|Every man passes his life in the search after friendship. - Emerson|
No. 229, 01 December 1993
CIS MORE CHARGES OVER NUCLEAR WEAPONS. Western press agencies on 2 December carried reports based on an article appearing in the current issue of Moscow News in which Major General Vitalii Yakovlev, deputy chief of staff of the Russian Defense Ministry's Main Directorate for Nuclear Weapons, warns that it might be unsafe, and even impossible, to dismantle nuclear warheads from Ukraine if they have exceeded their six-year service life. He also warned that the warheads in place could be used as "radiological weapons" if the radioactive material were dispersed over a target area. This latter argument lacks credibility, however, for if Ukraine were to disassemble the weapons to remove electronic blocking devices, it would almost certainly be able to reassemble the fissile cores into functional fission weapons. Radioactive wastes could also be used as "radiological weapons" even in the absence of nuclear warheads, although the utility of such weapons appears minimal at best. The general's remarks are evidently part of a new Russian campaign to portray the condition of nuclear warheads in Ukraine as unsafe, and thereby increase pressure for their rapid transfer to Russia. John Lepingwell RUSSIA ZLENKO ANSWERS KOZYREV. Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko responded to the Russian foreign minister's attack on Ukraine's START-1 ratification at the CSCE meeting in Rome on 1 December. Zlenko's speech, however, appears to have been largely a restatement of Ukraine's intent to become non-nuclear, together with a defense of the conditions imposed on ratification. He noted, as has President Kravchuk, that the weapons are part of Ukraine's "material wealth" and that other states must discuss compensation and security guarantees. Zlenko also claimed that the warheads in Ukraine pose no safety threat. Summaries of his remarks were reported by Radio Ukraine and an RFE/RL correspondent in Rome. In Kiev, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 1 December that Kravchuk has denied a Washington Times report claiming that Ukraine is trying to obtain launch authorization codes for its ICBMs. John Lepingwell CONSTITUTIONAL COURT SUSPENDS MEMBERSHIP OF ZORKIN AND LUCHIN. On 1 December the Constitutional Court suspended the membership of its former chairman, Valerii Zorkin, along with that of another judge, Viktor Luchin. This move deprives Zorkin and Luchin of their immunity from prosecution. In October, Yeltsin's chief of staff, Sergei Filatov, threatened to put Zorkin on trial for "having created the legal base" for the parliament's uprising against the president. Citing the provision of the Law on the Constitutional Court banning its judges from political activities, the judges accused Zorkin of politicking in the form of opposition to the president . Among the instances cited by the Court, according to Russian television newscasts of 1 December, was Zorkin's criticism of the draft constitution in the course of his interview with the Ostankino TV show "Politburo" on 26 November. Luchin was blamed for having agreed to run for a seat in the new parliament on the list of the pro-communist Agrarian Party. Five judges reportedly voted for this decision and four against. Julia Wishnevsky KOSTIKOV SAYS CRITICISM OF DRAFT CONSTITUTION PERMITTED. Presidential spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov issued a statement saying that the proposed constitution would "inevitably" be amended after the referendum, Reuters reported on 1 December. He stated that constructive criticism of the draft constitution was acceptable but that "groundless rejection [of the constitution] out of pure party egoism and political revenge" was inadmissible. Kostikov clearly wanted to deflect opposition charges, such as from the bloc of economist Grigorii Yavlinsky, that President Boris Yeltsin had behaved in an authoritarian manner when he told party leaders that criticism of the draft constitution was forbidden. Alexander Rahr RUSSIA'S CHOICE FURIOUS WITH SHUMEIKO. Russia's Choice rejected remarks made by one of its leaders, First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko, who had suggested banning parties that criticize the draft constitution, AFP reported on 1 December. The leader of Russia's Choice, Egor Gaidar, said that his bloc was absolutely against such a proposal. Another democratic activist, world chess champion Gary Kasparov, stated that Shumeiko's appeal resembled a "provocation" and "harmed" Russia's Choice. The Arbitration Court rejected Shumeiko's proposal. Alexander Rahr YAVLINSKY REJECTS RUSSIA'S CHOICE CALL FOR UNITY. The pro-Yeltsin election bloc Russia's Choice again called on all democratic groups to unite behind single candidates in the 12 December elections, Reuters reported on 1 December. The bloc's spokesman, Nikolai Arzhannikov, proposed that all democratic blocs agree on a single candidate in each electoral district. Leaders of the bloc had already said earlier that they were concerned that reform opponents might win in some constituencies if the democrats remained fragmented. On 1 December, liberal economist Grigorii Yavlinsky, a leader of the Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin bloc, rejected Russia's Choice proposal, saying his people would not unite with "government" parties which fail to admit their mistakes. Vera Tolz RUSSIA RETURNS TO EASTERN EUROPE. A report in Nezavisimaya gazeta of 1 December raises some interesting questions about Russia's current foreign policy strategy: "Russian diplomats were mistakenly accused of not having a clearly thought out concept of foreign policy," says the report, referring to the criticisms of Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev's policies voiced frequently in 1992 and early 1993. On the contrary, "there was a concept then, only it couldn't be made public" because it would have irritated Western partners. Now, says the paper, that concept has been coordinated and brought to life giving Russia's diplomacy an entirely "new tone." The author contends that Western reluctance to embrace Eastern Europe is being used by Russia to expand its influence in the region. Suzanne Crow FURTHER SUBSIDIES ANNOUNCED. Meeting at Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin's vacation residence in Valdai on 30 November, key cabinet ministers and other officials approved the allocation of further subsidies totaling nearly 1.5 trillion rubles, Interfax reported on 1-December. The defense complex was awarded about 500 billion rubles, the agroindustrial complex 435-billion rubles, the coal industry 244 billion rubles, and the northern regions 278.4 billion rubles. Those present were said to have provided for a 1.5 trillion-ruble increase in budget revenues, although no details were supplied on how this was done. It was claimed that the projected budget deficit in 1993 remains unchanged at 10% of GDP. Observers were quoted as labeling the exercise a pre-election handout. Keith Bush MELIKYAN ON INCOME DIFFERENTIATION. Minister of Labor Gennadii Melikyan disclosed some interesting figures on the increasing income differentiation in Russia in an interview with Trud on 1 December. Melikyan said that the highest wage in Russia now exceeds the lowest by 26 times-up from a difference of 5-6 times in 1991. Melikyan claimed that such a broad differentiation is unknown in developed market economies and said that the government should use tax and minimum wage policy to narrow it. He noted that the minimum wage is now at 7,740 rubles per month as compared to a minimum cost of living of 40,000 rubles and an average wage of 100,000 rubles. Given the current dire state of public finances, there was no hope of indexing the minimum wage to increases in the cost of living, the Labor Minister said. Erik Whitlock YELTSIN TO VISIT NORTH CAUCASUS? BOTH ITAR-TASS AND INTERFAX CARRIED REPORTS ON 2 DECEMBER THAT YELTSIN MIGHT BE VISITING INGUSHETIA AND NORTH OSSETIA ON 6 DECEMBER. Interfax said that he would go first to Ingushetia, then to the disputed Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia, and finally meet North Caucasian leaders in Vladikavkaz. It seems doubtful that a visit by Yeltsin could break the stalemate between North Ossetia and Ingushetia over the return of Ingush refugees to Prigorodnyi raion, but Yeltsin may feel that he could gain votes in favor of the draft Russian constitution, to which there is considerable opposition in the North Caucasus. Yeltsin's only previous visit to the North Caucasus was in March 1991 in connection with Ingush demands for the return of Prigorodnyi raion. Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA COSSACK UNITS TO BE FORMED. The Ministry of Defense has issued an order to start recreating Cossack formations in the Russian armed forces, Radio Mayak reported on 29 November. It is proposed that a special Cossack parade uniform be introduced, and that the historic names of Cossack ranks be restored. Radio Rossii reported on 1 December, citing RIA, that frontier units made up entirely of Cossacks would soon appear on Russia's frontiers. They would be created primarily where Cossacks have traditionally resided, but also on Russia's frontier with the Baltic republics. Ann Sheehy GEORGIA, ABKHAZIA, REACH PRELIMINARY AGREEMENT. Two days of negotiations in Geneva under UN auspices ended on 1 December with the signing by Georgia and Abkhazia of an eight-point "memorandum of understanding", Western agencies reported. The agreement, characterized by Swiss mediator Edouard Brunner and by Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Pastukhov as an important step toward a political settlement of the Abkhaz conflict, commits both sides to desist from using force during continued negotiations and provides for the exchange of all prisoners, the return of refugees, the deployment of additional international observers, and the preparation by UN and CSCE experts of proposals on Abkhazia's future status pending renewed negotiations in Moscow or Geneva beginning 11 January 1994. Liz Fuller CSCE FAILS TO AGREE ON KARABAKH FORMULATION. Participants in the CSCE foreign ministers' annual conference in Rome failed on 1 December to reach agreement on the wording of a statement on Nagorno-Karabakh after Armenia objected to a reference to Azerbaijan's territorial integrity, and Azerbaijan similarly protested a proposed Armenian reference to the right to self-determination, according to an RFE/RL correspondent. Armenian Foreign Minister Vahan Papazyan had earlier criticized Azerbaijan's rejection of the latest CSCE timetable for stabilizing the situation, noting that the Karabakh Armenian authorities had agreed to it under pressure from Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan. Azerbaijan's Foreign Minister Hasan Hasanov had criticized the CSCE mediation effort as consistently biased toward Armenia. Liz Fuller and Roland Eggleston CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE RUSSIAN NATIONALIST GROUP IN KAZAKHSTAN TO APPEAL FOR DUAL CITIZENSHIP. The small but vocal Russian nationalist movement "Lad," headquartered in Almaty, plans to appeal to the heads of state of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan to conclude an agreement on dual citizenship, ITAR-TASS reported on 1 December. The group is presumably responding to expressions of concern by Russian political figures over the fate of Russians living outside the Russian Federation in the successor states to the USSR. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev raised the issue of dual citizenship, which Kazakhstan does not accept, during his recent visit to that country. Kazakh officials and intellectuals have reacted angrily to what they perceive as Russian meddling in Kazakhstan's fragile interethnic peace. Bess Brown INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS ON SERBIA. According to an RFE/RL correspondent, the last session of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe foreign ministers' meeting, which opened in Rome on 30 November, was delayed on 1 December by disagreements over the final communique. According to a conference spokesman, disagreement focused in part on the issue of the lifting of sanctions against rump Yugoslavia, with US and Germany divided. In another development, The New York Times of 2 December reports that the US and Great Britain have blocked a Russian plan to provide rump Yugoslavia with natural gas to be used to heat homes, hospitals and schools during the harsh winter months. Since all resolutions of the UN sanctions committee must be endorsed unanimously, the US and British stand has effectively killed the Russian plan for now, the daily notes. Stan Markotich DIPLOMATIC EVENTS CONCERNING MACEDONIA. Stevo Crvenkovski, Macedonia's Minister of Foreign Affairs, in a letter sent to UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali and released in Nova Makedonija on 2-December, called for UN assistance in resuming talks with Greece on outstanding bilateral differences. Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou indicated that he was unwilling to negotiate with Macedonia so long as that state included the word "Macedonia" in its official name. On 1 December during the CSCE's Rome meeting, Greece again blocked Macedonia's entrance into that organization. Meanwhile, MIC and AFP reported that Greece's foreign policy was criticized on 1 December by the general assembly of the Western European Union meeting in Paris. Member states called upon Athens to recognize Macedonia. The organization may be contemplating deferring the vote on Greece's full membership in that body until after the Greek-Macedonian dispute is resolved. Duncan Perry SERBIAN OPPOSITION FAIL TO UNITE. Belgrade TV reports on 1 December that after three days of negotiations leading opposition parties have failed to agree to run on a single list against the ruling Socialists. The five-party coalition Democratic Opposition Movement (DEPOS), which initiated the talks, blamed leaders of the Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS) and the Democratic Party (DS) for their inability to unite. DEPOS insisted that all democratically-oriented parties temporarily gave up their interests for the good of Serbia. DS leader Zoran Djindjic agreed that the opposition unite, but said such efforts should not be hastily made prior to the 19 December parliamentary election. DSS President Vojislav Kostunica remarked that opposition parties differ widely in their understanding of democracy and the settlement of the Serbian national question. The Serbian Radical Party did not attend the talks. Meanwhile, Belgrade TV aired pre-election campaign spots for numerous opposition parties after the main evening news. Prior to that broadcast Socialist Party candidates said it would be inappropriate to engage in an expensive election campaign while the population starves. Last weekend DEPOS candidates campaigned in Belgrade by handing out free loaves of bread, while opposition candidates focused their activities by campaigning in the rural areas where the Socialists and Radicals enjoy broad support. Milan Andrejevich SERBIA'S SOARING INFLATION. According to figures released by the Federal Statistics Office on 1 December, the November inflation rate for Yugoslavia was 20,190%. Mirjana Rankovic, deputy director of the federal agency, told reporters the hourly rate was 0.7% and the daily rate 18.7% and that annual inflation is running at 286 billion per cent. Economists in Belgrade say the inflation figures are nearing those recorded in Germany following World War I. The National Bank of Yugoslavia announced it has withdrawn five bank notes and issued a new 500 million dinar note worth $6, Belgrade TV reported. Milan Andrejevich POLISH BUSINESS CRITICAL OF GOVERNMENT. At a press conference on 29 November leaders of the Business Centre Club (BCC), one of the three most important business groups in Poland, criticized the government's plans to raise income tax rates and warned that they would act as an anti-stimulant. The politicians were accused of causing confusion in the economy by changing regulations and preferring "a large state with a bloated budget," Rzeczpospolita reported on 30 November. According to Chairman Marek Goliszewski, the BCC is prepared to cooperate with the government, though it has had no response from Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak to its suggestion almost a month ago that he establish an Entrepreneurs Council to advise the government on economic legislation. Goliszewski called for the reactivating of the government's Office for Small Business at least until such time as an economics ministry could take responsibility for the entire economy. Representatives of the Polish Employers' Confederation, which includes both private and state employers, said at a separate press conference on 30 November that the tax increases would stunt investment and lead to still greater unemployment, PAP said. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka SENATE SPEAKER COMPLAINS ABOUT MEDIA. Senate Speaker and member of Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak's Polish Peasant Party (PSL), Adam Struzik complained that media reports about the premier's choice of a beauty queen as press secretary and his recent hunting expedition amounted to "a huge attack against the governing coalition and the PSL in particular," PAP reported on 30 November. The hunting expedition in the company of Minister of State Mieczyslaw Wachowski, President Lech Walesa's right-hand man, occasioned much comment because hunting is still perceived by many Poles as a rich man's pastime, favored especially by corrupt communist officials in the 1970s. Gazeta Wyborcza wrote on 29 November that, in order to go hunting, Pawlak had turned down an invitation to attend a charity concert, claiming "important matters of state and previous commitments." It also expressed surprise at the hunters' use of Mercedes limousines when only a few weeks earlier the government had opted in favor of Polish-produced Polonez cars as part of a campaign against conspicuous consumption. Pawlak still enjoys top ratings in popularity polls. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka CATHOLIC PRESS AGENCY INAUGURATED. The Catholic Information Agency (KAI) inaugurated a regular service of news and commentary on 1 December in Warsaw, in the hope of "breaking down the wall of mutual misunderstanding and mistrust that has arisen over the past four years between the institutional Church and most of the media," as Director Marcin Przeciszewski said. The agency, which was organized at the initiative of the Polish Episcopate, is an autonomous agency with a lay management, although five bishops sit on its Programming Council. It was set up with the support of the US Episcopate. It aims to cover not only all aspects of religious life throughout the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union but also problems of general interest to people "who are seeking the meaning of truth and values that give dignity to human life," Bishop Jozef Zycinski told PAP. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka MECIAR ON SLOVAK-HUNGARIAN RELATIONS. At a three-hour meeting on 1 December representatives of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia discussed with Bratislava citizens several pressing issues, including that of the Hungarian minority. In response to questions about threats of military attack by Hungary, Meciar said "no military force is threatening Slovakia, and we are not threatening anyone." Meciar said that because Hungary and Slovakia are both aimed at joining the European Union, the two countries are striving to improve cooperation. At the same time, however, he accused ethnic Hungarian politicians in Slovakia of purposely increasing tension between the two nations, and said that "any attempt to change the borders would mean a new war." He assured his listeners that Slovakia is able to protect itself, even though "it has not invested as much in armaments as has Hungary," TASR reports. Sharon Fisher MDS MEMBERS ON SLOVAK MEDIA. Also at the MDS rally, Minister of Culture Dusan Slobodnik attacked the media. He was quoted as saying that "the majority of journalists were educated by the communist party" and are now trying to restore Czechoslovakia. "These journalists knowingly damage the Slovak economy," Slobodnik claimed, and their reporting hurts the "reputation and trust of Slovakia abroad." And Premier Meciar deplored what he described as the hatred with which some journalists attack representatives of the government and the MDS, accusing the media of "crossing the boundaries of decency." Meciar also spoke of a list which he said he received from the late Roman Zelenay before his death which includes the names of 40 journalists allegedly paid by foreign or domestic political forces to write against the government. He added that, in case those suspicions were confirmed, the names would be made public, TASR reports. Sharon Fisher ROMANIANS SPLIT IN NATIONAL DAY CELEBRATIONS. Thousands of Romanians marked the national day with competing rallies on 1 December-one sponsored by the opposition alliance, the Democratic Convention of Romania in Bucharest, the other by the authorities in Alba Iulia. The DCR president, Emil Constantinescu, read out a proclamation of the alliance at the Bucharest rally. Among other things, the proclamation said the dire state of the nation at present was "the result of the incompetence and the corruption of a minority that strives to monopolize privilege and power," Radio Bucharest reported on the same day. Western agencies said many of the participants in the Bucharest rally shouted pro-royalist slogans and held portraits of former king Michael, whom the authorities banned from attending the celebrations. In his speech in Alba Iulia, president Ion Iliescu attacked those who are "wasting our energies in sterile confrontations and divisions that have no base in reality"-an obvious hint to the opposition's decision not to participate in the official celebrations. Romanian television reported an incident at the end of the official rally, when police forces hindered representatives of the opposition, who had refused to be on the podium but attended the ceremony privately, from marching together with sympathizers to the headquarters of the Democratic Party-National Salvation Front. It was stated that the route chosen by the opposition representatives was one of "maximum restriction, protected by special troops." Michael Shafir. BULGARIAN MINERS LAUNCH STRIKE. Several thousand Bulgarian ore miners went on strike on 1 December, complaining that their interests have long been neglected by the government. Representing miners within the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in Bulgaria (CITUB), Pencho Tokmakchiev told Reuters that while some 9,000 had laid down their tools for one hour, over 1,000 miners were already on permanent strike. The miners are reportedly demanding that the government should speed up the payment of overdue wages; they have also asked for a comprehensive policy on mining to be drawn up. The CITUB has said that it is prepared to step up strikes in case the cabinet fails to meet the demands within two weeks. Meanwhile, the second-largest Bulgarian trade union, Podkrepa, has declared it may join the strike. On several occasions during the past weeks Podkrepa strongly criticized the government's overall performance as having "totally failed" to implement the original reform plan. Government officials have stated that talks with unions have begun. Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT REOPENS DEBATE ON POLICE FILES. On 1 December the Bulgarian National Assembly voted in favor of reopening the debate on secret police files, a controversial issue which has repeatedly been removed from the parliamentary agenda. BTA reports that nine deputies voted against, while 89-abstained and 110 supported the motion. No more than two members of the former communist Bulgarian Socialist Party, which makes up the largest caucus, backed the idea of reopening the debate. Lyubomir Pavlov of the Union of Democratic Forces, the author of a draft law offering the public access to the files, called the files a time bomb which should detonate "the sooner the better." Pavlov said the content of many files has already leaked out to people involved in organized crime and is being used to influence the outcome of business deals and political trials. Kjell Engelbrekt RUSSIA REITERATES ACCUSATIONS AGAINST BALTICS. On 1 December Russia's UN ambassador Yulii Vorontsov once again accused Estonia and Latvia of violating the human rights of their Russian-speaking populations and urged passage of Russia's draft resolution calling upon Estonia and Latvia to "fully implement the recommendations by impartial international experts" on human rights. Addressing the UN General Assembly's Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee. Vorontsov claimed that Estonia has set up a mechanism for deporting some 44,000 retired ex-Soviet military servicemen and dependents, and that some 1,000 deportation orders have been drawn up in Latvia. "We cannot remain indifferent to the fate of hundreds of thousands of our fellow citizens," he added, as cited by an RFE/RL correspondent. Meanwhile at a conference in Moscow on the fiftieth anniversary of the Big Three conference in Teheran, Russia's Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said that only the international community can influence Estonia and Latvia to guarantee the rights of their Russian-speaking population, BNS reported on 1 December. Lavrov stated that the main aim of Russia's foreign policy is the struggle with "aggressive nationalism" and claimed a role for Russia as peacekeeper on the territory of the former USSR. Dzintra Bungs CSCE WANTS RUSSIAN TROOPS OUT OF THE BALTICS. On 1 December, the CSCE foreign ministers urged Russia to speed up its troop pullout process from Estonia and Latvia. They also called on Russia to present a specific timetable for the withdrawal process, Baltic and Western agencies reported on 1 December. Dzintra Bungs RUSSIAN-ESTONIAN SUMMIT DISCUSSED. Vasilii Svirin, head of the Russian negotiating team with Estonia, arrived in Tallinn on 1 December to discuss with his Estonian counterpart and Defense Minister Juri Luik issues related to an Estonian-Russian summit and a timetable for the withdrawal of Russian troops. That same day in Moscow, Russian officials including Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin criticized Estonia for continuing its claims on former Estonian territory attached by the USSR after World War II to Russia's Pskov region. Karasin accused Tallinn of aggravating bilateral relations. Dzintra Bungs BELARUS ASSOCIATION FAVORS PRESIDENCY. Interfax reported on 1 December that the largest association in the Belarusian parliament, the conservative "Belarus" with over 120 members, spoke in favor of the introduction of the presidential institution. The address called for introducing a presidency will grant greater possibilities to the executive, which is an important condition for improving the situation in the country. In addition, a strong elected president would ensure the normal functioning of state administrative bodies and other institutions during future elections to the Supreme Soviet and local councils. The address stressed the need to hold presidential elections in the spring of 1994. Ustina Markus KEBICH MEETS CHERNOMYRDIN. Belarusian Prime Minister Vyacheslau Kebich met with Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin at a Russian government retreat in Valdae on 1 December, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. Their discussions focused on developing further economic ties, Belarus's entry into the ruble zone, and its energy debt to Russia. The meeting follows last week's ratification by Belarusian deputies of a monetary union agreement which the two prime ministers signed in September. Since its signing, Deputy Prime Minister Yegor Gaidar is said to have set new conditions for Minsk. According to the president of the National Bank of Belarus, Stanislau Bahdankevich, Gaidar insists that Belarusian legislation be amended to allow for the creation of a common market for land, property and securities. Ustina Markus UKRAINE'S EASTERN REGIONS GRANTED MORE AUTHORITY. On 29 November President Leonid Kravchuk issued a decree granting authorities in the regional state administrations of Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Zaporizhzhya, and Luhansk, the right to manage property owned by the state, Interfax reported on 1 December. This "experiment" is to last from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 1995. Interfax reports that local observers view the decree as a measure to weaken separatist tendencies in the regions which are populated mainly by Russian speakers. Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Roman Solchanyk and Dan Ionescu THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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