|The only thing one knows about human nature is that it changes. - Oscar Wilde|
No. 235, 09 December 1993
RUSSIA CENTRAL ELECTORAL COMMISSION APPEALS TO VOTERS. The Central Electoral Commission appealed to voters to make their own decision on whether to take part in the 12 December referendum and election, ITAR-TASS reported on 8 December. The appeal said that some Russian federal government and regional leaders had made public statements telling people to go or not to go to the polls. The commission said only voting results could express the will of the population and recommendations from the country's officials should be regarded as personal positions of ordinary voters. On 9 December, President Boris Yeltsin is expected to appear on national television to discuss the referendum and elections. -Vera Tolz OFFICIAL ELECTIONS RESULTS TO TAKE 12 TO 14-DAYS. Russia's Central Electoral Commission said the final results of the 12 December referendum and elections would be announced 12 to 14 days after the event, Interfax reported on 8 December. The agency quoted Aleksei Korobov, director of the commission's statistical department, as saying that period of time was needed for the examination of protocols to be submitted to Moscow by more than 95,000 constituency commissions. -Vera Tolz GAIDAR ON FUTURE PARLIAMENT. The leader of Russia's Choice, Egor Gaidar, warned in an interview with Izvestiya on 8 December that the composition of the future parliament is likely to be similar to that of the old legislature. He said that he believes communists, the conservative Agrarian Party, the bloc of Vladimir Zhirinovsky, and the party of Nikolai Travkin will be well represented in the new parliament. Meanwhile observers are speculating as to who will be the candidates elected in single-member constituencies. According to official data, of the 1,567 registered candidates running for seats in the State Duma in single-member constituencies, almost 60% do not belong to any political bloc. They are expected to decide upon their political affiliation after parliament begins its work. -Alexander Rahr YAVLINSKY ON NEW CONSTITUTION. In an interview with Nezavisimaya gazeta on 8 December, Grigorii Yavlinsky, a leader of the Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin electoral bloc, said he believed that, even if approved at the 12 December referendum, the new constitution would prove to be a temporary one. He said that yet another constitution would probably have to be worked out by 1996. Yavlinsky said the main task of the new parliament would be to work on the next constitution and to prepare for new parliamentary, local and presidential elections by 1996. Asked whether Russia was moving towards authoritarian rule, Yavlinsky said that authoritarianism was impossible in today's Russia, since society had become too free and too open to obey an authoritarian ruler. -Vera Tolz RUTSKOI AND KHASBULATOV TO BE DETAINED THREE MORE MONTHS. Aleksandr Zvyagintsev, a spokesman for the Russian Prosecutor, said on 8-December that the investigation into the events of 3-4 October was to be extended by three months, AFP and Interfax reported. The decision was taken on 3-December and aims to ensure that the investigation is "absolutely comprehensive, absolutely accurate and absolutely unbiased," according to Zvyagintsev. During the investigation, the accused, who include former Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi and former parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov, will not be released from Moscow's Lefortovo prison. Although accused of organizing mass disturbances, they have not yet been officially charged. Another of the accused, former Security Minister Viktor Barannikov, was recently hospitalized. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN IN BRUSSELS. Boris Yeltsin traveled to Brussels to start official visits to Belgium as well as to NATO and the European Union (EU) on 8 December. He held talks on 8 December with the Belgian side, meeting with the king of Belgium, Albert-II, and with Prime Minister Jean-Luc Dehaene and Foreign Minister Willy Claes. At the end of talks, the Russian and Belgian sides signed an agreement of accord and cooperation. Yeltsin was scheduled to sign a joint declaration on partnership and cooperation with the EU on 9 December, but the text could not be finalized in time and a general statement will be issued instead, Russian and Western agencies reported. -Suzanne Crow STRIKE WATCH. From news agencies reports received through late 8 December, it appears that 12 coal mines in the Vorkuta regions remained closed; 3 mine construction agencies in the Sverdlovsk region continued their strike over back wages; communications workers have threatened to stop work on 10 December if their overdue wages are not forthcoming; and employees of the Russian Academy of Sciences protested on 8 December about their low wages, but did not threaten to lay down their pens. -Keith Bush PROSPECTS FOR CONVERSION. According to a deputy chairman of Roskomoboronprom, although Russia inherited some 80% of the defense industry of the former Soviet Union, it can produce only 17% of the military hardware needed without inputs from other states, Interfax reported on 8 December. It will therefore need to collaborate on defense output with other former Soviet republics for another 5-7 years. The official, Boris Lapshev, also disclosed that about 4.5 million people were employed in some 2,000 defense factories in Russia. Nearly 75% of these are scheduled to be privatized during the next two years, but about 450 of the plants-including the "most important"-will remain in state hands. -Keith Bush DENIAL OF MONETARY REFORM. As is customary at this time of year, rumors of monetary reform have been circulating. This time, it is speculated, banknotes will be exchanged at the rate of 10:1 or 100:1, while coins will remain in circulation and will be revalued. According to Interfax on 8 December, the Russian Central Bank has officially denied that monetary reform is contemplated and has complained that small change is being hoarded. -Keith Bush LAND SALES TO BE TAXED. On 8 December, President Yeltsin signed a decree "On the Taxation on the Sale of Plots of Land and Other Land Transactions," ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. Sales of land by individuals will be taxed at the current rates on personal income, e.g., 12% on earnings of up to 1 million rubles a year, 20% on earnings between 1 and 2 million rubles, and so on. (Income tax rates are expected to be altered soon). Corporate bodies will pay a tax rate of 32% and brokers even more. -Keith Bush FILATOV, MEDVEDEV CRITICIZE TATARSTAN, BASHKORTOSTAN, AND TUVA OVER CONSTITUTION. Sergei Filatov, head of the President's Administration, expressed concern on 8 December at the opposition of the leaders of Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, and Tuva to the draft constitution and suggested that an official statement should be issued on the matter, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. Filatov said the leaders of these republics were "seeking not the sovereignty of the republics, but the sovereignty of power," and added that what they were doing disturbs our services, armed forces, and interior ministry bodies stationed on their territories. A similar statement was made at a press conference by Nikolai Medvedev, the head of the department responsible for work with territories of the President's administration, who included Kalmykia with the other three republics. -Ann Sheehy TUVIN PRESIDENT DENIES REPUBLIC WILL SECEDE. Tuvin President Sherig-Ool Oorzhak said in the republican parliament on 8 December that the republic would remain part of Russia whatever the outcome of the referendums on 12 December on the Russian and Tuvin constitutions, ITAR-TASS reported. (The Tuvin constitution includes a provision for secession, and it has been proposed that, if it is approved, a referendum on the matter be held in mid-1994.) Oorzhak said, however, that he hoped the federal authorities would remain true to the spirit and letter of the federal treaty, and referred to Tuva's experience of independence prior to 1994. The President of Marii-El Vladislav Zotin said on 8 December that he is convinced the draft constitution is a transitional document and that the new Federal Assembly will start work by discussing it, Interfax reported. He does not approve of the equality of the republics and regions. -Ann Sheehy REACTIONS IN NORTH OSSETIA, CHECHNYA TO YELTSIN'S VISIT TO NORTH CAUCASUS. On 8 December the North Ossetian parliament and the North Ossetian Prime Minister Sergei Khetagurov both condemned the decision taken during Yeltsin's visit to the North Caucasus to return Ingush refugees to the Prigorodnyi raion on North Ossetia by forcible methods, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. A protest meeting of about 10,000 also gathered outside the parliament. Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev and the commanders of the Chechen armed forces issued a statement saying that the decision to tighten controls on the Chechen border and take control of the railway was a veiled declaration of war. According to AFP, an anonymous aide who travelled to the Caucasus with Yeltsin, said steps were also being taken to prevent Dudaev making any more of the foreign trips which he has so far been able to make at will. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ELECTION DATE SET IN KAZAKHSTAN. Kazakhstani, Russian and Western news agencies reported on 8-December that Kazakhstan's Supreme Soviet had dissolved itself after designating 7 March as the date for elections to a full-time legislature to replace the Soviet-style parliament. Nearly 200 of the Supreme Soviet's 350-deputies had already given up their mandates before the session opened. Having voted to dissolve the Supreme Soviet, remaining deputies debated giving some parliamentary functions to President Nursultan Nazarbaev until the upcoming elections. Some intellectuals promptly protested that Kazakhstan was rapidly becoming an authoritarian state. -Bess Brown NEW HUMAN RIGHTS GROUP CREATED IN BISHKEK. An RFE/RL correspondent in Bishkek reported on 8 December that human rights activists from all Central Asian countries had gathered in Bishkek and set up a Congress of Non-Governmental Human Rights Organizations. The chairman of Kyrgyzstan's Human Rights Defense Committee, Tursunbai Akhunov, was chosen to head the new organization. Shukhrat Ismatullaev and Vasila Inoyatova, both leading figures in the Uzbek opposition movement Birlik, were warned by Tashkent police not to attend the Bishkek meeting; a Birlik member told RFE/RL that Inoyatova, tried and amnestied earlier in the year on charges of having insulted President Islam Karimov, was detained for eight hours. On 7 December a leader of the Birlik women's group Tomaris, Mamura Usmanova, said she had been beaten up in her home because she planned to attend the Bishkek meeting. -Bess Brown GEORGIAN ECONOMICS MINISTER RESIGNS IN PROTEST. On 8 December, the day that bread rationing was finally introduced in Tbilisi, Georgian Economics Minister Mikhail Dzhibuti submitted his resignation on the grounds that he is fundamentally opposed to the government's existing economic policies and its style of management, Radio Tbilisi reported. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIANS SAY FORCE NECESSARY TO MAKE PEACE. An RFE/RL correspondent reported from London on 8 December that Bosnian Foreign Minister Irfan Ljubijankic has called again for the lifting of the arms embargo against his government. He warned against taking commitments by the warring parties at face value, calling them "only words on paper." Ljubijankic added that force is necessary to uphold any peace agreements, and, if the international community cannot or will not provide the necessary muscle, then it should allow the Bosnian government to have the means to do so itself. -Patrick Moore ALBANIAN PARTY LEADERSHIP FRAGMENTED IN MACEDONIA. Muhamed Halili, leader of the Albanian parliamentary faction, commented in the 8 December issue of Nova Makedonija that the forced resignation of the Party for Democratic Prosperity's leadership early December was a result of a power struggle. Whatever differences exist in the party, he claimed, would be resolved in a party congress to be held later in December or perhaps in January. The party, which has been divided over approach to the matter of Albanian rights in Macedonia, has been secretive about internal affairs. Hard-liners seem to be angered by the way in which the arrests of Albanians connected with an allegedly subversive group, the All Albanian Army, were treated. Some observers see the hand of Albania in PDP developments. -Duncan Perry TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTER IN MACEDONIA, BULGARIA. Hikmet Cetin, Turkish foreign minister, visited Skopje on 7 December, accompanied by representatives of Turkey's business community. Cetin, according to MILS and MIC, was warmly received by officials, including President Kiro Gligorov. Matters of mutual interest were discussed, especially the construction of the proposed Tirana-Skopje-Sofia-Istanbul highway. Business representatives identified problems and talked about the possibility of establishing a joint economic council to further cooperation and enhance economic ties. On 8 December Cetin went on to Bulgaria, where he is scheduled to attend the third meeting of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation group and meet with Bulgarian leaders. On the same day he was received by Prime Minister Lyuben Berov, Foreign Minister Stanislav Daskalov and leaders of the parliamentary factions. Both bilateral and regional issues were discussed, and BTA quoted Cetin as saying that current Bulgarian-Turkish relations could serve as an example not only for the Balkans but also for the West. While praising the role of the predominantly Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms in strengthening Bulgarian democracy, he told journalists that Ankara considers the problems of ethnic Turks an internal Bulgarian matter that should be resolved within the framework of the constitution. -Duncan Perry and Kjell Engelbrekt HAVEL MEETS LORD OWEN. David Owen, an international mediator in the Bosnian crisis, arrived in Prague on 8 December for a private visit. In a meeting with President Vaclav Havel, which took place at Owen's request, Owen informed Havel about the perspectives and meaning of the Geneva peace conference on former Yugoslavia. Havel's spokesman told journalists after the meeting that Owen and Havel discussed mainly their differing views of the peace negotiations. Havel told Owen that goals and meaning of these negotiations need to be redefined and that "the principles on which they are based are not optimal." Owen told journalists that the division of Bosnia-Herzegovina into three republics, which will coexist in some sort of union, "appears to be definite." Owen argued that such a solution is not "ideal," but that the main goal is to stop killing and end the war. -Jiri Pehe ROMANIAN PRESIDENT INTERVIEWED BY POLITIKA. On 5 December the Belgrade daily Politika ran an exclusive interview that had been granted by Romania's president, Ion Iliescu. Iliescu seized the opportunity to comment on economic and political conditions plaguing both the world and the Balkan region. Iliescu stressed his belief that the West was passing through "no ordinary" but "a deep [political and economic] crisis." Insofar as the Balkans are concerned, Iliescu deplored the instability and destruction caused by conflicts throughout former Yugoslavia; he further reaffirmed Romania's policy of a "good relationship to all the countries that have been formed out of former Yugoslavia." Iliescu added that Bucharest "has had and should have excellent relations with Serbia." -Stan Markotich DEMONSTRATIONS IN ROMANIA. An estimated 30,000 to 40,000 people marched through Bucharest on 8 December calling for the resignation of Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu's minority left-wing government, Radio Bucharest and Western agencies report. The rally, which was staged by the Alfa Trade Union Cartel and the National Trade Union Bloc, two of Romania's largest labor organizations, was joined by hundreds of Bucharest University students. The protesters demanded a doubling of the minimum wage, faster privatization and rapid distribution of land ownership certificates. Groups of students went to President Ion Iliescu's residence, and some scuffled with presidential guards and police when they tried to paint anti-Iliescu slogans on the walls. In a separate rally in Cluj-Napoca, local university students demanded better living and study conditions, while they colleagues in Iasi continued a general strike to protest official education policies. The Bucharest rally was the third in less than one month, after those on 18 and 29 November. They were described by journalists as having been the largest since the fall Nicolae Ceausescu's communist regime in December 1989. -Dan Ionescu WALESA LASHES OUT AT BROADCASTING COUNCIL. Presidential spokesman Andrzej Drzycimski announced unexpectedly on 8 December that President Lech Walesa has "withdrawn his support" for the three members of the National Broadcasting Council he appointed this spring. The council is the body with constitutional authority to regulate the Polish airwaves and supervise public radio and television. Drzycimski explained that Walesa was displeased that the council had failed to consult its decisions with him. By law, the president appoints three of the council's nine members, including its chairman. He has no power to dismiss them, however; the council is meant to be independent of all political influence. Walesa's "withdrawal of support" thus has political rather than practical significance. In an interview with PAP on 9-December, Walesa nonetheless said he expects his three appointees-Marek Markiewicz, Maciej Ilowiecki, and Ryszard Bender-to resign. Ilowiecki told reporters on 8 December that the president's move came as a shock and that he had learned of it first from radio reports; he defended the council's performance. The reasons for Walesa's outburst remain unclear, but he was apparently displeased by the council's decision on 15 November to appoint a political independent, Wieslaw Walendziak, to head public television, rather than a presidential loyalist. -Louisa Vinton INFLATION REIGNITES IN POLAND? POLAND'S MAIN STATISTICAL OFFICE REPORTED ON 8 DECEMBER THAT CONSUMER PRICES ROSE 3.9% in November, the sharpest monthly increase since January 1993. Food prices led the way, rising 6.8% in November alone. This new upsurge drew worried commentary from two leading dailies. Rzeczpospolita's financial correspondent on 8-December attributed the jump in inflation to the new government's protectionist policies; import barriers have been retained on agricultural goods, and this has failed to counteract steep domestic prices for meat, eggs, and other farm products. Nowa Europa on 9 December expressed concern that the annual inflation rate could rise as high as 36% by year's end, well in excess of the anticipated 32%. The paper called this development a "bad omen" for 1994. -Louisa Vinton POLISH LABOR MINISTER OFF THE HOOK. The Warsaw prosecutor's office officially halted criminal proceedings against Labor Minister Leszek Miller on 8-December, PAP reports. Miller had faced charges in connection with a $1.2 million loan from the CPSU to the Polish communist party, then in its death throes, in early 1990. In his capacity as General Secretary of the Social Democracy of the Polish Republic (SdRP), the successor to the communist party, Miller had been accused of violating hard currency regulations by secretly repaying $600,000 of the loan to an alleged KGB agent in November 1990. Miller, now SdRP deputy chairman, has denied these charges. The investigation against Miller was halted because of "lack of evidence," but former communist First Secretary Mieczyslaw Rakowski, who solicited the loan in the first place, may still face charges. -Louisa Vinton POLAND HOSTS INTERNATIONAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT CONFERENCE. Local government representatives from Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech lands, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine met on 6 December in Poznan at an International Conference on Urban and Communal Cooperation. PAP reported that the participants shared a feeling of insecurity about the stability and future of democratic reforms in their countries. They complained that the burdens of systemic transformation were being off loaded onto local government bodies but without giving them sufficient financial means to implement the tasks. They agreed on the need to renew and intensify links between local and regional authorities in Central and Eastern Europe and to establish relations with partners in Western Europe as a foundation for future European integration. They called for equal treatment with urban and communal authorities of the European Union that were involved in trans-border cooperation. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka CZECH PARLIAMENT AMENDS LAW ON REFUGEES. Czech parliament voted on 8 December to tighten conditions for obtaining refugee status in the Czech Republic. CTK quotes Interior Minister Jan Ruml as saying that the decision was a reaction to Germany's stricter asylum laws. Under the amendment, refugee status will be given only to those who fear persecution from the state from which they came. Economic hardship can no longer be used as justification. Clearly unjustified cases must be refused within seven days. The parliament also voted to give the refugees who meet the new criteria protection under the Czech health insurance and social security systems. -Jiri Pehe KOVAC SURPASSES MECIAR IN SLOVAK POLL. On 8 December the Slovak Statistical Office released statistics on the most trusted politician, based on a November survey. President Michal Kovac, with the trust of 22% of respondents, came out ahead of Premier Vladimir Meciar, with 19%. Party of the Democratic Left Chairman Peter Weiss was third with 16%, while parliament chairman Ivan Gasparovic and Christian Democratic Movement Chairman Jan Carnogursky tied for fourth with 7%. Deputy Premier Roman Kovac and Slovak National Party Chairman Ludovit Cernak tied for sixth place, each with 5%. The percentage of respondents who do not trust any politician fell from 48% to 42%. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK PRESIDENT SIGNS LAW ON NAMES. After a long delay, on 7 December Michal Kovac signed the law on names and surnames that was passed by the parliament on 24 September and which has been criticized by ethnic Hungarian parties. Kovac decided to sign it after assurance from Meciar that the law will allow female members of minority groups to write their surnames on official documents without the feminine "ova" suffix. TASR reports that this will be resolved through a revision of the law on the register of births, marriages and deaths, which the cabinet will soon send to parliament. Presidential spokesman Anton Bodis said the president's decision was made after talks with party representatives on 6 December. -Sharon Fisher CENTRAL EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY EXCHANGE PROGRAM. On 8 December the cultural ministers of Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia signed in Budapest an agreement on a Central European university exchange program, Radio Budapest reports. The program was created in the framework of the Central European Initiative. The program's goal is to promote an exchange of students, the mutual recognition of university degrees, and the strengthening of understanding among peoples. Hungarian Minister of Culture Ferenc Madl praised the regional agreement for making possible intensive cooperation in the field of science and education. A representative of the Czech Republic attended the signing ceremony as an observer; Croatia, Greece, Italy, Switzerland, and Ukraine expressed interest in the program. -Edith Oltay HUNGARY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. The Hungarian parliament's foreign relations committee expressed on 8 December unanimous support for the promulgation of Hungary's associate agreement with the European Union. Foreign Ministry State Secretary Endre Juhasz was quoted by Radio Budapest as calling the agreement a milestone in Hungarian legal practice since under the agreement Hungary commits itself to bringing its legislation in harmony with the legal norms of the European Union. The Hungarian parliament is expected to pass the agreement next week. -Edith Oltay STATE OF ECONOMIC EMERGENCY IN UKRAINE. The Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers has decided to introduce a state of emergency because of the economic crisis, UNIAR reported on 8 December. Among the features of the move are: the introduction of regulated prices, the nationalization of commercial banks, and measures to renew state control over production. The banning of strikes and rallies, as well as a curtailment on the activities of parties is also under consideration. -Ustina Markus LATVIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS CONCLUDED. On 8 December three days of talks in Jurmala ended with no agreement on the future of the Russian radar installation at Skrunda, BNS reports. Russian delegation head Sergei Zotov repeated his country's proposal to withdraw its troops from Latvia by 31 August 1994 if allowed to maintain the radar for six more years. He noted that the "limited" Russian budget made financing its maintenance difficult, and added that Russia was willing to allow Latvian specialists to work in it. The next round of talks will be held in Moscow on 20-21 December. -Saulius Girnius UN RESOLUTION NOTES "UNRESOLVED ISSUES" IN LATVIA, ESTONIA. On 8 December the UN General Assembly Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Committee approved by consensus a resolution stating that there are "unresolved issues" in Estonia and Latvia with the non-native population, an RFE/RL correspondent in New York reports. The initial resolution, proposed by Russia, had noted "the persistence of serious problems" for Russian-speakers in those countries, but due to Estonian efforts the text was toned down. It did not go into the merits of the charges, but simply asked the UN Secretary General to report to the next General Assembly on progress in human rights in the two countries. -Saulius Girnius LATVIAN PRESIDENT VISITS FINLAND. On 8 December Guntis Ulmanis, accompanied by Baltic and Nordic Affairs' Minister Gunars Meierovics and Forestry Minister Kazimirs Slakota, made a one-day visit to Helsinki, BNS reports. He held talks with his counterpart Mauno Koivisto and Prime Minister Esko Aho. At a news conference Ulmanis stressed the need for the swift withdrawal of Russian armed forces from Latvia and said that international pressure was needed to convince Russia to abandon its radar station at Skrunda. -Saulius Girnius TWO ALBANIAN DEPUTIES TURN INDEPENDENT. According to Rilindja Demokratike on 8 December, parliamentary deputies Petrit Kalakula and Abdi Baleta, both former members of the ruling Albanian Democratic Party, have become independents. Their departure for the DP is neither a surprise nor a blow to the Democrats. Baleta was operating as an independent already, having been removed from his post as cabinet minister and chairman of the Tirana District of the Democratic Party for an allegedly "pro-fascist" statement in the Albanian parliament. Kalakula challenged on several occasions key tenets of government policy, thus alienating himself from the DP. -Robert Austin DISNEY CARTOONS ELUDE SANCTIONS. Politika reported on 1 December that Disney characters will reappear soon in the daily. In January 1993, Disney announced it would freeze comic strips publication in keeping with UN sanctions. According to the daily, Disney representatives for southern Europe and Politika Publishing House officials agreed in Athens to resume publication. -Milan Andrejevich [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Roman Solchanyk and Dan Ionescu THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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