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No. 227, 29 November 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN "WILL NOT ALLOW" CRITICISM. On 26-November Yeltsin met the leaders of the 13 parties running for seats in the new parliament. According to the noon edition of Ostankino TV's "Novosti," the meeting was prompted by the criticism of Yeltsin and the draft constitution contained in some television programs screened earlier in the week, particularly that of Stanislav Govorukhin on 24 November. Various sources quoted Yeltsin as having told the meeting that he would "not allow" candidates to criticize the draft constitution, himself, or other contenders. The broadcasts of those who disobeyed the order, Yeltsin was quoted as adding, would be cut, and offenders ran the risk of being deprived of access to radio and TV airwaves in future. Yeltsin's point of view, an RFE/RL correspondent said, was supported by his legal aide Anatolii Sliva, as well as by the Court of Arbitration set up by Yeltsin to ensure fairness in the campaign. The "Novosti" anchor, in turn, quoted the British daily The Guardian as saying that, by Western standards, the criticism in the Russian campaign has so far been mild. -Julia Wishnevsky ELECTORAL BLOCS AND PARTIES DEFEND RIGHT TO CRITICIZE CONSTITUTION. Political groups fielding candidates in the 12 December elections defended their right to criticize the new Russian draft constitution, after President Yeltsin had urged them not to do so, Western agencies reported. A spokesman for the Russian Communist Party was quoted on 27 November by AFP as saying that in criticizing the draft constitution, "we are only elaborating on our platform, which is completely within electoral rules." Other groups, critical of Yeltsin, also said they would continue to criticize the draft constitution as part of their election campaigns. Among the groups were the Civic Union, the Democratic Party of Russia and the Agrarian Union. Even among the pro-reform movements, only the Russia's Choice bloc unconditionally supports the draft. -Vera Tolz SHAKHRAI CAMPAIGNING. Sergei Shakhrai, leader of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, said during his electoral campaign in Irkutsk that he believes the Russian krais and regions would support the new constitution while the constituent republics may reject it, ITAR-TASS reported on 27 November. He stated that if the constitution is rejected by the majority of voters, Russia would face the fate of the former USSR. In his opinion, the future parliament will be polarized between "reds and whites". He advocated new parliamentary and presidential elections in 1996. He maintained that his party is being supported by 11 percent of the electorate. His current electoral campign tour leads him from Irkutsk to the Altai Krai, Ekaterinburg, Bashkortostan, Tatarstan and Russia's southern regions. -Alexander Rahr MINERS' STRIKE UNRESOLVED. First deputy premier Yegor Gaidar visited Vorkuta and the Kuzbass on 26-and 27 November in an effort to prevent a strike by coalminers. Complaining they have not been paid for months, miners in both regions are threatening to strike on 1-December and to boycott the elections on 12-December. Gaidar told them a strike was "the last thing Russia needs at the moment" and that the goverment would find the necessary money by selling diamonds, but he was quoted by Interfax on 27 November as admitting the money may come too late to avert the strike. The situation is complicated because the miners are represented both by the Independent Union of Mine Workers and by the semi-official Russian Coalminers' Union; the former has fewer members but is more militant. The Russian government appears to have been caught unawares by the unusually early and severe onset of winter; in addition, Gaidar is loath to lose the votes of the miners, traditionally Yeltsin's loyal supporters. -Elizabeth Teague BORIS FEDOROV TO OVERSEE EXTERNAL DEBT. Finance Minister Boris Fedorov reiterated on 27 November that he had taken over responsibility for Russia's convertible currency debt, although a spokesman for Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin again denied this shift in portfolios, Interfax reported on 28 November. In recent months, Shokhin has repeatedly called for a writing-off of that part of the debt accruing to the former Soviet Union, while Fedorov has asserted the necessity to repay the entire sum. albeit after appreciable rescheduling. On 18 November, Shokhin had told Segodnya that the foreign debt totalled $81.5 billion at mid-1993: it was not specified whether this total included commercial arrears. -Keith Bush DUDAEV DENIES CALL FOR ISLAMIC CONFRONTATION WITH WEST. In a sharply-worded statement given to ITAR-TASS on 26 November, Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev denied an AFP report that he had called on the Islamic countries to start a campaign against the West. Dudaev acknowledged that, after seeing the catastrophic conditions in which the population of Iraq is living, he had proposed that all states, including Islamic, do their utmost to get the blockade against Iraq lifted. Dudaev also said in his statement he thought the Islamic world should be more active in defending its interests but there could be no question of confrontation with the West. -Ann Sheehy KOMI SPEAKER WANTS CONSTITUTION ADOPTED BY FEDERAL ASSEMBLY. The chairman of the Komi parliament Yurii Spiridonov considers that the new constitution should be adopted not by referendum but by the Federal Assembly, Interfax reported on 28-November. Spiridonov said that only 5 percent of voters would read the draft, and only 3-percent would understand it. Spiridonov said that on the whole he supported the draft, but he believed that it was a step backward for the subjects of the federation compared with the Federal Treaty. He was opposed to equal status for all the subjects of the federation. -Ann Sheehy CIS CSCE CONSIDERS RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPING OFFERS. The CSCE started talks in Rome on 27 November to prepare for a three-day meeting of the foreign ministers of the 52 CSCE states scheduled to start on 30-November. At this forum, Russia's desire to be given responsibility for UN peacekeeping operations in the former Soviet Union is being debated. According to diplomats present at the meeting, the Baltic states and Ukraine are strictly opposed to the idea; Western governments also have considerable reservations. At the same time, Western diplomats admit that neither NATO nor the European Community (now European Union) is willing to take on this role in the region, RFE/RL's correspondent in Rome reported. -Suzanne Crow RUSSIA CUTS OFF MAINTENANCE OF UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS. The Russian government issued a formal statement on 26 November to the effect that the Ukrainian START-1 ratification was not valid under international law. As a consequence, the statement claimed, it would illegal for Russia to maintain the nuclear weapons under the terms of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT). As reported by Radio Mayak, the statement also suggested that Ukraine's move might "require measures [to be] taken by the international community . . . for preventing the undermining of the process of nuclear disarmament." Russia and Ukraine signed an agreement on the maintenance of nuclear weapons and warheads at the Massandra summit in September, however it is unclear whether either side had taken steps to implement it. -John Lepingwell NUCLEAR SCIENTISTS WARN OF UNSAFE WARHEADS. In an announcement apparently timed to coincide with the maintenance cutoff, scientists from Russia's nuclear weapons labs warned of unsafe conditions in nuclear storage sites in Ukraine. As reported by ITAR-TASS on 26 November, the scientists warned of "possible catastrophe" and claimed that necessary maintenance was not being performed and safety rules violated. Similar arguments have been made in the past in attempts to increase international pressure on Ukraine. -John Lepingwell NAZARBAEV ON RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev told an international conference in Maastricht that Kazakhstan would never engage in policies that would worsen relations with Russia, but that he himself is disturbed by some of the rhetoric being employed in the Russian election campaign, ITAR-TASS reported on 26-November. Nazarbaev has been particularly concerned over demands by some Russian politicians that Russia should "protect" Russian-speakers in new states outside the Russian Federation. A few days earlier Nazarbaev caused a protest from the Russian Foreign Ministry for comparing such statements by Russian political figures to Hitler's rhetoric about "protecting" the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia. -Bess Brown TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TAJIKISTAN UPDATE. Interfax reported on 28 November that traffic has been restored on the rail line between Termez in Uzbekistan and Kurgan-Tyube after members of the Tajik opposition blew up bridges and segments of track along a stretch of 84 kilometers, thereby cutting off supplies to a large part of southern Tajikistan. On 27 November ITAR-TASS reported that Tajikistan's Supreme Court had found two persons-Rakhimbek Nurullobekov and Makhmud Davlat-guilty of killing Tajikistan's State Prosecutor in August 1992 and had sentenced them to death. -Bess Brown GEORGIA TO INTRODUCE BREAD RATIONING. As of 1 December, the sale of bread in Tbilisi is to be limited to 400 grams per person per day, Interfax reported on 26 November. In an interview with Georgian TV on 28-November, Defense Minister Giorgi Karkarashvili said that troops would guard bakeries beginning 30-November. Attacks on bakeries and bread factories in the city have been reported in recent days. -Liz Fuller BOMB ATTACK ON MKHEDRIONI LEADER. On 27-November a bomb exploded near the motorcade of Mkhedrioni leader Dzhaba Ioseliani, who was travelling to Tbilisi airport to depart for Geneva where he will head the Georgian delegation to the UN-sponsored negotiations on a political settlement of the Abkhaz conflict, GIA-TASS reported. Noone was injured. Georgian National Security Minister Igor Georgadze charged on 28 November that supporters of ousted Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia were responsible for the incident. -Liz Fuller AZERBAIJAN NATIONAL ASSEMBLY DEBATES INTRODUCING CENSORSHIP. On 26-November the Azerbaijan National Assembly twice failed for lack of a quorum to adopt measures proposed by its chairman Rasul Kuliev, to introduce media censorship. Opposition parties protested that the measures, which Kuliev argued were necessitated by the war with Armenia and the appearance in opposition newspapers of articles slandering the country's leadership, constituted "a strike against the democratic press", according to a correspondent for RFE/RL's Azerbaijani BD. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BLEAK OUTLOOK FOR BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS. International media report that a new round of Geneva meetings is slated to begin on 29 November. Taking part will be all 12 EC foreign ministers; the presidents of Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia; and the faction leaders of the Bosnian Croats and Serbs. Central to the discussions will be the recent Franco-German proposal with its offer of a gradual lifting of sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro in return for territorial concessions by Bosnian Serbs to the Muslims. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has ruled out such a deal, however, charging Germany in particular with being in the "forefront of genocide against the Serbs." AFP on 27-November also quotes him as saying that Serbs should "demand" that the sanctions be lifted and "go on the political offensive." Vecernji list of 29 November, meanwhile, repeats Croatian skepticism over the talks and draws attention instead to President Franjo Tudjman's 1 November peace initiative that concentrates on Serb-held areas of Croatia as well as on the Bosnian conflict. -Patrick Moore GERMANY, ENGLAND SEEK FULL RECOGNITION FOR MACEDONIA. With Greece set to assume the EC presidency on 1 January 1994, Germany and Great Britain have been attempting to persuade other EC countries to open embassies in Skopje. Only France and Greece among EC states have so far not recognized Macedonia under the name "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." Italy now supports recognizing the newest Balkan country under its constitutional name of "Republic of Macedonia." On 25 November, Theodoros Pangalos, deputy foreign minister of Greece, lashed out at Germany using strong invective for being responsible for a "conspiracy" among EC countries to establish full diplomatic ties with Macedonia, something deemed "inadmissible" by Greece, which was not consulted on the matter, according to AFP and Reuters. Greek Foreign Minister Karolos Papoulias, stated that such a move "violates and dissolves the framework of community solidarity," Western agencies report. -Duncan Perry CROATIAN FOREIGN POLICY POLL YIELDS MIXED RESULTS. This past year has witnessed an increasing trend among Croatian officials and the media they control toward the view that Croatia is somehow the victim of an international conspiracy to resurrect Yugoslavia and must stand alone and friendless in the world. Analysts have noted the similarity between this mind-set and that of official Serbia, which likewise blames everyone but itself for its problems. Vecernji list on 27-November ran a poll that shows that just over half of the respondents feel that the government is doing much for Croatia's image in the world but could do more; that the country's foreign policy is generally satisfactory; and that its image abroad is average. Respondents overwhelmingly said that Germany is Croatia's best supporter abroad, with the USA coming in a very distant second. France, Russia, and Britain topped the list of the country's enemies. -Patrick Moore DEPORTATIONS OF KOSOVAR ALBANIANS FROM GERMANY. The International Society for Human Rights says that about 1,000 ethnic Albanians from Kosovo have been deported from Germany since September, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reported on 25-November. The deportees include young men trying to avoid the Serbian army. Meanwhile in Bonn, the president of the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo, Ibrahim Rugova, met with representatives of the German parliament to discuss the internationalization of the Kosovo crisis, possible humanitarian aid, and the problems of Kosovar migrants to Germany. -Fabian Schmidt SEJM'S LEGISLATIVE AGENDA. During its session from 24 to 26 November, the Sejm gave a first reading to several items of legislation qualified as "urgent." Five of the six items making up the "Pact on Enterprises" package negotiated with the unions by the previous government are now in commission. The remaining law on the privatization of state enterprises was withdrawn from the package by the government of Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak, which intends shortly to present a slightly revised version of its own. The Democratic Union failed in the attempt, led by former labor minister Jacek Kuron, to reinstate the original draft. Despite strong criticism within its own ranks, the governing coalition sent to commission draft amendments increasing pensions to 93% of the average wage in industry as of December 1994, and not earlier, as the coalition had suggested in the election campaign. Draft amendments proposed by President Lech Walesa, giving the Constitutional Tribunal a final say on the compatibility of Polish laws with the Constitution and with international conventions, were also sent to commission. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka SUCHOCKA'S GOVERNMENT UNDER SCRUTINY. PAP reports that the Sejm also voted, by 181 votes to 8, with 48 abstentions, to set up an extraordinary commission to investigate whether the activities of Hanna Suchocka's government in the period from 30 May to 14-October were within the law. The proposal was moved by a group of deputies from Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak's Polish Peasant Party (PSL), who claimed that the previous government had taken advantage of the fact that the Sejm was dissolved and could no longer control the government, to dispense with proper legal procedure. Suchocka's government has also come under fire in some of the parliamentary commissions which have voted to reject its annual report. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka NEW SECURITY COUNCIL FOR POLAND? AT A MEETING ON 26 NOVEMBER THE NATIONAL DEFENSE COMMITTEE (KOK) CHAIRED BY PRESIDENT LECH WALESA DECIDED THAT A NEW NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL SHOULD BE ESTABLISHED WITHIN THE NEXT FEW MONTHS TO REPLACE BOTH THE KOK AND THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL, A PRESIDENTIAL ADVISORY BODY THAT WAS NEVER FULLY CONSTITUTED. The new council would take over KOK's function as "the state's supreme agency for defense and security;" it would have executive powers and its decisions would be binding on the government. PAP reports that Walesa proposed that the present members of KOK, including the prime minister, the ministers of defense, finance, and internal and foreign affairs, and the Sejm and Senate speakers, should also belong to the new council. The defense minister will draft the necessary legislative amendments and the government will submit them to the Sejm. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka KLAUS RE-ELECTED CDP CHAIRMAN. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus was re-elected party chairman at the annual congress of the ruling Civic Democratic Party that was held on 27-28 November in Koprivnice, Czech TV reports on 28 November. Klaus, who was the only candidate, received 220 out of 268 votes. The delegates also re-elected the party's four deputy chairmen and elected a new 18-member Executive Council. According to most observers, the congress produced no surprises. Klaus and other members of the CDP leadership praised the party's work and pledged to keep its program unchanged as it "proved successful." According to various opinion polls, the CDP remains the strongest political force in the Czech Republic with more than 30% support in the population. -Jan Obrman MARTINEZ IN PRAGUE. The Chairman of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Miguel Angel Martinez, paid a four-day visit to the Czech Republic, Czech dailies report on 27 November. Martinez, who held talks with President Vaclav Havel, Parliament Chairman Milan Uhde, and other top officials, praised the successes of Prague's political and economic reforms. In an interview with CTK before his departure on 28 November, Martinez pointed out that the "Czech Republic is a normal, consolidated member of the Council of Europe," and urged Czech officials to play a more active role in the Parliamentary Assembly. Martinez also stressed that the Czech Republic is not seen in the West as part of the unstable "post-communist region" any more, but rather as a regular European state, "similar to Belgium, for instance." -Jan Obrman SLOVAK POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS. On 26 November the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia held a meeting of cabinet members and parliamentary deputies in Velky Krtis. Tibor Cabaj replaced Ivan Laluha as chairman of the parliamentary caucus; Laluha and the caucus's four deputy chairmen resigned from their posts on 24 November. On 27 November a meeting of the Slovak National Party was held to evaluate the party's coalition with the MDS, which has been criticized by several SNP members. Chairman Ludovit Cernak, who advocated remaining in the coalition, was successful in maintaining party unity, although Deputy Chairman Anton Hrnko said the MDS will have to take into consideration the SNP's political program. Cernak said his party's main interests include repairing the economy and working on minority policy. The opposition Alliance of Democrats held its first assembly on 28-November; Milan Knazko was reelected as party chairman, while Rudolf Filkus and Jan Budaj were elected deputy chairmen. President Michal Kovac attended the assembly, TASR reports. -Sharon Fisher MEDICAL UPDATE ON THE HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER'S CONDITION. The Prime Minister's office said on 27 November that Jozsef Antall's "so far successful, but intense, treatment continues." The 61-year-old Antall was hospitalized on 23 November with a fever. In early November, he returned from Germany, where he was treated for a month for a non-Hodgkins lymphoma gland cancer. -Karoly Okolicsanyi ROMANIAN CONTROVERSY OVER NATIONAL DAY CELEBRATION CONTINUES. President Ion Iliescu addressed an appeal to political parties represented in parliament over the controversy stirred by the celebrations of the national day on 1 December and the intended participation of former King Michael in the ceremony at Alba Iulia. In the appeal, broadcast by Radio Bucharest on 26 November, Iliescu said the announced boycotting of the ceremonies by some parties could "hardly be comprehended" and called on them to revise their decision. Presidential spokesman Traian Chebeleu said on the same day the parties opposed to the king's participation in the ceremonies wished to "protect state institutions from attempts to restore monarchy." -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT RAISES SALARIES, LABOR UNREST IN OFFING. The government announced on 26 November that minimum salaries will raise beginning 1-December to 45,000 lei (about $42 at the official rate of exchange). The previous minimum salary, established in October, was of 40,200 lei. Average salaries will rise by 6.5%. The decision was taken against the background of growing labor unrest. Radio Bucharest said on 26 November that two of the largest trade union confederations, the National Trade Union Block and Alfa, decided at a joint meeting that "any attempt to continue the dialogue with the government was futile" and that they intended to go ahead with planned protests. A first protest meeting is taking place in Bucharest on 29 November, alongside similar meetings in 13 other towns. The Fratia trade union confederation expressed solidarity with plans of the Block and Alfa. -Michael Shafir DOGAN REAFFIRMED AS MRF LEADER. During the second national conference of the Movement for Rights and Freedoms, held in Sofia on 27 and 28 November, Ahmed Dogan was reelected chairman. In his keynote address to the conference, Dogan pointed out that the predominantly Turkish MRF over the past years has won wide recognition outside Bulgaria as an effective defender of human rights. Dogan's leadership was strongly criticized by MRF deputy Mehmed Hodzha from Kardzhali, an MRF stronghold, who said the decision to back the current government and thereby join an informal alliance with the Bulgarian Socialist Party had been a major tactical error. After alleging that several top MRF members are former State Security collaborators, Hodzha and other Kardzhali delegates staged a walkout. In its new platform the MRF continues to stress the struggle against ethnic and religious discrimination while advocating a well-balanced foreign and security policy. -Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIA TO UTILIZE KOZLODUY'S FULL CAPACITY. Bulgaria is preparing to put all six reactors of the Kozloduy nuclear power plant back on line, energy officials told Reuters on 27-November. Kozma Kuzmanov, who is head of the plant, told visiting deputies that both the four older 440-megawatt and the two more modern 1,000-megawatt units could all be operating by January next year. If the plans are realized, Kozloduy would provide some 40% of the country's total power needs, or 3,760 megawatts. The decision to restart all units was taken after Ukraine, which has an agreement to supply Bulgaria with 400 megawatts, canceled the deal, in its turn owing to a suspension of Russian energy deliveries. Ukraine later offered to resume deliveries for the few days it takes for Bulgaria to start up one of Kozloduy's 1,000-megawatt units. -Kjell Engelbrekt UKRAINE STOPS ELECTRICITY EXPORTS TO EASTERN EUROPE. Reuters reported on 26-November that Ukraine had cut exports of electricity and the transit of Russian supplies of electricity to Eastern Europe due to its domestic energy crisis. A Ukrainian government official said Russia had cut links with the Ukrainian electricity grid last week. According to a Hungarian official, the Ukrainian shortfall (about 7-8 % of Hungary's peak demand), was being made up by domestic and Polish supplies. -Karoly Okolicsanyi SAEIMA TACKLES LATVIAN CITIZENSHIP LAW. On 25 November 1993 the Latvian parliament considered the five proposed draft laws on citizenship and naturalization that were formulated by the six parliamentary factions. After sharp and lengthy debating that lasted past midnight, the deputies decided to use as basis for further discussion the draft proposed by the coalition Latvia's Way and the Farmers Union; 53 of the 85 deputies present voted for, 28 against, and 6 abstained. That draft is considered to be moderate, in comparison with those proposed by some of the other factions. Earlier that day, the parliament also took the preparatory steps to hold a referendum in connection with the citizenship law, an RFE/RL correspondent in Riga reported. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIAN MINISTER OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS RESIGNS. On 28 November Estonian president Lennart Meri accepted the resignation of Minister of Internal Affairs Lagle Parek. Prime Minister Mart Laar will take charge of the ministry until a replacement is appointed. Parek resigned amid widespread criticism of her ministry's apparent inability to check crime in Estonia, and the controversial handling-allegedly involving violence both against and by the police-of members of the Laanemaa volunteer infantry unit and its former leader Asso Kommer, who was transferred from the unit after its mutiny last July. -Dzintra Bungs BELARUSIAN PARLIAMENT ADOPTS THREE NEW DRAFT LAWS. The Belarusian parliament passed three new draft laws following their first reading, Belarusian television reported on 25 November. The bills established the basis for social insurance, the protection of natural resources, and the country's banking principles. Deputies laid particular emphasis on the banking bill which, they said, should help bring the Belarusian system in line with international banking codes. -Ustina Markus BELARUSIAN OPPOSITION WILL ONLY SIT ON ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SESSIONS. The Belarusian Popular Front announced that from now on it would only participate in parliamentary sessions concerned with political and economic issues, Radiofakt reported on 26 November. According to the opposition leader Zyanon Paznyak, Belarus is faced with a number of critical issues which need to be dealt with, among the most important being the energy crisis and the switch to a national currency. During the same press conference, opposition deputy Valyantsin Holubeu said that the Supreme Soviet must enact election laws and establish a new structure for the parliament which should be more "professional." -Ustina Markus DEVELOPMENTS IN ALBANIA. On 24 November AFP reported that Albania's parliament officially changed the country's national day from 29 to 28 November. Under the former communist regime 29 November was the recognized national holiday and marked the anniversary of Albania's liberation from Italian and German occupation in 1944. In another development, Western agencies report that Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres arrived in Tirana on 28 November for talks with President Berisha, as well as with other high-ranking Albanian officials. Peres and Albanian representatives reportedly signed several accords aimed at facilitating diplomatic and cultural contacts between Albania and Israel. Peres's arrival marks the first time an Israeli minister has paid an official visit to Albania. Tirana opened diplomatic relations with Israel in August 1991. Stan Markotich and Robert Austin [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Roman Solchanyk and Dan Ionescu THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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