|Treat your friends as you do your pictures, and place them in their best light. - Jennie Jerome Churchill|
No. 224, 23 November 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA POLITICAL PARTIES BEGIN TELEVISION CAMPAIGN. The parties contesting Russia's 12-December elections began their TV campaigns on 22 November, Interfax and Reuters reported. Parties have been allocated limited free air-time until 8 December, the order of appearance having been decided by drawing lots. The first parties to broadcast were the Civic Union for Stability, Justice and Progress, and Russia's Future-New Names blocs on Russian TV; and the Communist Party on Ostankino TV. Civic Union leader Arkadii Volsky rejected media characterization of his party as anti-reformist but asked, "why should [reforms] be embraced in the way indicated by Gaidar when any departure [from them] amounts to an escape attempt which prompts the need for tank fire?" The Civic Union broadcast ended with pictures of the recent shelling of the Russian parliament. -Wendy Slater COMMISSION CREATED FOR RUSSIAN REFERENDUM. The Russian government has set up a commission to help conduct the referendum on the new Russian constitution which is scheduled to take place on 12 December, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 November. The commission's main tasks are to provide organizational and financial support and maintain public order during the vote. First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko is the new commission's chairman. Other members include the head of the presidential administration, Sergei Filatov; the transport and communication ministers; and the deputy ministers of finance, internal affairs, defense and security. -Vera Tolz GAIDAR ACCUSED OF FINANCIAL IMPROPRIETY? ON 19 NOVEMBER, OSTANKINO TV'S "POLITBURO" PROGRAM HINTED AT POSSIBLE FINANCIAL IRREGULARITIES BY RUSSIA'S RULING DEMOCRATS. It alleged that Egor Gaidar, who is both First Deputy Prime Minister and leader of the pro-government electoral bloc, Russia's Choice, went to the Russian Central Bank on 5 October with a request for eleven billion rubles ($5.5 million) "for the defense of democracy." The allegation that Gaidar had been involved in financial irregularities was first made on 13-November during another Ostankino TV program, "Krasnyi kvadrat" (Red Square). During that program, the deputy chairman of the Central Bank, Vyacheslav Solovov, said the Bank had granted Gaidar's request. -Julia Wishnevsky GAIDAR LAUNCHES CAMPAIGN IN SUPPORT OF NEW CONSTITUTION. Gaidar has begun a tour of the Russian provinces to mobilize support for the new constitution ahead of the next month's referendum, Reuters reported on 23 November. Addressing a conference of local officials in the Volga city of Samara on 22-November, Gaidar said that, while there was no ideal constitutional draft, that which will be put to the referendum "appears to provide the best guarantees against the kind of unlimited power which characterized the totalitarian Soviet-Communist regime." Critics of the draft say, however, that it contains insufficient checks on the power of the executive. -Vera Tolz GERASHCHENKO, SHOKHIN CRITICIZE FOREIGN BANK BAN. The chairman of the Russian Central Bank, Viktor Gerashchenko, told Russian TV on 22 November that the recent presidential decree restricting foreign banks to non-Russian clients until 1 January 1996 was a pre-election handout to the domestic banking lobby. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin told a news conference in Moscow the same day that he was surprised by the Yeltsin decree, Interfax reported. Shokhin said the decree could cause friction with the European Union (as the European Community is now called) since, during earlier negotiations between Russia and the EU, a consensus had formed that restrictions on foreign banks would be limited to the size of deposits and the types of assets handled. The Yeltsin decree went far beyond this. -Erik Whitlock KOHL NEWS CONFERENCE IN MOSCOW. German Chancellor Helmut Kohl told reporters after his four-hour stopover in Moscow and following his talks with Boris Yeltsin on 22-November that the meeting with Yeltsin was "intensive and fruitful". He said that Russia's current difficulties in political and economic reform could not be judged by Western standards. Kohl expressed his support for Yeltsin and described his stopover visit as an attempt to show Russians that Germans wholeheartedly support Russia's efforts for reform, ITAR-TASS reported. -Suzanne Crow PEACE ACTIVITIES COMMISSION FORMED. An interdepartmental commission to coordinate Russia's participation in "peace activities" will be set up and headed by two co-chairmen: Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and Deputy Defense Minister Georgii Kondratev. The two co-chairmen will draft regulations for the commission and select its members (with government approval) over the next two months. The secretariat of the commission will be based at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Interfax reported on 22-November. -Suzanne Crow SIBERIAN WORKERS STRIKE FOR BACK PAY. Workers in 44 enterprises in the Western Siberian city of Nadym (in the Yamal Nenets Autonomous Okrug, which in turn is in Tyumen Oblast) began an indefinite strike on 22 November. They are complaining they have not received wages for the past six months. Those striking are construction and transport workers and workers in the region's natural industry are not involved. However, a representative of the strikers told RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent that, if the government did not meet the strikers' demands, they might block gas shipments from Tyumen to other Russian regions or boycott next month's parliamentary elections. -Elizabeth Teague NEW TAX CODE FOR RUSSIA? DEPUTY FINANCE MINISTER ALEKSANDR POCHINOK WAS QUOTED BY INTERFAX ON 21-NOVEMBER AS SAYING HE HOPES RUSSIA WILL HAVE A NEW TAX CODE BY MARCH 1994. He said the government wants to keep taxes on manufacturers steady and reduce those levied on individuals, but that taxes on vodka and imported luxuries such as cars and furniture would be increased. -Elizabeth Teague MOSCOW RELAXES RULES FOR VISITORS. Moscow mayor Yurii Luzhkov has amended regulations governing the rights of former Soviet citizens visiting the Russian capital. The regulations, which came into force on 15 November, require visitors from other former Soviet republics who are not Russian citizens to pay a registration fee if they plan to stay in Moscow longer than 24 hours. Luzhkov's press office told RFE/RL's correspondent on 16 November that people visiting close relatives, those with refugee status or who have registered as migrants, handicapped people and those coming to the city for medical treatment, students and members of official religious or cultural delegations would be exempt from the fee. The Russian foreign ministry had asked the Moscow authorities to soften the regulations, which have attracted a good deal of unfavorable comment in the Russian media. On 20-November, however, Luzhkov defended the regulations, telling Interfax they were aimed only at those who came to the capital "to kill, rape our women, rob, and hijack cars." Moscow police have already collected 30 million rubles in fines from unregistered visitors, RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent reported on 22 November. -Elizabeth Teague TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA OPPOSITION TRIAL ENDS IN TASHKENT. A trial of three officials of the Uzbek opposition Erk Party has ended in Tashkent with suspended two-year sentences for the defendants, RFE/RL learned on 23 November. Two of the three defendants were Ibrahim Haqqulov, chief editor of Erk's newspaper which has been closed down by the authorities, and deputy editor Nazar Ishankulov. The third defendant was the party's accountant. -Timur Kocaoglu and Bess Brown OLD RUBLES DISRUPT TAJIKISTAN. Soviet rubles from neighboring countries that have introduced their own currencies are flooding into Tajikistan and causing rapid inflation, Western and Russian news agencies reported from Dushanbe on 22 November. Tajikistan is the only former Soviet republic that has said it is willing to meet Russia's terms for a new ruble zone and which is still using the old Soviet rubles as its only currency. Tajik citizens are reported to be hoarding goods, causing severe shortages and further increasing inflationary pressure. Diplomats in Dushanbe were quoted as saying that Russia's military commitment to Tajikistan's present government ensures that Russia will not let the Tajik economy collapse. -Bess Brown UZBEKISTAN THREATENS TO SHUT OFF GAS TO KYRGYZSTAN. Radio Mayak reported on 22 November that the Uzbek government has threatened to shut off the supply of Uzbek gas to Kyrgyzstan if the latter country does not settle its debt to Uzbekistan within three days. Uzbek gas is one of Kyrgyzstan's most important energy sources and its loss would severely disrupt Kyrgyzstan's already weakened economy. In June Uzbekistan used the same threat against oblasts of Kazakhstan that border Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan, which owes $9 million to Uzbekistan, has appealed to the IMF for help. -Bess Brown KOZYREV CONDEMNS ARMENIAN ATTACK ON ENVOY. Speaking at an unscheduled press conference on 22 November, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev called for a public apology from Armenia for what he termed the "extraordinary incident" on 20-November in which the car of Yeltsin's special envoy, Vladimir Kazimirov, was fired on crossing the frontier from Azerbaijan into Armenia, ITAR-TASS reported. Kozyrev rejected as "a formal and personal attack" a note from Armenian Foreign Minister Vahan Papazyan blaming Azerbaijan for the incident, and warned that Russia would respond swiftly and decisively to further attacks on its official representatives. Also on 22 November, Armenia accepted, but Azerbaijan rejected, the latest timetable proposed by the CSCE for a ceasefire in Karabakh, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller ARMENIA INTRODUCES OWN CURRENCY. On 22-November Armenia introduced its own currency, the dram, to replace the ruble, Western agencies reported. In a statement carried by Radio Erevan on 19-November, President Levon Ter-Petrossyan said the move was necessitated by Armenia's inability to meet Russia's terms for remaining in the ruble zone. The exchange rate was originally envisaged as 200 rubles to one dram and citizens were to be able to exchange up to 50,000 rubles, but a correspondent for Radio Liberty's Armenian Service reported on 22 November that those stores in Erevan that were open were accepting only US dollars and 1993 Russian rubles; the dram was only available in exchange for US dollars at a rate of one dollar for 14.5 drams, which corresponds to 90 new rubles for one dram. Nagorno-Karabakh has also decided to go over to the dram, according to an AFP report of 21 November. -Liz Fuller CIS SHOKHIN ON RUSSIA'S CIS DEBTORS. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin told ITAR-TASS on 22 November that total indebtedness of other CIS states to Russia for energy products currently stands at 3 trillion rubles (about $2.5 billion). Shokhin said he expects that in the future these overdue payments may be transformed into promissory notes, which would circulate in CIS financial markets. In addition to the introduction of these notes, Shokhin called for advance payments for deliveries, accelerating the start-up date of the CIS Interstate Bank, and encouraging the development of convertible national currencies in the region. Shokhin also mentioned that it was not clear whether equity-for-debt swaps could be institutionalized in CIS economic relations at present because the process of commercializing property in the region had only just begun. -Erik Whitlock CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBIAN AND CROATIAN INTELLECTUALS MEET. Vjesnik on 23 November reports on a three-day gathering of some 40 prominent Croatian and Serbian intellectuals that just ended in Zagreb. It was the first such session of its kind since Serbian forces attacked Slovenia and Croatia in 1991, and involved much careful organization and secrecy. Breaking the ice was difficult even among old friends, but participants seemed pleased that the gathering could take place at all and applauded it as part of a "strategy of small steps" to reestablish contacts. One Serbian sociologist said that "Milosevic and his clique are allowed to communicate with the world, but dissenting intellectuals are not. I think that's crazy." -Patrick Moore OTHER DEVELOPMENTS IN THE YUGOSLAV AREA. International media reported on 22-November that Macedonian Transportation Minister Antoni Pesev resigned as a consequence of the 20 November air crash that killed 115 people, mainly ethnic Albanians. Macedonia's air traffic capacities have been strained by carriers using it as a substitute for international flights to Serbia, which are banned under UN sanctions. Meanwhile, Vreme on 22 November writes on the growing links between Serbia and another object of international sanctions, namely Libya. The article notes that Tripoli has bad relations with the Bosnian Muslims, who regard the Libyan leader as pro-Serbian. Finally, international media report that Serbs continue to bar relief convoys in wintry Bosnia, while mediator Lord Owen repeated that spring could mark an end to such aid efforts if the Bosnian conflict is not ended by then. -Patrick Moore EC MINISTERS CONSIDER LIFTING SANCTIONS AGAINST RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. Western media report that European Community foreign ministers meeting in Luxembourg on 22-November offered Serbia a "gradual suspension" of the UN sanctions as part of a deal to bring peace to ex-Yugoslavia. The offer to ease sanctions is but an element in a package of trade-offs designed to bring peace, which might include an easing of the sanctions against Serbia in exchange for the Bosnian Serbs agreeing to territorial concessions. According to AFP, some EC countries have voiced some disagreement over the sanctions issue with, for instance, Germany favoring "a gradual suspension" while the French government has advocated "lifting sanctions after a period of suspension." Meanwhile, Bosnia's ambassador to the UN, Mohammed Sacirbey, expressed some alarm in a BBC interview over the plan to ease sanctions against rump Yugoslavia. Sacirbey argues that Serb forces in Bosnia might not necessarily be prepared to negotiate a peace settlement in good faith and that therefore prematurely weakening sanctions against Serbia might be a counterproductive measure. In addition, both the US and Croatian governments have disapproved of the idea of easing sanctions, arguing that sanctions should not be tampered with until Serbia demonstrates a clear and unmistakable desire for peace. -Stan Markotich PAWLAK MEETS WITH POSTCOMMUNIST UNIONS. Polish Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak, two of his deputies: Marek Borowski (economy) and Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz (social issues), and Labor Minister Leszek Miller attended a meeting of the postcommunist National Trade Union Alliance Council (OPZZ) on 22-November. The OPZZ belongs to the Democratic Left Alliance, the senior partner in the governing coalition. According to PAP, the unionists complained that the government was taking decisions without consulting them and demanded that it implement promises made during the election campaign, in particular to raise pensions, increase wages for public service employees, abolish the excess wages tax, and rid state-owned enterprises of the debts they have incurred. Pawlak promised the OPZZ to sign by the end of 1933 a "social agreement" between the government and the unions, defining "the basic parameters of the state's social and political policies." -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka CIMOSZEWICZ ON PERSONNEL CHANGES. Polish deputy prime minister Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz told postcommunist union leaders at that same meeting that the government had noticed "instances of disloyalty to the government on the part of state officials," both among the voivods and those representing Poland abroad. PAP said that Cimoszewicz announced that appropriate measures would be taken, including replacement of voivods who "did not meet the substantive criteria." -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka POLISH ECONOMIC TRENDS CONTINUE. A deputy chairman of the Main Statistical Office, Roman Sawinski, said at a press conference on 22 November that the economic trends apparent in the Polish economy over several months: stabilization of the labor market, reduction in the rate of inflation, increase in industrial production, and improvement in the profitability of animal farming had continued in October and no radical departures were in sight. Sawinski, as quoted by PAP, said consumer goods prices had risen by 2.1% over the previous month's figure. Wages in the industrial sector had risen by 3,3% in the same period. Real wages were up by 0.9% relative to September but down by 1.8% in comparison with the previous year. Production remained stable (up by 3.4% over last year). Over the nine months of 1993 industrial enterprises were showing profits of 2 zloty per 1000 zloty income, compared to losses of 8 zloty last year. The budget deficit over the same period amounted to 31.4 trillion zloty. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka MUNICIPAL PILOT SCHEME REINSTATED. Head of the Council of Ministers Office, Michal Strak, told Polish senators on 19 November that the government would reinstate as of 1-December its predecessor's pilot scheme to transfer administrative powers from the central government to the 46 largest municipalities. The pilot scheme was conceived as a prelude to the second stage of Poland's public administration reform: the reintroduction of the powiat as an intermediary territorial division. Strak halted the scheme on the very next day after the new government was sworn in, "in order to study it," as he later explained, although political observers suggested that the Polish Peasant Party, to which Strak belongs, is opposed to any decentralization of power. By that time only 26 of the 46 municipalities eligible had managed to complete the necessary formalities enabling them to take over from the voivod responsibility for running secondary schools, hospitals, health centers, some welfare institutions, libraries, and theaters; supervising roads and building construction; and issuing driving licenses. Strak was forced to yield by strong protests from the remaining municipalities. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENTARIANS IN PRAGUE. A delegation of the Ukrainian parliament, headed by its Chairman Ivan Plyushch, began a three-day visit to the Czech Republic, CTK reports on 22 November. The delegation met with President Vaclav Havel, Premier Vaclav Klaus, Parliament Chairman Milan Uhde, and a number of government members to discuss Czech experiences with economic reform and their possible application in Ukraine. Also on the agenda was a Ukrainian proposal for the creation of a new collective security system in Europe. CTK reported on 23 November that Plyushch explained Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk's plan to Czech legislators. -Jan Obrman HUNGARIAN VISIT TO SLOVAKIA DELAYED. Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky postponed an official visit to Slovakia scheduled for this week during which the two countries were to have signed several bilateral agreements. The Slovak foreign ministry issued a statement on 22 November saying the visit was delayed because of incomplete negotiations on the agreements to be signed, which include a readmission agreement. On 20 November, however, Jeszenszky said Hungary would not sign any agreements with Slovakia or Romania until the rights of ethnic Hungarians living there are guaranteed. His statement sparked controversy among Slovak officials and political parties. On 22 November, Jozef Prokes, the newly appointed deputy premier charged with Slovakia's integration into European structures, said that since 1918 Slovakia has met the needs of its minorities. That same day Anton Duris of the extraparliamentary Democratic Party said Slovakia's minority policies fully comply with European standards. On 21 November Slovak Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik said his country guarantees all minority rights for ethnic Hungarians and that "there is no obstacle" to signing a bilateral agreement on fundamental relations between the two countries. Moravcik also said he supposes Jeszenszky's statement is a component of his preelection campaign. Also on 21-November Vojtech Bugar, chairman of the Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement in Slovakia, said he sees no problem with Jeszenszky's statement since the country promised to respect the rights of minorities upon gaining membership in the Council of Europe in June, TASR reports. -Sharon Fisher HUNGARY PROBES SHOOTINGS DURING 1956 REVOLUTION. Frigyes Kahler, a Justice Ministry official who heads a governmental historical committee, told a press conference on 22 November that special units killed over 1,000 people when they fired more than 50 salvos into unarmed demonstrators between outbreak of the revolution on 23 October and 28-December when last resistance ceased. The committee, set up early this year to identify those responsible for the death of demonstrators in 1956, found that in most cases regional communist leaders and military commanders were responsible for the shootings. The committee's report showed that the shootings were more widespread and systematic than earlier thought. Justice Minister Istvan Balsai is to submit the findings to the Chief Public Prosecutor soon. This is the Hungarian government's latest attempt to bring to justice communist officials responsible for past crimes; earlier attempts were overruled by the Hungarian Constitutional Court. -Edith Oltay HUNGARIAN PRESIDENT CRITICIZED FOR STATEMENT ON MEDIA. On 22 November the parliamentary factions of the three-party ruling coalition criticized President Arpad Goncz for stating in an interview with the Italian daily La Stampa that the Hungarian electronic media have become mouthpieces of the government, MTI reports. Citing La Stampa's subtitle "The President is also Against the Right-Wing Government: Let Europe Help," the factions said in a joint letter to Goncz that the article damaged Hungary's reputation and called on Goncz to distance himself from it. -Edith Oltay ROMANIAN CABINET MARKS ONE YEAR IN OFFICE. Speaking at a press conference on 22-November, Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu admitted that his government has failed to cut the yearly inflation rate down to 70-80%, in keeping to a pledge made in its program. He said that the rate might reach some 220-230%, adding that this would have a serious impact on the government's program of social security. Vacaroiu also admitted failures in restructuring and privatization, but dismissed as "false" accusations by the opposition that the reform process had come to a stand-still in Romania. According to Vacaroiu, his cabinet's main success was in bringing a four-year decline in industrial and agricultural production to a halt. The prime minister claimed that industrial production registered slight month-to-month increases beginning in April, and predicted that the 1993 production will be 0.5-0.7% higher than that of 1992. At a press conference on the same day, a spokesman for the National Peasant Party Christian Democratic, one of the main opposition forces in Romania, denounced the cabinet's performance as totally unsatisfactory. -Dan Ionescu BLIZZARD KILLS AT LEAST THREE IN ROMANIA. A blizzard and freezing temperatures plunged much of Romania's transportation network into chaos. Heavy snowfall up to 1 meter virtually cut off many towns in south-eastern Romania and isolated mountain communities. Army troops used heavy machinery to help clear roads in the Bucharest area and elsewhere. Near the town of Buzau, soldiers had to rescue a group of children from a stuck bus. Radio Bucharest reported on 21 November that three persons were found frozen to death on roads in the Calarasi and Dolj counties. Many trains were delayed for hours, while some had to be canceled, leaving thousands of travelers stranded throughout the country. Bucharest was largely without running water because of freezing temperatures. According to Romania's chief meteorologist, this has been the coldest November in Romania since record-keeping began in the last century. Last week temperatures hit as low as minus 17 Celsius. Bad weather forced Croatian President Franjo Tudjman postpone an official visit to Bucharest, scheduled to begin on 22 November. The visit was meant to repay those by President Ion Iliescu to Croatia in 1990 and 1993, but Vecernji list made it clear that the main purpose of Tudjman's trip was to explore a possible Romanian role in helping to end the conflict in the Yugoslav area. -Dan Ionescu and Patrick Moore LATVIA'S ASSOCIATION OF NATIONAL FORCES. On 21 November several groups in Latvia formed an organization, Latvia's Association of National Forces, to support the citizenship laws proposed by the Latvian National Independence Movement and the "For the Fatherland and Freedom" faction, BNS reported on 22-November. These laws would only recognize people who were Latvia's citizens in June 1940 and their descendents as citizens and severely restrict the naturalization process. The ruling coalition plans to present a more liberal draft citizenship law to the parliament on 25 November. Believing that the Latvian population would support their position, the association calls for holding a referendum on the citizenship question. -Saulius Girnius POPULARITY POLL IN LITHUANIA. A poll of 1,286 individuals conducted by the Sociological Research Department of Lithuanian TV and Radio on 1-7 November showed that parliament deputy chairman Egidijus Bickauskas with a rating of +32.7 was the most popular political figure, Lietuvos rytas reported on 19 November. Emigre Valdas Adamkus was second (+29.6) and President Algirdas Brazauskas third (+23.7). If new parliament elections were held, the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party would receive 11.7% (a drop of 3.8% from September), the Homeland Union-6.1%, Center Union-3.1%, and Christian Democratic Party-2.6% of the votes. 48.6% were undecided and 19.9% said that they would not vote. The parliament was viewed favorably by 5.2% and unfavorably by 45.9%. -Saulius Girnius JOINT BALTIC MILITARY FORCE. The chief military commanders of Estonia (Maj. Gen. Aleksander Einseln), Latvia (Col. Dainis Turlais), and Lithuania (Major General Jonas Andriskevicius) in talks in Tallinn on 19-20 November decided to create a joint 650-man Baltic battalion in 1994 that will be trained for UN peace-keeping operations, BNS reported on 22 November. It was proposed that the battalion would have a Lithuanian officer as commander, a Latvian as deputy commander, and an Estonian as chief of staff. The leadership would rotate once a year. English will be the working language of the common force that still needs the approval of the three countries' authorities. -Saulius Girnius WORLD BANK LOAN TO BELARUS. The World Bank has agreed to extend a $120 million loan to Belarus to be used towards instituting economic reforms in the republic, Radiofakt reported on 22 November. The bulk of the loan will be used to import goods necessary to ease the transition to a market economy. -Ustina Markus CFE REDUCTIONS IN UKRAINE. The press service of Ukraine's ministry of defense announced that the second year of CFE reductions began on 18 November in Ukraine. To date, over 160 military aircraft, 630 armored vehicles, and over 600-tanks have been taken out of service. A further 400 tanks, almost 900 armored vehicles, and close to 400 military aircraft are still to be taken out of service, Ukrainian television reported on 19-November. -Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Elizabeth Teague and Jan B. de Weydenthal THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.