Each friend represents a world in us, a world possibly not born until they arrive, and it is only by this meeting that a new world is born. - Anaiis Nin
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 228, 30 November 1993

	Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.


SHUMEIKO URGES BAN ON PARTIES. On 29 November "Vesti" reported
that Vladimir Shumeiko, First Deputy Prime Minister responsible
for overseeing the 12 December referendum on the new Russian
constitution, addressed the Central Election Commission with
a formal request urging the CEC to remove two electoral blocs
from the list of contenders running for seats in the new parliament,
which, Shumeiko said, "were openly calling for a rejection of
the new constitution". The blocs in question are the communists
and the Democratic Party of Russia, led by the prominent politician
Nikolai Travkin, film director Stanislav Govorukhin and economist
Oleg Bogomolov. According to "Novosti," Shumeiko also urged the
CEC to review the activities of three other blocs-the Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin
bloc, the Civic Union, and the Agrarian Party-which had also
criticized the draft constitution. -Julia Wishnevsky

YELTSIN WARNING CRITICIZED. Meanwhile, Gennadii Burbulis, a leader
of the pro-government Russia's Choice bloc, and Yeltsin's legal
advisor Yurii Baturin told RFE/RL on 29-November that in their
television addresses they both disagreed with the ban on candidates
to criticize the president and draft constitution. Every politician,
Baturin argued, is entitled to call for changes in the state
constitutional structure by lawful political means. Julia Wishnevsky

ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN UPDATE. The leader of the Party of Russian
Unity and Concord, Sergei Shakhrai, suggested that democratic
blocs should agree on supporting joint candidates in single-member
constituencies, ITAR-TASS reported on 29 November. The leader
of "Russia's Choice", Egor Gaidar, warned that "reactionary forces"
have recovered from their defeat in October and may regain the
initiative. He said the government wants to continue to work
in its present composition after the elections. He noted that
the status of the government will be enhanced after the adoption
of the new constitution. -Alexander Rahr

TO PARLIAMENT. The maverick businessman Artem Tarasov came to
Moscow to launch his election campaign as an independent candidate
for the new Russian parliament, Russian Television reported on
29 November. Tarasov, who is presently based in London, made
his name during perestroika, when he became one of the first
Soviet millionaires. He had a history of personal conflicts with
Mikhail Gorbachev and former Soviet law-enforcement agencies,
which accused him and his company "Istok" of illegal business
activity. In 1991, Tarasov was forced to leave the country. In
September of this year, however, the Russian General Procuracy
dropped its earlier accusations against him. -Victor Yasmann

Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets was quoted by ITAR-TASS
on 29 November as saying that if serious flaws are found in the
draft constitution before it is adopted, it could be amended
by presidential decree. Soskovets argued that the unorthodox
method of amending the draft constitution would be justified
because the draft had been proposed by presidential decree in
the first place. -Vera Tolz

until 6-October the Chairman of the Russian Constitutional Court,
returned to work as a court justice on 29 November after an illness,
saying that he would not resign his post. Zorkin alleged that
President Yeltsin had forced him to resign as court chairman
after the crushing of the opposition on 3-4 October; Zorkin had
attempted to negotiate a compromise during the crisis. Nikolai
Vitruk, acting Constitutional Court chairman, told Interfax that
Zorkin should resign altogether from the court since, if he remained,
it would be unable to function. Several other justices who had
had disagreements with Zorkin earlier in 1993 supported this
view. The former chairman, however, told an RFE/RL correspondent
that he had no intention of resigning. -Wendy Slater

ECONOMIC FORECAST FOR 1994. The Ministry of Economics has prepared
a forecast of economic activity in 1994, Delovoi Mir reported
on 24 November. It sees declines of 5% in GDP (against 12% in
1993), 6% in industrial output (15%), and 4-5% in agricultural
production. Monthly inflation rates are expected to decline to
5-7% by the end of 1994 (compared with an average monthly rate
of about 20% in 1993). The projections were used as the basis
for the government statement on economic policy at the end of
1993 and into 1994 that was published in Rossiiskie vesti on
23 November. -Keith Bush

STRIKE UPDATE. Coalminers in Russia's largest mining area, the
Kuzbass, have postponed the strike they were threatening to begin
on 1 December and talks took place on 29 November in Moscow between
miners' representatives and the government. Miners in the northern
city of Vorkuta have also postponed their strike, RFE/RL's Moscow
correspondent was told on 29-November by the deputy chairman
of the Independent Miners' Union, Aleksandr Marmelyukov, but,
Marmelyukov said, the strike would still go ahead if the government
failed to meet the workers' demands and, if it does, the union
will demand the government's resignation. Meanwhile, Interfax
said on 29 November that the strike of gas workers in Nadym in
northern Russia was spreading and that the strikers were demanding
the resignation of the cabinet. -Elizabeth Teague

approved decrees "On the Reformulation of Credit Arrears Due
to Enterprises of the Fuel-Energy Complex" and "On Government
Support Measures for the Agro-Industrial complex in 1993-94,"
Kommersant-Daily reported on 27 November. Few specific details
of the decrees were provided, but the item was headed "The Government
Writes Off the Debts of the Agricultural and Oil Workers." The
government is said to owe the agricultural sector some 2 trillion
rubles for state purchases this year, including 500 billion rubles
for grain deliveries. -Keith Bush

NEW ATTACK ON GERASHCHENKO. Writing in Izvestiya of 20 November,
the chief adviser to the Council of Ministers' Analysis and Planning
Group, Andrei Illarionov, has made an outspoken attack on the
chairman of the Russian Central Bank (RCB), Viktor Gerashchenko.
The customary sins are ascribed to Gerashchenko, including his
reckless abandon over the money supply, the reciprocal settlement
of enterprise debts, the over-generous extension of technical
credits to other former Soviet republics, and the notorious exchange
of banknotes. But Illarionov makes a new and potentially serious
charge. In conditions of high inflation, the Central Bank stands
to make huge profits. Of the 535 billion rubles in profits made
in 1992, 371-billion went to the "economic incentive fund" for
bank staff. One week later, Interfax reported without comment
on 27 November that Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin has ordered
the RCB to remit a further 300 billion rubles of its profit to
the federal budget. -Keith Bush

defense ministers of Russia and Kuwait on 29 November signed
a defense agreement that provides for increased exchanges and
cooperation, according to ITAR-TASS. Interfax reports that the
Kuwaiti defense minister is to witness a demonstration of the
S-300 (SA-10) surface-to-air missile system, apparently against
a SCUD-like target. The Russian military has been eager to sell
arms to Persian Gulf states, and the SA-10 has been billed as
a better anti-SCUD system than the US Patriot. On a related note,
Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakrai informed workers at a military
factory in Ekaterinburg that he believed that the arms export
licensing process should be loosened, with the government simply
publishing a list of banned items, according to ITAR-TASS on
29 November. -John Lepingwell

HEALTH INDICATORS. The good news on the health front is that
no major outbreak of influenza is expected this season, in the
judgement of a chief expert in infectious diseases, as quoted
by Interfax on 29 November. The bad news is that some 10,000
cases of diphtheria had been reported throughout Russia during
the first 10 months of 1993, with a total of 300 deaths from
the disease. As for AIDS, the relatively low figure of 692 cases
has been registered in Russia, with 96-deaths since 1987. -Keith


CLINTON, KRAVCHUK, DISCUSS START-1. Presidents Bill Clinton and
Leonid Kravchuk discussed the recent Ukrainian parliament ratification
of START-1 during a 30-minute long telephone conversation on
29-November, the New York Times reported. According to a White
House spokesperson, Clinton expressed his concern over the conditions
attached to ratification, while Kravchuk reiterated his intent
to resubmit the treaty to the new Ukrainian parliament, scheduled
to be elected in March 1994. Reuters on 29 November reported
that in an interview published in Le Figaro, Kravchuk had proposed
that 50 missiles be dismantled by March 1994, although the plan
may be conditional on Western financial and technical support.
This would represent the bulk of the 36% reduction in ICBMs envisioned
in the Ukrainian ratification resolution. Some 20 SS-19s have
already been dismantled, although the warheads remain in Ukraine.
-John Lepingwell

Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev departed for Rome on 29 November
for a CSCE foreign ministers meeting. Before leaving, Kozyrev
told Ostankino TV that he intended to raise the issues of "aggressive
nationalism" and "the destruction of the regime of non-proliferation
of nuclear weapons" at the meeting. Kozyrev is also expected
to push for formal recognition of Russia's leading role in peacekeeping
within the former Soviet Union, and for the establishment of
the post of CSCE High Commissioner for Ethnic Minorities. -John


nationwide TV during the evening of 29 November Kyrgyzstan's
President Askar Akaev announced that a referendum on his presidency
will be held on 24 January, an RL correspondent in Bishkek reported.
According to Interfax, Akaev said earlier that he was considering
holding a referendum on his rule because of the unstable political
and economic situation in the country. Throughout 1993 the democratic
opposition has called for the resignation of Akaev's prime minister,
holding him responsible for the continuing economic decline in
Kyrgyzstan, while the Communist deputies in the Supreme Soviet
have tried to block most of Akaev's reform initiatives. -Bess


reports on 30-November that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic
and Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic showed no sign of compromise
at the first session of the European Union's peace talks in Geneva
the previous day. The discussions involving the 12 EU foreign
ministers and the presidents of Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro,
Bosnia-Herzegovina, and of the Croat and Serb breakaway republics
in Bosnia are nonetheless slated to continue. The EU is trying
to persuade Bosnian Serbs to give up some 3% of the territory
they have conquered in return for a gradual lifting of sanctions
against Serbia-Montenegro, but, as US and UN spokesmen have pointed
out, the sanctions are a UN affair and not that of the EU. Milosevic,
for his part, slammed the sanctions as "genocide" and denied
that Serbs are playing any part in the Bosnian fighting: "I do
not know how you envisage to stop the war between Muslims and
Croats by sanctions against the Serbs, and I do not know either
how you intend to explain to your children . . . with what right
you made 12 million European citizens a practicing ground for
the implementation of the, hopefully, last genocide in this century."
Karadzic added succinctly: "We will not give up a centimeter
of our territory." Elsewhere, The Observer reported at length
on 28 November on Karadzic and his hard-line politics. -Patrick

. . . WHILE CROATIA REMAINS APPREHENSIVE. International mediators
nonetheless tried to put a good spin on the news from Geneva,
and the New York Times on 30 November quotes French Foreign Minister
Alain Juppe as concluding that "contact had been broken and now
it is restored." Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, for his
part, said that he would no longer accept the idea of a demilitarized
Bosnia unless the ban were extended to the rest of the former
Yugoslavia, and the Washington Post notes that this would mean
that fewer international peace-keepers would ultimately be required
for Bosnia since there would be no arms prohibition to enforce.
Meanwhile in Zagreb, Vjesnik concludes that the latest EU proposals
have come part way toward meeting some Croatian considerations,
notably by offering that country economic aid and by no longer
explicitly insisting that Croatia grant the Muslims "an outlet"
to the sea but merely "access." Vecernji list, however, quotes
President Franjo Tudjman as telling the Geneva meeting that Croatia
is still willing to discuss free zones for the Muslims in Rijeka
or Ploce, but will not agree to the Muslims taking Neum, which
is Bosnia's tiny outlet to the Adriatic but with a mainly Croatian
population and technically unsuited for expansion as a port.
Tudjman also accused "some parties" of trying to prolong the
Bosnian conflict under the guise of providing humanitarian aid.
He further warned that no settlement can be realistic unless
it also deals with the 30% of Croatian territory under Serbian
rebel control. Finally, Serbian dailies remain closed for the
long holiday weekend, and CNN reports that Croatia has been hit
hard by snow and cold. -Patrick Moore

of the army denied on 29-November reports in the Greek media,
according to which Romania was supplying military equipment to
Macedonia, Radio Bucharest reported on the same day. -Michael

Minister Imrich Andrejcak met with his Polish counterpart Piotr
Kolodziejczyk on 29-November in the Tatra mountains in eastern
Slovakia. The two advocated cooperation on admission to NATO,
particularly within the framework of the Visegrad Four, which
also includes the Czech Republic and Hungary. At a news conference
following the meeting, Kolodziejczyk said the Visegrad nations
"should show Western Europe that we are able to cooperate efficiently"
and that individual action on European security by any of the
four nations could harm the others. The two ministers made preparations
for a meeting to be held in Krakow on 9 and 10 December, which
will be attended by the defense ministers of the four Visegrad
countries, as well as by members of the four countries' cabinets,
TASR reports. -Sharon Fisher

defense ministers of the Czech Republic and Latvia, Antonin Baudys
and Valdis Pavlovskis signed a cooperation agreement, CTK reports
on 29 November. Baudys said in a press conference after the signing
ceremony that the Czech army will help with the development of
the Latvian armed forces; sell military equipment to the Baltic
state; and train some of its military experts. The agreement
also has a provision on the participation of officers in military
exercises of the respective other country. Moreover, Baudys said
the two defense ministries will discuss their military doctrines.
The two sides agreed that their views on NATO membership are
identical. -Jan Obrman

CZECH LEGISLATORS IN BONN. Representatives of the Czech Parliament,
headed by its Chairman Milan Uhde, arrived in Bonn for a two-day
official visit, Czech Television reports on 29 November. The
legislators held talks with Bundestag President Rita Suessmuth
and are scheduled to meet with the leaders of all German parliamentary
clubs and with Deputy Foreign Minister Helmut Schaefer. According
to CTK, Suessmuth and Uhde agreed on a round of talks between
the foreign political committees of the two parliaments in January
1994. Suessmuth pointed out that dialogue was necessary between
legislators of both countries on the compensation of Czech victims
of the Nazis and on the "Sudeten German question." She said that
in the absence of a dialogue to cover the whole range of past
relations between the two nations, it will "be impossible to
create [an atmosphere of] understanding." Uhde responded that
while Prague considers the question of Sudeten Germans to be
"closed," he expects German gestures towards Czech victims of
the war. -Jan Obrman

POLAND'S "MEAT PROBLEM." The Polish government has agreed to
imports of pig meat from the West in order to keep the price
of pork stable in advance of the Christmas festivities, Agriculture
Minister Andrzej Smietanko told Sejm deputies on 25 November.
Last year's surplus of pork meat on the Polish market led to
such low prices that pig farmers, unwilling to produce at a loss,
reduced the number of animals. This led to shortages this year,
causing major losses to the domestic meat industry and steeply
rising prices for consumers. The government is under pressure
to promote and support domestic meat production against Western
protectionist measures, and to curb imports; yet, the situation
is apparently getting out of hand. The decision to import a minimal
quantity of pork meat is only a stop-gap measure; the agricultural
lobby is demanding more investment and cheaper credits in order
to stabilize long-term conditions for meat production. -Anna

by the Polish and Ukrainian Presidents, Lech Walesa and Leonid
Kravchuk in May 1993 met in Warsaw on 24 and 25 November to discuss
security and national minority issues. PAP reports that the two
cochairmen, Jerzy Milewski and Anton Buteyko, emphasized the
need to maintain good relations with Russia but rejected any
attempt on that country's part to make "unilateral decisions
about spheres of influence." Walesa who received members of the
committee said that there was "no free Poland without a free
Ukraine." -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka

representing the German minority in the Polish Sejm, with their
leader Heinrich Kroll, were received by President Lech Walesa
on 25-November, PAP reports. Kroll said that relations between
the minority and Walesa, as well as with the previous Polish
governments, were exemplary, and that it fully accepted the president's
"vision of European development." Walesa has recently been criticized
within Germany for suggesting, in an interview with Die Welt,
that those of the minority who did not like it in Poland could
leave. In a formal statement on 24-November, Walesa's spokesman
Andrzej Drzycimski reaffirmed that Poland treated its commitments
to safeguard minority rights "very seriously." He said Walesa's
critics were "oversensitive" and had read more into the president's
words than he had meant. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka

guard official said that joint Austrian-Hungarian passport and
customs checks will start on 1 December, MTI reported. The move,
which affects four border crossings, including the overcrowded
Hegyeshalom-Nickelsdorf station, is expected to speed up transit.
The two countries plan to expand joint controls to all border
stations. -Karoly Okolicsanyi

THOUSANDS MARCH IN BUCHAREST PROTEST. Thousands of union supporters
marched through Bucharest on 29 November, demanding the dismissal
of the government, an RFE/RL correspondent and Radio Bucharest
reported on the same day. The march, followed by a rally, was
organized by the National Trade Union Bloc and the Alfa confederation,
two of Romania's three large labor unions. The third confederation,
Fratia, held protest meetings eleven days earlier, and expressed
support for the action of the other unions. The march's organizers
said last week that they are demanding the dismissal of the government
and that they will call for a warning strike and, if necessary,
for a general strike. Demonstrations were also held in 11-other
cities. A series of marches and rallies organized by the two
confederations is scheduled to end in Timisoara on 16 December,
the day of the outbreak of the revolt against the Ceausescu regime
in that town in 1989. -Michael Shafir

KING MICHAEL'S MESSAGE TO ROMANIANS. In a message addressed to
Romanians on the occasion of the national day, broadcast by Radio
Bucharest on 29-November, former king Michael attacked the authorities
for having barred his participation in the celebrations. The
former monarch deplored the living conditions of Romanians and
said the government is run by unreformed Communists who had ruined
the country and left the people's hopes for the future unfulfilled.
He reiterated his call for national reconciliation and said history
will judge those who hinder it. -Michael Shafir

IMF DELEGATION TO ROMANIA. Radio Bucharest reported on 29 November
that a delegation of the International Monetary Fund had arrived
in Bucharest to conclude what were called "the last technical
details" for signing the agreement between the IMF and Romania
for a new stand-by loan. -Michael Shafir

BULGARIAN DRAFT BUDGET APPROVED. The Bulgarian government on
29 November endorsed the 1994 draft budget prepared by the Ministry
of Finance, BTA reports. Deputy Finance Minister Dimitar Kostov
told a press conference that next year's budget envisages 171.5
billion leva in revenues and 204 billion leva in expenses. The
deficit will be 32.5 billion leva, or 6.5% of the gross domestic
product, which is lower than the 8% projected for 1993. The figures
are based on estimates that annual inflation will end at 45%
(the level attained in the first 9 months of 1993). While 32.7%
of all expenses will be used to finance social insurance and
relief efforts, 21.6% are to cover government debts (4.5% of
the expenses being slated for repayments of the foreign debt),
10.1% to pay for education and 9.3% for heath care. Although
Kostov argued that all "reasonable and appropriate remarks" made
by trade unions and others have been taken into account by the
cabinet, he seemed to anticipate opposition as the draft is introduced
to parliament, probably in early December. He warned that if
the main features of the budget are not approved by the National
Assembly, it could jeopardize the debt settlement tentatively
agreed with the London Club of creditors during the previous
week. -Kjell Engelbrekt

Ministry spokesman Georgii Karasin told the press on 27 November
in Moscow that his country has submitted a letter to the United
Nations that once again accuses Estonia and Latvia of disregarding
the human rights of Russian-speaking population living there
and asks the UN to consider the issue. According to Karasin,
the letter, which was delivered by the Russian ambassador to
the UN Yurii Vorontsov, claims that Estonia and Latvia have pursued
a "velvet-lined ethnic purge screened by the false slogan of
the restoration of historic rights" and accuses Latvian authorities
of having virtually started deportations, BNS reported on 27-November.
These claims coincide with the start of the discussion of the
citizenship law in Latvia and the recent Estonian government
ruling on issuing residence permits to retired Soviet soldiers
and their families living in Estonia. -Dzintra Bungs

senior diplomats of the CSCE countries before the official opening
of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe in Rome,
the Estonian representative noted that while it may be necessary
to allow Russia to undertake peacekeeping operations for the
CSCE in some parts of the former Soviet Union in particular cases,
that country should be permitted to do so only under strict conditions
and only on a case-by-case basis. He stressed that under "no
circumstances should Russia be given a broad mandate to be the
CSCE force," an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Rome on 28
November. -Dzintra Bungs

has asked once again the CSCE to support its demand for an early
withdrawal of the remaining 15,000 Russian troops from his country.
Though Russia has indicated that it could withdraw its forces
both from Estonia and Latvia by 31 August 1994, it would do so
only if certain conditions are met. Both the Estonian and Latvian
representatives in Rome indicated that it would be difficult
to meet those conditions, which include the construction of housing
for Russian troops and the maintenance of some strategic facilities
in Latvia, an RFE/RL correspondent in Rome reported on 28 November.
In Lithuania, according to Antanas Pusvaskis of the defense ministry,
there are currently no Russian military installations or soldiers
left; last week the remaining equipment was removed and the last
facilities under Russian control were transferred to Lithuania.
Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas and parliament chairman
Ceslovas Jursenas are seeking for their country an accord on
cooperation and partnership with NATO, BNS and Baltfax reported
on 29 November. -Dzintra Bungs

Diena reported on 29-November that the Saeima ratified on 26
November the free trade agreement between the three Baltic States
making Latvia the first country to do so. State Minister for
Foreign Trade and European Community Olgerts Pavlovskis said
that this agreement will facilitate economic cooperation and
show that Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are able to work together.
Lithuania is expected to ratify the accord, initialed in Tallinn
on 13-September, before Christmas. Diena also reported that while
visiting Australia in connection with the commemoration of the
75th anniversary of Latvia's proclamation of independence, Latvian
Foreign Minister Georgs Andrejevs signed and agreement with his
Australian counterpart Garret Evans on economic and trade cooperation
between their countries. -Dzintra Bungs

informal sources, the Minister of Defense, Vitalii Radetsky,
issued an order which calls for the return of servicemen, who
had only served one and a half years in the armed forces, to
their units to complete their two year terms, UNIAN reported
on 26-November. The order follows a decision by the Ukrainian
parliament on increasing the actual time served by servicemen
in the armed forces. The commanders who released the soldiers
from duty after only one and a half years are to pay for the
return of the men to their units out of their own pocket. Maj.
Gen. Anatolii Palamarchuk, head of mobilization in the defense
ministry, said no one who had been demobilized would be required
to return to the armed forces. Servicemen who are currently enlisted,
however, will be required to serve the full two year term, and
commanders who overstep their mandate by releasing servicemen
from active duty early will be reprimanded. -Ustina Markus

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Roman Solchanyk and Dan Ionescu

assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA).
The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU),
on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal
mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions,
or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian
Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036
Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783;
Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications
Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538
Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax:
(+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc.
All rights reserved.

1 December 1993 1 1 December 1993 1 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 229 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 229 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 229 

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