You see things and you say 'Why?' But I dream thing that never were; and I say, 'Why not?'. - Geroge Bernard Shaw
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 222, 19 November 1993



	Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.





CIS

START-1: UKRAINE RATIFIES WITH CONDITIONS. On 18 November the
Ukrainian parliament voted by a surprisingly wide margin (254
to 9, out of 440 members) to ratify the START-1 treaty. The Lisbon
protocol was ratified as well, however, with the reservation
that Article five, which commits Ukraine to join the non-proliferation
treaty as a non-nuclear state, does not apply. The resolution
ratifying the treaty imposes a number of conditions that must
be met before the instruments of ratification are deposited.
These conditions, which one deputy noted may never be met, include:
compensation for tactical nuclear warheads withdrawn from Ukraine
to Russia in 1992, foreign financial assistance for disarmament,
and binding security guarantees and recognition of Ukraine's
territorial integrity and existing borders. The resolution also
reaffirms Ukraine's right to "administrative control" over the
weapons and its ownership of them. The decision was reported
by UNIAN, Interfax, and Western press agencies. -John Lepingwell


AFTER START: WHAT NEXT? THE RESOLUTION SPECIFIES THAT 36% OF
LAUNCHERS AND 42% OF WARHEADS BE DISMANTLED (SEE RFE/RL DAILY
REPORT NO. 221). Full implementation of this program is conditional,
however, on financial assistance. Before the vote, some Ukrainian
officials were stating that SS-19 dismantling would continue
regardless of the outcome of the debate, but that SS-24s would
not be dismantled. The status of the cruise missile warheads
based in Ukraine remains unclear. The resolution does provide
for warheads to be transferred to Russia, but this is conditional
on a separate agreement to that effect. The Massandra agreement,
which was to effect the transfer of the warheads, is now in limbo
because of disagreements over compensation for tactical nuclear
warheads. -John Lepingwell

SHOKHIN ON RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN DEBT TALKS. Deputy Prime Minister
Aleksandr Shokhin suggested that progress was made at the first
round of negotiations with Ukrainian government officials over
trade problems and debt owed Russia, ITAR-TASS reported on 18-November.
Shokhin said that the Ukrainian side seemed to be drawing closer
to accepting a deal in which it transfers ownership of Ukrainian
assets to Russian enterprises (primarily Gazprom) in exchange
for its 500 billion-ruble overdue natural gas bill. The Ukrainian
government has rejected such an equity-for-debt swap before.
Shokhin also indicated that new credits from Russia would only
be forthcoming if the existing Ukrainian government debt owed
it was significantly reduced. -Erik Whitlock

RUSSIA



YELTSIN TO MEET PARTY LEADERS. President Boris Yeltsin is to
hold a series of meetings with the leaders of parties and blocs
contesting the elections, his Chief of Staff Sergei Filatov told
a conference of party representatives on 18 November. The conference,
reported by ITAR-TASS and Interfax, was attended by 11-of the
13 alliances-the Party of Russian Unity and Concord and the Russian
Democratic Reform Movement were absent-and will henceforth convene
regularly. Yeltsin, meanwhile, will start the series of consultations
by meeting Russia's Choice leader Egor Gaidar on 19 November.
Filatov said that the State Duma was scheduled to hold its first
session on 11-January, one month after the elections, and that
the final decision on the location of the new parliament would
follow shortly afterwards, although the two chambers would definitely
sit in separate buildings. -Wendy Slater

"FAVORABLE SITUATION" FOR COMMUNISTS. At a press conference on
17 November, the leader of the Communist Party of the Russian
Federation, Gennadii Zyuganov, said that the situation in the
country was "quite favorable" from the communists' point of view,
various Russian and Western news agencies reported. The CP-RF,
he said, was counting on winning a considerable number of votes,
and was cooperating closely with the Agrarian Party of Russia,
the Russian All-People's Union, the Constitutional Democratic
Party, and the Christian Democratic Movement. Of these opposition
parties, only the Agrarian Party is qualified to participate
in the elections. Zyuganov criticized the new draft constitution
as "dictatorial;" the CP-RF takes the view that the head of state
should be elected by the State Duma and be subordinate to it.
Zyuganov also questioned the legitimacy of the constitutional
referendum, as the proportion of participating voters needed
to validate a constitutional question at referendum had been
drastically lowered. -Wendy Slater

SHOKHIN VERSUS GAIDAR. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin,
who is also a leader of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord,
told Segodnya on 18-November that the "exaggerated radicalism"
in the program of the Russia's Choice party may influence many
voters, as in Poland earlier in the year, to back communists
in the upcoming parliamentary elections. He said that he and
the chairman of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, Sergei
Shakhrai, tried to persuade the head of Russia's Choice, Egor
Gaidar, to adopt a more moderate economic reform policy but that
the latter refused. Shokhin stated that, once in the State Duma,
his party would back the candidacy of Viktor Chernomyrdin for
the post of Prime Minister while Russia's Choice would favor
Gaidar. Shokhin said that members of Russia's Choice should have
abandoned their ministerial portfolios before becoming involved
in the election campaign. -Alexander Rahr

SHAKHRAI WARNS OF ARMY TAKE-OVER. The chairman of the Party of
Russian Unity and Concord, Sergei Shakhrai, told Izvestiya on
17 November that he fears the possibility of a military take-over
in Russia. Shakhrai warned that a situation could develop in
which the authorities would need to use the army to deal with
unrest in the Russian provinces, and said Russia may face a choice
between disintegration or an army-police state. Shakhrai predicted
that the new draft constitution will not be approved by a majority
of the electorate in any of Russia's constituent republics; however,
the constituent republics comprise only 15% of the total population
of the Russian Federation, and their rejection of the constitution
will not, therefore, necessarily prevent it from being adopted.
-Alexander Rahr

RUSSIA WELCOMES SCRAPPING OF COCOM. Russian Foreign Ministry
spokesman Grigorii Karasin on 18-November said that Moscow welcomed
a decision to eliminate the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral
Exports (COCOM), an agency established after World War II that
was tasked with blocking the transfer of sophisticated technology
to the Communist Bloc. According to ITAR-TASS and Reuters, however,
Karasin also emphasized that "Russia's main demand continues
to be the immediate cancellation of all restrictions on the export
of goods and . . . technology to our country on ideological grounds."
This past April US President Bill Clinton had promised Boris
Yeltsin that the US would review the COCOM restrictions. -Stephen
Foye

YELTSIN RESTRICTS FOREIGN BANK ACTIVITY. President Yeltsin issued
a decree on 18-November that limits foreign banks operating in
the Russian Federation to serving non-Russian clients, ITAR-TASS
and Interfax reported. The restriction, effective until 1 January
1996, applies to banks which are more than 50% foreign owned
and were not already serving Russian clients before 15 November
or not licensed to operate in Russia before that date. The decree
follows a long debate in Russia over liberalization of the banking
market in which the protectionist sentiment of most of the domestic
commercial bank community and the Finance Ministry was set against
the more procompetition views of, for example, the Central Bank.
-Erik Whitlock

PROSPECTS FOR RUSSIAN INFLATION. A survey of Russian financial
markets released by the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange, and
summarized by ITAR-TASS on 16 November, provides some hope of
lower inflation for the near future. The survey says that money
supply grew 4.45 times while the price level rose by 7.78 times
over the first three quarters of this year, a trend which, if
sustained, may mean reduced inflation rates. However, according
to Interfax and Reuters, Viktor Gerashchenko, chairman of the
Russian Central Bank, repeated at the congress of the Russian
Union of Industrialists and Manufacturers a now commonly heard
warning that the Finance Ministry has significantly underestimated
the 1993 budget deficit-a fact which suggests that the current
high inflation rates (around 20% in October) will continue at
least into the spring of next year. -Erik Whitlock

KOZYREV PROPOSES AGENCY FOR PROTECTING RUSSIANS. Russian Foreign
Minister Andrei Kozyrev proposed on 18 November that a semi-governmental
agency be set up in Russia to defend the rights of Russians outside
of Russia in the CIS. The agency, according to Kozyrev, would
receive governmental funding but also maintain its distance from
the government so that the body would be able to handle the "very
subtle problems that the government is not always capable of
solving correctly." Kozyrev's comments were made in Tajikistan,
the final stop of his three state tour in Central Asia, ITAR-TASS
and AFP reported. -Suzanne Crow

LENIN MUSEUM CLOSED. On 16 November Yeltsin ordered the closure
of the Lenin Museum on Red Square, AFP and Reuters reported.
The red-brick building had housed the museum since 1936 and is
expected to be used to house the future Moscow City Duma, or
local government council. The museum's collection of Lenin memorabilia
is being put in storage until a decision is made on where to
keep them. -Elizabeth Teague

DIRECTOR OF AUDIO ARCHIVES ARRESTED FOR TAKING BRIBES. Yuri Kornilov,
the director of "Gosteleradionfond", the archives for national
video and audio treasures, has been arrested for accepting a
bribe of five thousand dollars from an American company, "USSU
Art Group", Moskovskie novosti (no. 46) reported. The president
of "USSU", Tristan Dell allegedly gave Kornilov money to restore
his access to the "Gosteleradiofond" collection. (Earlier, Dell,
who emigrated from the Soviet Union as Arkadii Shedeilman, managed
to gain exclusive rights to market collection, but last summer
the Russian government suspended his contract following the strong
protests of some Russian intellectuals). The outstanding Russian
composer, YurI Petrov told Komsomolskaya pravda, on 11 November
that the transfer of the exclusive rights to "USSU" wounds the
dignity of generations of great performers and singers. -Victor
Yasmann

TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA





RUSSIA, TAJIKISTAN SIGN AGREEMENTS. Russian Foreign Minister
Andrei Kozyrev ended a two-day visit to Dushanbe on 18 November
with the exchange of documents that ratify the treaty of friendship
and cooperation between Russia and Tajikistan, Russian media
reported. Kozyrev told journalists he was satisfied with his
talks with Tajik leaders on stabilizing the political situation
in the country and strengthening security on the Tajik-Afghan
frontier. A Tajik government delegation headed by Prime Minister
Abdumalik Abdulladzhanov began talks in Moscow on 18 November
with Russian Deputy Prime Minister Alexander Shokhin on strengthening
Russian-Tajik economic cooperation, according to ITAR-TASS. -Liz
Fuller

EMERGENCY FOOD AID FOR AZERBAIJANI REFUGEES. On 18 November the
UN World Food Program announced an emergency $8.4 million project
to provide 9,000 tons of food over a six month period to refugees
displaced by the recent Armenian offensive in south-west Azerbaijan,
Reuters reported. -Liz Fuller

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE



BOSNIAN LEADERS WORK FOR PEACE. Western news agencies reported
that on 18-November leaders of Bosnia's three warring groups
met in Geneva, at the request of UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Sadako Ogata, to discuss how humanitarian aid could be continued
during the harsh winter months. Bosnian Muslim Prime Minister
Haris Silajdzic, Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, and Croat leader
Mate Boban attended, accompanied by representatives of their
respective military commands. The leaders reportedly agreed on
a number of points, including the issue of calling a halt to
attacks on UN aid convoys. They signed a six-point declaration
which included a cease-fire clause, as all sides agreed to "ensure
the delivery of humanitarian assistance by suspending hostilities
and allowing free and unconditional access by the most effective
land routes." Meanwhile, Sarajevo radio reported that the Bosnian
Muslim government and representatives from the Bosnian Serb side
also agreed to permit natural gas deliveries throughout Bosnia.
These developments do not necessarily, however, signal an end
to hostilities. According to Reuters, one unidentified military
source close to the Bosnian Croatian forces (HVO) said that the
top priority for Croatian troops was gaining as much territory
by force as possible. The source reportedly told Reuters that
the Geneva meeting "is a complete waste of time." -Stan Markotich


INCIDENT ON THE BORDER OF SERBIA AND MACEDONIA. Five armed men,
three dressed as civilians and two in military fatigues, illegally
entered Macedonia from former Yugoslavia at 11:00 AM on 17-November
according to stories in Borba, Nova Makedonija, and MIC. They
abducted a patrol consisting of two police officers and a soldier
near the village of Lojane, just inside the Macedonian border
with Serbia. It appears that the patrol was watching for fuel
smugglers when it stopped two vehicles with Serbian tags. The
drivers were evidently attempting to cross into Serbia with some
400 liters of gasoline. At this point, the five men from the
Serbian side entered Macedonia in two cars and abducted the patrol.
The Macedonians were later released. One of the policeman had
sustained head injuries. Fuel smuggling in this region is common.
The Macedonian government has lodged a protest with the Belgrade
government. -Duncan Perry

WALESA: TIME FOR "BIG CLEAN-UP" IN POLITICS. In an 18 November
PAP interview, President Lech Walesa said that the past four
years were a time of political struggle over the direction of
reforms but, now that many issues had been settled, it was time
for a "big clean-up" of the Polish political scene: picking up
the useful pieces and building a workable whole. He mentioned
the need to complete work on a Constitution and pledged himself
to start with defense and foreign policy. Walesa suggested that
the left-wing parties had the experience of government and politics
that was lacking in the parties of the Right. The former now
had their chance to show what they could achieve while the latter
had the opportunity to learn their lessons. He said he would
wait and see how the government of Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak
coped with the challenges it faced before he stepped in himself
but that he would not hesitate to do so if he felt that the success
of reform was at risk. He took an ambivalent stand on the government's
recently announced taxation proposals but voiced unequivocal
support for the Polish-Vatican concordat. He deplored the fact
that he had not been consulted by the National Broadcasting Council
about its decision to appoint Wieslaw Walendziak as head of the
new national TV corporation. Finally, Walesa said that if things
were not right in Poland, he would stand for reelection in 1995
"to continue the struggle." -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka

BUSY SEJM SESSION. PAP reports that the Sejm is making good time
with its legislative agenda for the three-day session that began
on 17 November. The deputies debated several pressing items of
legislation, including one that would suppress the controversial
excess wages tax, another that would protect employees of insolvent
enterprises, and an author's rights bill intended to curb intellectual
piracy. They elected 6 new members to the Constitutional Tribunal
and 4 deputies to serve on the privatization selection commission,
as well as establishing an extraordinary commission to work on
the "Pact on Enterprises," a cornerstone of the previous government's
economic and social policy. In question time a deputy interior
minister refused to confirm or deny press reports that the head
of the State Security Office, Jerzy Konieczny, had resigned.
The Sejm also began debating a bill on local government financing.
The debate will continue today. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka

WARSAW HOSTS ECONOMIC FORUM. The annual World Trade Forum that
is usually held in Davos, Switzerland, opened in Warsaw on 18
November. The architect of Poland's economic reform, Leszek Balcerowicz,
who chaired the proceedings, saw this as signifying recognition
that Poland is the most dynamically developing country of this
part of Europe. Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak pledged "stable
rules of the game and incentives to investment," and emphasized
that social stability was essential to political and economic
stability. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka

CZECH DEFENSE MINISTER MEETS ASPIN, OTHER US OFFICIALS. An RFE/RL
correspondent in Washington reports that Czech Defense Minister
Antonin Baudys met in Washington on 18 November with US Defense
Secretary Les Aspin, Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff John
Shalikashvili, NATO Supreme Allied Commander George Joulwan,
and other defense and security officials. Baudys told CTK that
he and Aspin discussed Aspin's recent "partnership for peace"
proposal, which suggests closer cooperation between East European
democracies and NATO but, at the same time, gives no timetable
for full membership and offers no security guarantees. CTK quotes
Baudys as saying that "for us, this balanced proposal is the
proper first step-in particular, if we consider what the realities
are." Before leaving Prague for the US on 17 November, Baudys
told reporters that he believes Europe's security zone must be
extended eastward. -Jiri Pehe

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL ASKS HAVEL TO VETO LAW. The London-based
international human rights organization Amnesty International
has asked Czech President Vaclav Havel to veto a penal code amendment
recently passed by the Czech parliament, under which the persons
found guilty of defaming the country's president, parliament,
constitutional court, or government can be sentenced to two years
in jail. In a letter sent to Havel on 18 November, Amnesty International
argues that such a law would violate international human rights
agreements and warns that "it will consider anyone sentenced
under this law to be a prisoner of conscience." Meanwhile, a
number of Czech political parties have expressed their opposition
to the amendment. Havel initially argued that the Czech Republic
may need such a law as long as it is not a fully stable democracy
but later indicated he may consider vetoing it. On 18 November,
Czech members of the PEN Club asked Havel not to sign the law.
-Jiri Pehe

NATO OFFICIALS IN HUNGARY. Loic Bouvard and Peter Corterier,
the Chairman and the General Secretary of the NATO General Assembly,
arrived in Budapest on a four-day visit , MTI reported on 18
November. The two politicians were invited by the Speaker of
the Hungarian parliament Gyorgy Szabad and met with members of
the Foreign Affairs Committee in order to discuss the relationship
of the Eastern and Central European countries to NATO. Members
of the ruling coalition and the Alliance of Young Democrats argued
in the committee that NATO should consider the membership of
each ECE country individually. The Hungarian Socialist Party,
however, opposed this view on the ground that the practice could
cause tension among the various countries. The party was not
opposed, however, to NATO considering the four Visegrad countries
jointly for NATO membership. -Judith Pataki

THOUSANDS JOIN "MARCH OF DESPAIR" IN BUCHAREST. Thousands of
workers marched on 18-November through downtown Bucharest to
demand more efficient social protection and economic reforms.
The 6hour rally, which ended with a meeting in a central Bucharest
square, was described as one of the largest since the fall of
the communist regime in December 1989 (estimates by reporters
differ widely, ranging between 15,000 and 50,000 participants).
It was staged by the country's largest trade union organization,
the National Confederation of Romania's Free Trade Unions-Fratia
under the title "The March of Despair". Defying the cold weather,
the marchers shouted slogans and distributed leaflets calling
for an end to "poverty, hunger and misery" and urging the left-wing
minority cabinet of Nicolae Vacaroiu to implement real reforms.
In a statement broadcast by Radio Bucharest, another major labor
confederation, the National Trade Union Bloc, hailed the Bucharest
rally and announced its intention to stage separate protests
in the near future. In a related development, miners in the northern
region of Maramures held a meeting in Baia Mare to back the leaders
of the Alfa Trade Union Cartel in their labor negotiations with
the cabinet. -Dan Ionescu

TRADE UNION WANTS POLITICS REMOVED FROM ROMANIAN TELEVISION.
On 10-November the Free Labor Union at Romanian Television called
for a law banning politics from the television screens, an RFE/RL
correspondent reported that same day. A statement by the union
said television is still used as a political weapon. The statement
was prompted by a commentary aired on 6 November by Romanian
Television Director General Paul Everac, saying the government
was prevented from fulfilling its mission by the press and the
unions, which allegedly want more pay and no work. -Michael Shafir


GERMAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT CHAIRMAN TO ROMANIA. Roman Herzog,
Chairman of the German Constitutional Court, who is on an official
visit to Romania, met on 18-November his Romanian counterpart
Vasile Gionea. In a brief interview with Radio Bucharest, Herzog,
who described his visit as a fact-finding mission, pledged his
country's support for the edification of the rule of law in Romania.
On the same day, he was received by Romania's Foreign Minister
Teodor Melescanu. The two discussed the treatment of the German
minority in Romania. Herzog is a potential candidate for the
office of President of the German Federal Republic -Dan Ionescu


BEROV GOVERNMENT SURVIVES FOURTH NO CONFIDENCE VOTE. On 18 November
the cabinet led by the politically unaffiliated Lyuben Berov
defeated for the fourth time a vote of no confidence, Bulgarian
and Western media report. The Berov government, which was appointed
in late December 1992, won the secret ballot by a comfortable
vote of 130 to 83, with 2 ballots declared invalid and 15 deputies
absent. After thanking the legislators for their support, Berov
said the questions of a slight cabinet reshuffle or possible
policy shifts would be addressed in the coming days. Leading
members of the oppositional Union of Democratic Forces, which
had demanded the vote in protest of current economic and social
policies, said the balloting confirmed again that the Berov government
is controlled by Bulgaria's ex-communist party. UDF deputy and
former Finance Minister Ivan Kostov told the National Assembly
that "from now on we shall call this government the government
of the Bulgarian Socialist Party." -Kjell Engelbrekt

LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN AGREEMENTS SIGNED. On 18 November Russian
Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdyn and other officials flew to
Vilnius where they signed 9 bilateral agreements and a protocol,
Radio Lithuania reports. The most important document was a most
favored nation trade treaty that halved Russian duties on goods
imported from Lithuania. Other agreements were on social guarantees
for ex-servicemen, pensions, cooperation between interior ministries,
air and motor transport communication, and Russian military transit
from Germany. Chernomyrdyn's talks with his Lithuanian counterpart
Adolfas Slezevicius also dealt with compensation for damages
to Lithuania since 1940, the return of Lithuanian embassies in
Rome and Paris now used by Russia, and military transit from
Kaliningrad. Chernomyrdyn also met with Lithuanian President
Algirdas Brazauskas. -Saulius Girnius

LATVIA CELEBRATES 75TH ANNIVERSARY OF INDEPENDENCE. On 18 November
celebrations of the 75th anniversary of Latvia's declaration
of independence began with ecumenical services in the Riga Doms,
the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. A military parade was
held in front of the Monument of Liberty. At a special session
of the Saeima its chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs noted that Russia's
request to retain the radar station at Skrunda for six more years
was unacceptable for it contradicted the recent UN resolution
calling for the "early, orderly, and complete withdrawal" of
Russian military from Latvia. In the evening President Guntis
Ulmanis delivered a speech at Riga's National Theater the site
where the 1918 independence declaration was signed. -Saulius
Girnius

BANK OF LITHUANIA CHAIRMAN CONFIRMED. On 17 November the Lithuanian
parliament at a special session, broadcast live by Radio Lithuania,
voted 75 to 33 with 4-abstentions to aprove Kazys Ratkevicius
as the chairman of the Bank of Lithuania. Opposition to his candidacy
was primarily due to his having served as a deputy to former
bank chairman Vilius Baldisis during whose term there were severe
problems with the printing of the litas.--Saulius Girnius

BELARUSIAN PARLIAMENT RATIFIES ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION. On
18-November the Belarusian parliament ratified both the CIS economic
union and an agreement to form a monetary union with Russia,
various agencies reported. Both agreements were passed by large
majorities. The monetary union had more opposition to it, however,
as it means Belarus gives Russia authority over its money supply,
budget and fiscal policy. Democratic and nationalist deputies
were dismayed by the decision and many left the chamber in protest.
Belarusian Central Bank Chairman Stanislau Bahdankevich warned
that monetary union would not produce the results Belarusians
were hoping for as Russia was not going to continue subsidizing
Belarus. Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have backed away from plans
to enter a ruble zone with Russia, saying Moscow's conditions
were too strict. During debates on the issue the Chairman of
the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, warned against the
ratification, while Prime Minister Vyacheslau Kebich urged deputies
to ratify the document. -Ustina Markus

UKRAINE ADOPTS ELECTORAL LAW. On 18 November the Ukrainian parliament
passed the controversial electoral law based on the "majority"
or first-past-the-post principle. The 450 member legislature
voted 245 to 8 in favor of it. Democratic and nationalist deputies
had refused to vote and walked out in protest. The law favors
communists and socialists who have larger memberships and are
better organized to carry out election campaigns. The democrats,
who wanted some degree of proportional representation included,
fear the law will impede the development of a multiparty system.
Ustina Markus and Bohdan Nahaylo

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Erik Whitlock and Jan B. de Weydenthal









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