elections and referendum on the constitution were proceeding and such statements could destabilize the situation. He demanded that Yeltsin see that no more such unfriendly acts towards the republics be taken in future. At the same time Rakhimov reiterated that the draft constitution was a blatant attempt to try to curtail the rights of the republics. -Ann Sheehy RUSSIA, EUROPEAN UNION SIGN DECLARATION. During the second day of Boris Yeltsin's two-day visit to Brussels, Russia and the European Union (formerly European Community) signed an agreement on economic cooperation. The document signed falls short of the comprehensive agreement that both sides had hoped for, but Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev expressed his assurance that the full agreement would be signed within the next twelve months. Kozyrev announced in an interview with ITAR-TASS on 9 December that the discriminatory barriers for Russian exports, which existed in the first versions of the treaty, had all been removed. -Suzanne Crow YELTSIN HAILS DECLARATION AS HISTORIC. Boris Yeltsin hailed the signing of the EU agreement as an unprecedented event: "The East and the West of Europe took a big step toward one another . . . The declaration we have signed guarantees that henceforth we will . . . get closer." Yeltsin noted that attempts to build prosperity in a single state or group of states is "pernicious," warning that "sooner or later the barrier of self-alienation will be breached. And prosperity will entail very difficult problems." "We are all Europeans," Yeltsin claimed, and noted that Russia is ready to "become a real partner of Western Europe." Expressing Russia's exasperation with barriers between Europe and Russia, Yeltsin said: "I find it offensive that even now some forces are attempting to set Russia aside and withdraw it from the sphere of European cooperation. I am convinced that this is not a farsighted policy. You cannot distance the Russian factor from Europe. . . . We all have unfortunate experience of the Cold War. Europeans understand what this Russian factor meant for them then," ITAR-TASS reported. -Suzanne Crow NATO MEMBERSHIP AND THE ELECTIONS. Boris Yeltsin and NATO Secretary General Manfred Woerner met in Brussels on 9 December for further discussions on NATO expansion. Yeltsin's press secretary, Vyacheslav Kostikov, said that the Russian side had reiterated its opposition to the expansion of NATO into the former Warsaw Pact states. Kostikov also said that "for the first time" the prospect of Russian membership in the alliance was raised, although Kostikov was eager to note that this question is one for the distant, not near, future. The importance of the question in Russian domestic politics was illustrated by the appearance of an article in Izvestiya on 10 December arguing that movement toward the incorporation of central European countries into NATO was expected and that its absence would cost Yeltsin votes in the 12 December elections. Just as Yeltsin sought to use his trip to Brussels to boost support for his program in the elections, his opponents are attempting to belittle any positive effects this visit might have on the Russian electorate. -Suzanne Crow SHAKHRAI URGES FOREIGN POLICY CHANGE. The leader of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, Sergei Shakhrai, told Ostankino TV's "Word To the Voter" on 8 December that Russia should change its foreign policy away from focusing on the West to "the political and diplomatic conquering of markets for Russian businessmen" in Asia and Eastern Europe. He said that since Russia's products cannot compete on the Western markets, "the center of Russia's entire foreign economic activities should in the next years be concentrated on the CIS states, Eastern Europe and the Pacific rim. " He stated that he favors state protectionism in running Russia's economy. Shakhrai urged the abandonment of Russian economic sanctions against Abkhazia because a conflict with Abkhazia could spoil Russia's peace efforts in the Caucasus. -Alexander Rahr CIS BALTIN ACCUSES UKRAINE OVER BLACK SEA FLEET FUNDING. The Russian commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Eduard Baltin, accused Ukraine of "playing games" with the fleet's funding, UNIAN reported on 7-December. According to Baltin, in early November Russia deposited its share of the fleet's funding, 35-billion karbovantsy, in Ukraine's Dnipopetrovsk bank, the "Privatbank." At that time the money could have bought six multi-unit apartment buildings. The money was only released to the fleet on 6 December, however, after price rises were introduced in Ukraine. Baltin complained that, as a result, these funds now cannot buy even a single building. The same apparently happened to 21 billion karbovantsy which the Ukrainian government had allotted to the shipbuilding industry. In all, Baltin claims, Ukraine's leadership wasted 56 billion karbovantsy needed by the fleet by freezing the funds until after the December price hikes. -Ustina Markus TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA NAZARBAEV IN PARLIAMENT. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev made an unscheduled speech to the legislature on 9 December, approving the Supreme Soviet's decision to dissolve itself and warning that the unresolved issues of dual citizenship and state language are worrying the country's Russian population, Interfax reported. The president left the session in a huff after some deputies accused him of political intrigues to force the dissolution of local soviets; he returned after receiving an apology. The Supreme Soviet had voted to disband those local soviets which have not already dissolved themselves and Nazarbaev asked the legislature for additional powers until the new parliament to be elected in March can meet. The Supreme Soviet also adopted a new election code under which 135 of the deputies to the new parliament will be elected in single-member constituencies and 42-will be elected from a list compiled by the president. -Bess Brown KYRGYZ PARLIAMENT CLASHES WITH PRIME MINISTER. Kyrgyzstan's parliament is raising questions of confidence in Prime Minister Tursunbek Chyngyshev over the issue of gold exports from the country, Russian news agencies reported on 9 December, but Chyngyshev said the Supreme Soviet would never succeed in sacking him. He told Interfax that he was convinced the parliament was using the gold affair as an excuse to dump Chyngyshev and his government. The prime minister and other officials have been accused of complicity in a scheme with a Swiss company to smuggle gold to Switzerland. Chyngyshev says there were no violations of the law in the government's use of the country's gold reserves. -Bess Brown SEPARATIST LEADER ARRESTED IN AZERBAIJAN. Alikram Gumbatov, who seized power in the Caspian border town of Lenkoran in late June and proclaimed an autonomous Talysh-Mugan Republic, was apprehended by Azerbaijani law enforcement officials on 8-December, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported on 9-December. After unsuccessful negotiations with Prime Minister Suret Huseinov, Gumbatov had been driven out of the town by force in August and has since then been in hiding. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE MOVEMENT IN CROAT-SERB RELATIONS? TWO CROATIAN WEEKLIES PRESENT THEIR READERS WITH WHAT THEY CALL SCOOPS IN REPORTED TALKS BETWEEN CROATIAN AND SERBIAN AUTHORITIES. Globus on 10 December says that Zagreb plans to offer most Serbian officials and police in Krajina the opportunity to keep their jobs if Croatian control is formally extended to the breakaway region. The Serbs, however, do not seem to be interested, even though the offer would mark a departure from previous Croatian plans to limit Serbs in government to those few individuals who had not fought against Zagreb's authority. Meanwhile, Nedjeljna Dalmacija on 8-December suggests that the issue might partly become moot, since the Serbs plan to offer the Croats Knin and Vukovar in exchange for Baranja, which borders Serbia. There has long been speculation that Serbia would try to swap the impoverished and remote Knin region for something better and closer to home, but Zagreb has reportedly rejected the idea, saying it will not swap Croatian territory for Croatian territory. -Patrick Moore FRENCH GROUP PROTESTS DEPORTATIONS OF YUGOSLAV ARMY DESERTERS. AFP says on 10-December that the European Civic Forum, which is dedicated to better East-West relations, has warned that up to 100,000 deserters and conscientious objectors from the Yugoslav area stand to be shipped home from Western Europe. Countries involved include Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Germany, and in some cases deportations have already begun. In October the European Parliament passed a resolution calling for special status for these men. -Patrick Moore DNIESTER COURT SENTENCES MOLDOVAN MILITANT TO DEATH. On 9 December the Supreme Court of the self-styled Dniester republic in Tiraspol pronounced the sentences on the six supporters of the Moldovan Popular Front accused of murder and diversion in the armed conflict between Moldova and the Dniester republic in summer 1992, ITAR-TASS, Interfax and Western agencies reported. Ilie Ilascu was sentenced to be shot, and the rest to long terms in jail. The sentences are likely to complicate the current talks being held between Chisinau and Tiraspol with Russian mediation on a peaceful settlement of the Dniester conflict. The Moldovan leadership had repeatedly asked that the defendants be handed over to Moldova, and the presidents of Russia and Romania, the leaders of the European Council, CSCE and other international organizations had called on Tiraspol to show good will. -Ann Sheehy REACTIONS TO SENTENCE. The sentences brought angry protests from both the Moldovan and Romanian governments, Reuters reported. Moldovan president Mircea Snegur described them as "a challenge to the world community," and the Romanian government issued a statement saying that it was deeply concerned at the sentences, while President Ion Iliescu spoke of a "premeditated crime by an anachronistic and primitive regime." Hundreds of people demonstrated in front of the Russian embassy in Bucharest in favor of Ilascu's release. Meanwhile, Nikolai Medvedev, the Russian mediator in the talks between Chisinau and Tiraspol, called for calm and urged the Dniester authorities to hand over the six to the Moldovan authorities, Reuters added. -Ann Sheehy SERBIAN POLITICAL LEADER GIVES PRESS CONFERENCE. On 9 December Serbian media reported on a news conference staged by Vojislav Kostunica, leader of the Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS). The DSS, which is vying for seats in the Serbian parliamentary elections scheduled for 19 December, has the support of an estimated 7.2% of Belgrade voters, according to polling data taken in early November. Politika wrote that the DSS leader emphasized economic problems as being among the most serious plaguing rump Yugoslavia. Kostunica, in what amounted to an indirect attack on Serbian president Milosevic's economic and financial policies, said that inflation had to be curbed if Serbia were ever to return to a stable economy. Hyperinflation and the "monetary collapse", which has rendered the dinar virtually valueless, is threatening "to throw [Serbia] back to a barter economy . . . back to the Middle Ages," said Kostunica. He also remarked that the DSS would be willing to form a post-election coalition with any and all parties, except Milosevic's Socialist Party of Serbia. -Stan Markotich STRUGGLE FOR MACEDONIAN ALBANIAN LEADERSHIP CONTINUES. There are currently three groups vying for control of the Albanian Party for Democratic Prosperity in Macedonia. One called a congress on 8-December in Gostivar to choose new party leaders. Former PDP President Nevzat Halili denounced this gathering as illegal, Vecer reported on 8-December. Journalists were banned from the meeting, which was attended by two leaders from neighboring Albania. Meanwhile, Albanian deputies in the Macedonian parliament also declared the meeting illegitimate; and sent delegations to Kosovo and Albania to explain the situation and seek aid in restoring party discipline. According to Vecer of 9 December, Eduard Selami, president of Albania's Democratic Party, said that the DP leadership has no wish to meddle in the affairs of other parties in other countries. -Ismije Beshiri ALBANIAN MINORITY IN SOUTHERN SERBIA TO TAKE PART IN THE ELECTIONS. The leader of the Party for Democratic Activity, Riza Halimi, said in an interview in NIN on 3-December that both ethnic Albanian parties in southern Serbia, namely his own and the Democratic Party of Albanians, will take part in the Serbian elections scheduled for 19-December. Both parties want to form a coalition in the communities of Presevo, Bujanovac, and Medveda and promote the "realization of citizens' and national rights in the framework of political and territorial autonomy," Halimi said. He added that his party wants to solve all problems in a democratic way and institutionalize its political influence through parliament. On 1 May 1992 the majority of Albanians in all three communities voted for political and territorial autonomy with the option of joining the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. Halimi said that right now their policy is not to join Kosovo but to gain autonomy within Serbia. He nonetheless added that "since the trend in the Balkans is towards the creation of ethnic and national states, the Albanians might not be an exception." -Fabian Schmidt FRENCH PRESIDENT IN PRAGUE. Fran¨ois Mitterrand arrived in Prague on 9 December on a one-day visit. In remembrance of the fifth anniversary of a breakfast meeting with eight leading Czech dissidents, Mitterrand met for lunch with some of these former dissidents, including Czech President Vaclav Havel and former Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Jiri Dienstbier. CTK quotes Dienstbier as saying that Mitterrand and his guests discussed mainly the integration of the Czech Republic into European structures. Later, Havel and Mitterrand officially opened the French Institute in Prague. The French president also met with Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, who told journalists after the meeting that the upcoming elections in Russia were the main topic discussed. According to Klaus, both politicians agreed that the creation of "a normal political and economic system in Russia" will take a generation. -Jiri Pehe POLISH FOREIGN MINISTER MEETS CZECH OFFICIALS. Polish Foreign Minister Andrzej Olechowski, on a one-day visit to Prague, met on 9 December with Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, President Vaclav Havel, and Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec. In a joint statement issued after their meeting, Olechowski and Zieleniec said that next month's NATO summit should send a clear signal that the alliance will sooner or later accept Central and East European countries as members. CTK also quotes the statement as saying that the two ministers consider the US "partnership for peace" plan an important step in NATO's transformation and expansion. Olechowski told journalists that he does not see "a single reason why the admission of Poland into NATO should in any way threaten the security of Russia." Should Russia feel threatened by such a development, argued Olechowski, "it would mean that it puts more emphasis on its imperial traditions than on hopes for democracy and prosperity." Zieleniec and Olechowski also discussed Czech-Polish relations, especially the liberalization of bilateral trade. The same theme dominated the meeting between Olechowski and Klaus. Olechowski's meeting with Havel focused on the preparation of a planned meeting in Prague in January between the leaders of the Visegrad countries and American President Bill Clinton. -Jiri Pehe MDS ON ZLATA IDKA SPEECH. On 9 December Movement for a Democratic Slovakia spokeswoman Irena Salczerova commented on Premier Vladimir Meciar's controversial speech given during a 27 and 28-November private meeting of the MDS in Zlata Idka. The speech, parts of which were printed in several newspapers on 3 December, has since been harshly criticized by various political, cultural and religious groups. Salczerova argued that Meciar's words were taken out of context and that other politicians could also become the object of such games of the media. Also on 9 December, the Civic Democratic Youth filed a suit against Meciar at the office of the Attorney General. The group claimed that Meciar's statements in Zlata Idka may be considered a criminal offense involving the abuse of power. Christian Democratic Movement Deputy Chairman Ivan Simko said Meciar's statements at Zlata Idka "sound like those of an absolute monarch." In a 10-December interview with Narodna Obroda Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik harshly criticizes Meciar for his speech, saying that Meciar's words "contradict the principles on which the MDS is built and testify about political naivete and the vulgarization of relations within the party" -Sharon Fisher HUNGARIAN DEMOCRATIC FORUM PREPARES FOR ELECTIONS. HDF spokesman Karoly Herenyi told MTI on 9 December that the upcoming weekend meeting of the party's national steering committee will be "decisive" since discussion about the HDF's campaign strategy for the 1994 national elections will begin. The meeting will take place in Lakitelek, the locality where the HDF was founded. Reiterating that Prime Minister Jozsef Antall remains the HDF's leading candidate in the elections, Herenyi dismissed as "superfluous and dumb" rumors that the steering committee would discuss Antall's succession. Antall is in the hospital undergoing treatment for cancer. According to government spokeswoman Judit Juhasz, Antall is actively participating in the work of the government working several hours daily and consulting closely with government members. -Edith Oltay ROMANIA FORMALLY APPLIES FOR NEW IMF LOAN. At a ceremony in Bucharest on 9-December Romania formally applied for a new standby credit from the International Monetary Fund, Radio Bucharest reports. The request came in a letter of intent and a memorandum that Romanian authorities handed to Maxwell Watson, the head of an IMF team currently visiting Romania. The Romanian side was represented by Secretary of State Mircea Cosea, head of the cabinet's Council for Economic Coordination, Strategy and Reform, Finance Minister Florin Georgescu, and National Bank Governor Mugur Isarescu. The IMF delegation included Godert Posthumus, head of the organization's European Department, and Joshua Green, IMF's representative in Bucharest. Romania expects up to $500-million in IMF loans in 1994, to be distributed in several installments starting with a first disbursement early in the year. Earlier this year, the IMF refused to deliver a $75 million tranche from a loan approved in 1992 due to Romania's failure to meet economic and financial performance standards. -Dan Ionescu BLACK SEA STATES SET UP JOINT BANK. On 9-December the 11 member states of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation agreed to create a joint bank aimed at supporting regional trade and industrial projects, according to Bulgarian and Western agencies. The participants decided that the Bank for Black Sea Trade and Development, which has a founding capital of $300-million, will be based in Thessaloniki, Greece. Addressing the one-day ministerial-level meeting, President Zhelyu Zhelev called on the Black Sea countries to work together to "overcome anachronistic confrontations and ethnic- or religious-based hatred." Zhelev further said that Bulgaria is of the opinion that the development of a modern communications and transport infrastructure in the Black Sea area should rate high on the BSEC's agenda. Evgenii Kotovoi of Russia was elected head of the BSEC Secretariat. -Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT DECLASSIFIES STATE SECURITY RECORDS. Bulgarian dailies on 10 December report on a parliamentary decision to declassify secret police archives, taken on the previous day. According to resolution adopted by 104 votes to 85 (16-abstentions), all information about the organizational structure, methods and means used by the State Security, as well as data collected by its agents, should no longer be considered state secrets. The State Security was technically terminated in 1991, but had already been replaced by several new security and intelligence agencies. The caucus of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, which opposed the resolution, argued that the adopted resolution is not enough to declassify secret police files since a legal ban on spreading information linked to the activity of secret collaborators is still in force. Other BSP legislators charged the parliamentary chairman, Aleksandar Yordanov of the Union of Democratic Forces, of having violated the voting procedure by not allowing late arriving Socialist deputies to cast their ballots. -Kjell Engelbrekt UKRAINIAN PRESIDENTIAL OFFICE DENIES STATE OF EMERGENCY REPORTS. The deputy head of the press service of the President and the Cabinet, Heorhii Kosykh, denied rumors which had been circulating all week about the introduction of a state of emergency, UNIAN reported on 9 December. (See RFE/RL Daily Report no. 235). According to Kosykh, "the Cabinet has no information about the introduction of such a state." He added that such a decision would have to be taken by parliament. -Ustina Markus FIRST ARREST IN MURDER OF LITHUANIAN JOURNALIST. On 9 December at a press conference, broadcast live by Radio Lithuania, Prosecutor-General Arturas Paulauskas announced that Igor Akhremov, a 28-year old Russian from Vilnius, had been charged with the murder on 12 October of the owner and deputy editor of the Respublika newspaper Vitas Lingis. He said that enough evidence had been gathered to bring charges against three other individuals, whom he declined to name. Paulauskas said that the murder had been planned, arranged, and executed by the "Vilnius brigade," a notorious organized criminal group in the city that according to Interior Minister Romasis Vaitiekunas was also planning terrorist acts, including explosions to "destabilize" Lithuania. -Saulius Girnius NOVEMBER INFLATION IN LITHUANIA AND ESTONIA. On 10 December the director general of the Lithuanian Statistics Department Kestutis Zaborskas announced that inflation in November was 6.8%, Radio Lithuania reports. While this was a slight drop from the 7.2% rate in October, it indicated that the tight monetary policy that had reduced inflation to only .9% in August had been counterbalanced by the continuing increases in wages and pensions. It seems unlikely that Lithuania will be able to fulfill its agreement with the IMF to keep inflation in 1994 to 10%. Inflation in Estonia increased from 2.6% in October to 4.0% in November, BNS reported on 7 December. This was the highest monthly rate in 1993 exceeding the former high level of 3.6% in March. The greatest increases in prices were for health services (7.5%), clothing and footwear (5.8%), manufactured goods (5.2%), and leisure (5.0%). Food prices increased 3.8% with costs of fruits and vegetables growing by 16%. -Saulius Girnius ALBANIAN-TURKISH COOPERATION. Turkish Foreign Minister Hikmet Cetin, Albanian President Sali Berisha, and Albanian Prime Minister Aleksander Meksi discussed a trans-Balkan highway project on 6 December, Rilindja reports on 8 December. The road will connect the port of Durres with Skopje, Sofia, and Istanbul, thereby enabling Albania, Macedonia, and Bulgaria to vary their trade patterns and permit Albania and Macedonia in particular to reduce their dependence on Serbia and Greece. Other topics were joint projects in promoting telecommunications; military cooperation; a Turkish trade credit of $15 million; humanitarian aid; and dual taxation. Referring to the Albanian desire for fast integration into NATO, Cetin said that "the North Atlantic Alliance will grow, and Turkey will promote the membership of Albania." Cetin expressed hope that the Kosovo conflict will ease, while Berisha stressed that the sanctions against rump-Yugoslavia should not be lifted until a solution is found in that province. -Fabian Schmidt [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Dan Ionescu THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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