|Life is what happens to us while we're making other plans. - John Lennon|
No. 228, 30 November 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA SHUMEIKO URGES BAN ON PARTIES. On 29 November "Vesti" reported that Vladimir Shumeiko, First Deputy Prime Minister responsible for overseeing the 12 December referendum on the new Russian constitution, addressed the Central Election Commission with a formal request urging the CEC to remove two electoral blocs from the list of contenders running for seats in the new parliament, which, Shumeiko said, "were openly calling for a rejection of the new constitution". The blocs in question are the communists and the Democratic Party of Russia, led by the prominent politician Nikolai Travkin, film director Stanislav Govorukhin and economist Oleg Bogomolov. According to "Novosti," Shumeiko also urged the CEC to review the activities of three other blocs-the Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin bloc, the Civic Union, and the Agrarian Party-which had also criticized the draft constitution. -Julia Wishnevsky YELTSIN WARNING CRITICIZED. Meanwhile, Gennadii Burbulis, a leader of the pro-government Russia's Choice bloc, and Yeltsin's legal advisor Yurii Baturin told RFE/RL on 29-November that in their television addresses they both disagreed with the ban on candidates to criticize the president and draft constitution. Every politician, Baturin argued, is entitled to call for changes in the state constitutional structure by lawful political means. Julia Wishnevsky ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN UPDATE. The leader of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, Sergei Shakhrai, suggested that democratic blocs should agree on supporting joint candidates in single-member constituencies, ITAR-TASS reported on 29 November. The leader of "Russia's Choice", Egor Gaidar, warned that "reactionary forces" have recovered from their defeat in October and may regain the initiative. He said the government wants to continue to work in its present composition after the elections. He noted that the status of the government will be enhanced after the adoption of the new constitution. -Alexander Rahr RUSSIAN MILLIONAIRE RETURNS FROM ABROAD TO REGISTER HIS CANDIDACY TO PARLIAMENT. The maverick businessman Artem Tarasov came to Moscow to launch his election campaign as an independent candidate for the new Russian parliament, Russian Television reported on 29 November. Tarasov, who is presently based in London, made his name during perestroika, when he became one of the first Soviet millionaires. He had a history of personal conflicts with Mikhail Gorbachev and former Soviet law-enforcement agencies, which accused him and his company "Istok" of illegal business activity. In 1991, Tarasov was forced to leave the country. In September of this year, however, the Russian General Procuracy dropped its earlier accusations against him. -Victor Yasmann CONSTITUTION COULD BE REVISED BY DECREE, OFFICIAL SAYS. First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 29 November as saying that if serious flaws are found in the draft constitution before it is adopted, it could be amended by presidential decree. Soskovets argued that the unorthodox method of amending the draft constitution would be justified because the draft had been proposed by presidential decree in the first place. -Vera Tolz FORMER CHAIRMAN RETURNS TO CONSTITUTIONAL COURT. Valerii Zorkin, until 6-October the Chairman of the Russian Constitutional Court, returned to work as a court justice on 29 November after an illness, saying that he would not resign his post. Zorkin alleged that President Yeltsin had forced him to resign as court chairman after the crushing of the opposition on 3-4 October; Zorkin had attempted to negotiate a compromise during the crisis. Nikolai Vitruk, acting Constitutional Court chairman, told Interfax that Zorkin should resign altogether from the court since, if he remained, it would be unable to function. Several other justices who had had disagreements with Zorkin earlier in 1993 supported this view. The former chairman, however, told an RFE/RL correspondent that he had no intention of resigning. -Wendy Slater ECONOMIC FORECAST FOR 1994. The Ministry of Economics has prepared a forecast of economic activity in 1994, Delovoi Mir reported on 24 November. It sees declines of 5% in GDP (against 12% in 1993), 6% in industrial output (15%), and 4-5% in agricultural production. Monthly inflation rates are expected to decline to 5-7% by the end of 1994 (compared with an average monthly rate of about 20% in 1993). The projections were used as the basis for the government statement on economic policy at the end of 1993 and into 1994 that was published in Rossiiskie vesti on 23 November. -Keith Bush STRIKE UPDATE. Coalminers in Russia's largest mining area, the Kuzbass, have postponed the strike they were threatening to begin on 1 December and talks took place on 29 November in Moscow between miners' representatives and the government. Miners in the northern city of Vorkuta have also postponed their strike, RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent was told on 29-November by the deputy chairman of the Independent Miners' Union, Aleksandr Marmelyukov, but, Marmelyukov said, the strike would still go ahead if the government failed to meet the workers' demands and, if it does, the union will demand the government's resignation. Meanwhile, Interfax said on 29 November that the strike of gas workers in Nadym in northern Russia was spreading and that the strikers were demanding the resignation of the cabinet. -Elizabeth Teague HELP FOR THE ENERGY AND AGRICULTURAL SECTORS. The cabinet has approved decrees "On the Reformulation of Credit Arrears Due to Enterprises of the Fuel-Energy Complex" and "On Government Support Measures for the Agro-Industrial complex in 1993-94," Kommersant-Daily reported on 27 November. Few specific details of the decrees were provided, but the item was headed "The Government Writes Off the Debts of the Agricultural and Oil Workers." The government is said to owe the agricultural sector some 2 trillion rubles for state purchases this year, including 500 billion rubles for grain deliveries. -Keith Bush NEW ATTACK ON GERASHCHENKO. Writing in Izvestiya of 20 November, the chief adviser to the Council of Ministers' Analysis and Planning Group, Andrei Illarionov, has made an outspoken attack on the chairman of the Russian Central Bank (RCB), Viktor Gerashchenko. The customary sins are ascribed to Gerashchenko, including his reckless abandon over the money supply, the reciprocal settlement of enterprise debts, the over-generous extension of technical credits to other former Soviet republics, and the notorious exchange of banknotes. But Illarionov makes a new and potentially serious charge. In conditions of high inflation, the Central Bank stands to make huge profits. Of the 535 billion rubles in profits made in 1992, 371-billion went to the "economic incentive fund" for bank staff. One week later, Interfax reported without comment on 27 November that Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin has ordered the RCB to remit a further 300 billion rubles of its profit to the federal budget. -Keith Bush RUSSIA, KUWAIT, SIGN DEFENSE AGREEMENT, DISCUSS ARMS SALES. The defense ministers of Russia and Kuwait on 29 November signed a defense agreement that provides for increased exchanges and cooperation, according to ITAR-TASS. Interfax reports that the Kuwaiti defense minister is to witness a demonstration of the S-300 (SA-10) surface-to-air missile system, apparently against a SCUD-like target. The Russian military has been eager to sell arms to Persian Gulf states, and the SA-10 has been billed as a better anti-SCUD system than the US Patriot. On a related note, Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakrai informed workers at a military factory in Ekaterinburg that he believed that the arms export licensing process should be loosened, with the government simply publishing a list of banned items, according to ITAR-TASS on 29 November. -John Lepingwell HEALTH INDICATORS. The good news on the health front is that no major outbreak of influenza is expected this season, in the judgement of a chief expert in infectious diseases, as quoted by Interfax on 29 November. The bad news is that some 10,000 cases of diphtheria had been reported throughout Russia during the first 10 months of 1993, with a total of 300 deaths from the disease. As for AIDS, the relatively low figure of 692 cases has been registered in Russia, with 96-deaths since 1987. -Keith Bush CIS CLINTON, KRAVCHUK, DISCUSS START-1. Presidents Bill Clinton and Leonid Kravchuk discussed the recent Ukrainian parliament ratification of START-1 during a 30-minute long telephone conversation on 29-November, the New York Times reported. According to a White House spokesperson, Clinton expressed his concern over the conditions attached to ratification, while Kravchuk reiterated his intent to resubmit the treaty to the new Ukrainian parliament, scheduled to be elected in March 1994. Reuters on 29 November reported that in an interview published in Le Figaro, Kravchuk had proposed that 50 missiles be dismantled by March 1994, although the plan may be conditional on Western financial and technical support. This would represent the bulk of the 36% reduction in ICBMs envisioned in the Ukrainian ratification resolution. Some 20 SS-19s have already been dismantled, although the warheads remain in Ukraine. -John Lepingwell KOZYREV TO DISCUSS PEACEKEEPING, NUCLEAR WEAPONS AT CSCE. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev departed for Rome on 29 November for a CSCE foreign ministers meeting. Before leaving, Kozyrev told Ostankino TV that he intended to raise the issues of "aggressive nationalism" and "the destruction of the regime of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons" at the meeting. Kozyrev is also expected to push for formal recognition of Russia's leading role in peacekeeping within the former Soviet Union, and for the establishment of the post of CSCE High Commissioner for Ethnic Minorities. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AKAEV TO CALL FOR REFERENDUM ON HIS RULE. In a brief speech on nationwide TV during the evening of 29 November Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev announced that a referendum on his presidency will be held on 24 January, an RL correspondent in Bishkek reported. According to Interfax, Akaev said earlier that he was considering holding a referendum on his rule because of the unstable political and economic situation in the country. Throughout 1993 the democratic opposition has called for the resignation of Akaev's prime minister, holding him responsible for the continuing economic decline in Kyrgyzstan, while the Communist deputies in the Supreme Soviet have tried to block most of Akaev's reform initiatives. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE MILOSEVIC TAKES HARD LINE IN GENEVA . . . The Los Angeles Times reports on 30-November that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic showed no sign of compromise at the first session of the European Union's peace talks in Geneva the previous day. The discussions involving the 12 EU foreign ministers and the presidents of Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and of the Croat and Serb breakaway republics in Bosnia are nonetheless slated to continue. The EU is trying to persuade Bosnian Serbs to give up some 3% of the territory they have conquered in return for a gradual lifting of sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro, but, as US and UN spokesmen have pointed out, the sanctions are a UN affair and not that of the EU. Milosevic, for his part, slammed the sanctions as "genocide" and denied that Serbs are playing any part in the Bosnian fighting: "I do not know how you envisage to stop the war between Muslims and Croats by sanctions against the Serbs, and I do not know either how you intend to explain to your children . . . with what right you made 12 million European citizens a practicing ground for the implementation of the, hopefully, last genocide in this century." Karadzic added succinctly: "We will not give up a centimeter of our territory." Elsewhere, The Observer reported at length on 28 November on Karadzic and his hard-line politics. -Patrick Moore . . . WHILE CROATIA REMAINS APPREHENSIVE. International mediators nonetheless tried to put a good spin on the news from Geneva, and the New York Times on 30 November quotes French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe as concluding that "contact had been broken and now it is restored." Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, for his part, said that he would no longer accept the idea of a demilitarized Bosnia unless the ban were extended to the rest of the former Yugoslavia, and the Washington Post notes that this would mean that fewer international peace-keepers would ultimately be required for Bosnia since there would be no arms prohibition to enforce. Meanwhile in Zagreb, Vjesnik concludes that the latest EU proposals have come part way toward meeting some Croatian considerations, notably by offering that country economic aid and by no longer explicitly insisting that Croatia grant the Muslims "an outlet" to the sea but merely "access." Vecernji list, however, quotes President Franjo Tudjman as telling the Geneva meeting that Croatia is still willing to discuss free zones for the Muslims in Rijeka or Ploce, but will not agree to the Muslims taking Neum, which is Bosnia's tiny outlet to the Adriatic but with a mainly Croatian population and technically unsuited for expansion as a port. Tudjman also accused "some parties" of trying to prolong the Bosnian conflict under the guise of providing humanitarian aid. He further warned that no settlement can be realistic unless it also deals with the 30% of Croatian territory under Serbian rebel control. Finally, Serbian dailies remain closed for the long holiday weekend, and CNN reports that Croatia has been hit hard by snow and cold. -Patrick Moore ROMANIA DENIES SUPPLY OF ARMS TO MACEDONIA. The press office of the army denied on 29-November reports in the Greek media, according to which Romania was supplying military equipment to Macedonia, Radio Bucharest reported on the same day. -Michael Shafir SLOVAKIA, POLAND ENDORSE JOINT ACTION ON NATO ENTRY. Slovak Defense Minister Imrich Andrejcak met with his Polish counterpart Piotr Kolodziejczyk on 29-November in the Tatra mountains in eastern Slovakia. The two advocated cooperation on admission to NATO, particularly within the framework of the Visegrad Four, which also includes the Czech Republic and Hungary. At a news conference following the meeting, Kolodziejczyk said the Visegrad nations "should show Western Europe that we are able to cooperate efficiently" and that individual action on European security by any of the four nations could harm the others. The two ministers made preparations for a meeting to be held in Krakow on 9 and 10 December, which will be attended by the defense ministers of the four Visegrad countries, as well as by members of the four countries' cabinets, TASR reports. -Sharon Fisher COOPERATION BETWEEN CZECH AND LATVIAN DEFENSE MINISTRIES. The defense ministers of the Czech Republic and Latvia, Antonin Baudys and Valdis Pavlovskis signed a cooperation agreement, CTK reports on 29 November. Baudys said in a press conference after the signing ceremony that the Czech army will help with the development of the Latvian armed forces; sell military equipment to the Baltic state; and train some of its military experts. The agreement also has a provision on the participation of officers in military exercises of the respective other country. Moreover, Baudys said the two defense ministries will discuss their military doctrines. The two sides agreed that their views on NATO membership are identical. -Jan Obrman CZECH LEGISLATORS IN BONN. Representatives of the Czech Parliament, headed by its Chairman Milan Uhde, arrived in Bonn for a two-day official visit, Czech Television reports on 29 November. The legislators held talks with Bundestag President Rita Suessmuth and are scheduled to meet with the leaders of all German parliamentary clubs and with Deputy Foreign Minister Helmut Schaefer. According to CTK, Suessmuth and Uhde agreed on a round of talks between the foreign political committees of the two parliaments in January 1994. Suessmuth pointed out that dialogue was necessary between legislators of both countries on the compensation of Czech victims of the Nazis and on the "Sudeten German question." She said that in the absence of a dialogue to cover the whole range of past relations between the two nations, it will "be impossible to create [an atmosphere of] understanding." Uhde responded that while Prague considers the question of Sudeten Germans to be "closed," he expects German gestures towards Czech victims of the war. -Jan Obrman POLAND'S "MEAT PROBLEM." The Polish government has agreed to imports of pig meat from the West in order to keep the price of pork stable in advance of the Christmas festivities, Agriculture Minister Andrzej Smietanko told Sejm deputies on 25 November. Last year's surplus of pork meat on the Polish market led to such low prices that pig farmers, unwilling to produce at a loss, reduced the number of animals. This led to shortages this year, causing major losses to the domestic meat industry and steeply rising prices for consumers. The government is under pressure to promote and support domestic meat production against Western protectionist measures, and to curb imports; yet, the situation is apparently getting out of hand. The decision to import a minimal quantity of pork meat is only a stop-gap measure; the agricultural lobby is demanding more investment and cheaper credits in order to stabilize long-term conditions for meat production. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka POLISH-UKRAINIAN CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE. The committee, set up by the Polish and Ukrainian Presidents, Lech Walesa and Leonid Kravchuk in May 1993 met in Warsaw on 24 and 25 November to discuss security and national minority issues. PAP reports that the two cochairmen, Jerzy Milewski and Anton Buteyko, emphasized the need to maintain good relations with Russia but rejected any attempt on that country's part to make "unilateral decisions about spheres of influence." Walesa who received members of the committee said that there was "no free Poland without a free Ukraine." -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka GERMAN MINORITY LEADER: EXEMPLARY RELATIONS. A group of deputies representing the German minority in the Polish Sejm, with their leader Heinrich Kroll, were received by President Lech Walesa on 25-November, PAP reports. Kroll said that relations between the minority and Walesa, as well as with the previous Polish governments, were exemplary, and that it fully accepted the president's "vision of European development." Walesa has recently been criticized within Germany for suggesting, in an interview with Die Welt, that those of the minority who did not like it in Poland could leave. In a formal statement on 24-November, Walesa's spokesman Andrzej Drzycimski reaffirmed that Poland treated its commitments to safeguard minority rights "very seriously." He said Walesa's critics were "oversensitive" and had read more into the president's words than he had meant. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka JOINT AUSTRIAN-HUNGARIAN BORDER CONTROLS. A Hungarian border guard official said that joint Austrian-Hungarian passport and customs checks will start on 1 December, MTI reported. The move, which affects four border crossings, including the overcrowded Hegyeshalom-Nickelsdorf station, is expected to speed up transit. The two countries plan to expand joint controls to all border stations. -Karoly Okolicsanyi THOUSANDS MARCH IN BUCHAREST PROTEST. Thousands of union supporters marched through Bucharest on 29 November, demanding the dismissal of the government, an RFE/RL correspondent and Radio Bucharest reported on the same day. The march, followed by a rally, was organized by the National Trade Union Bloc and the Alfa confederation, two of Romania's three large labor unions. The third confederation, Fratia, held protest meetings eleven days earlier, and expressed support for the action of the other unions. The march's organizers said last week that they are demanding the dismissal of the government and that they will call for a warning strike and, if necessary, for a general strike. Demonstrations were also held in 11-other cities. A series of marches and rallies organized by the two confederations is scheduled to end in Timisoara on 16 December, the day of the outbreak of the revolt against the Ceausescu regime in that town in 1989. -Michael Shafir KING MICHAEL'S MESSAGE TO ROMANIANS. In a message addressed to Romanians on the occasion of the national day, broadcast by Radio Bucharest on 29-November, former king Michael attacked the authorities for having barred his participation in the celebrations. The former monarch deplored the living conditions of Romanians and said the government is run by unreformed Communists who had ruined the country and left the people's hopes for the future unfulfilled. He reiterated his call for national reconciliation and said history will judge those who hinder it. -Michael Shafir IMF DELEGATION TO ROMANIA. Radio Bucharest reported on 29 November that a delegation of the International Monetary Fund had arrived in Bucharest to conclude what were called "the last technical details" for signing the agreement between the IMF and Romania for a new stand-by loan. -Michael Shafir BULGARIAN DRAFT BUDGET APPROVED. The Bulgarian government on 29 November endorsed the 1994 draft budget prepared by the Ministry of Finance, BTA reports. Deputy Finance Minister Dimitar Kostov told a press conference that next year's budget envisages 171.5 billion leva in revenues and 204 billion leva in expenses. The deficit will be 32.5 billion leva, or 6.5% of the gross domestic product, which is lower than the 8% projected for 1993. The figures are based on estimates that annual inflation will end at 45% (the level attained in the first 9 months of 1993). While 32.7% of all expenses will be used to finance social insurance and relief efforts, 21.6% are to cover government debts (4.5% of the expenses being slated for repayments of the foreign debt), 10.1% to pay for education and 9.3% for heath care. Although Kostov argued that all "reasonable and appropriate remarks" made by trade unions and others have been taken into account by the cabinet, he seemed to anticipate opposition as the draft is introduced to parliament, probably in early December. He warned that if the main features of the budget are not approved by the National Assembly, it could jeopardize the debt settlement tentatively agreed with the London Club of creditors during the previous week. -Kjell Engelbrekt RUSSIA RENEWS ACCUSATIONS AGAINST ESTONIA, LATVIA. Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Georgii Karasin told the press on 27 November in Moscow that his country has submitted a letter to the United Nations that once again accuses Estonia and Latvia of disregarding the human rights of Russian-speaking population living there and asks the UN to consider the issue. According to Karasin, the letter, which was delivered by the Russian ambassador to the UN Yurii Vorontsov, claims that Estonia and Latvia have pursued a "velvet-lined ethnic purge screened by the false slogan of the restoration of historic rights" and accuses Latvian authorities of having virtually started deportations, BNS reported on 27-November. These claims coincide with the start of the discussion of the citizenship law in Latvia and the recent Estonian government ruling on issuing residence permits to retired Soviet soldiers and their families living in Estonia. -Dzintra Bungs BALTIC CONCERN OVER RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPING PROPOSALS. Addressing senior diplomats of the CSCE countries before the official opening of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe in Rome, the Estonian representative noted that while it may be necessary to allow Russia to undertake peacekeeping operations for the CSCE in some parts of the former Soviet Union in particular cases, that country should be permitted to do so only under strict conditions and only on a case-by-case basis. He stressed that under "no circumstances should Russia be given a broad mandate to be the CSCE force," an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Rome on 28 November. -Dzintra Bungs UPDATE ON RUSSIAN MILITARY IN THE BALTICS. The Latvian representative has asked once again the CSCE to support its demand for an early withdrawal of the remaining 15,000 Russian troops from his country. Though Russia has indicated that it could withdraw its forces both from Estonia and Latvia by 31 August 1994, it would do so only if certain conditions are met. Both the Estonian and Latvian representatives in Rome indicated that it would be difficult to meet those conditions, which include the construction of housing for Russian troops and the maintenance of some strategic facilities in Latvia, an RFE/RL correspondent in Rome reported on 28 November. In Lithuania, according to Antanas Pusvaskis of the defense ministry, there are currently no Russian military installations or soldiers left; last week the remaining equipment was removed and the last facilities under Russian control were transferred to Lithuania. Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas and parliament chairman Ceslovas Jursenas are seeking for their country an accord on cooperation and partnership with NATO, BNS and Baltfax reported on 29 November. -Dzintra Bungs LATVIA ENDORSES ECONOMIC ACCORDS WITH NEIGHBORS AND AUSTRALIA. Diena reported on 29-November that the Saeima ratified on 26 November the free trade agreement between the three Baltic States making Latvia the first country to do so. State Minister for Foreign Trade and European Community Olgerts Pavlovskis said that this agreement will facilitate economic cooperation and show that Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are able to work together. Lithuania is expected to ratify the accord, initialed in Tallinn on 13-September, before Christmas. Diena also reported that while visiting Australia in connection with the commemoration of the 75th anniversary of Latvia's proclamation of independence, Latvian Foreign Minister Georgs Andrejevs signed and agreement with his Australian counterpart Garret Evans on economic and trade cooperation between their countries. -Dzintra Bungs UKRAINIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY ON MILITARY SERVICE. According to informal sources, the Minister of Defense, Vitalii Radetsky, issued an order which calls for the return of servicemen, who had only served one and a half years in the armed forces, to their units to complete their two year terms, UNIAN reported on 26-November. The order follows a decision by the Ukrainian parliament on increasing the actual time served by servicemen in the armed forces. The commanders who released the soldiers from duty after only one and a half years are to pay for the return of the men to their units out of their own pocket. Maj. Gen. Anatolii Palamarchuk, head of mobilization in the defense ministry, said no one who had been demobilized would be required to return to the armed forces. Servicemen who are currently enlisted, however, will be required to serve the full two year term, and commanders who overstep their mandate by releasing servicemen from active duty early will be reprimanded. -Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Roman Solchanyk and Dan Ionescu THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.1 December 1993 1 1 December 1993 1 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 229 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 229 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 229
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