|The greatest of faults, I should say, is to be conscious of none. - Thomas Carlyle 1975-1881|
No. 221, 18 November 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA TEXT OF RUSSIAN MILITARY DOCTRINE PUBLISHED. Kommersant-Daily reported on 17-November that one day earlier the bulk (all but one-and-a-half pages of a reportedly twenty-three page document) of Russia's recently announced military doctrine had been released to the press by spokesmen for the Russian Security Council. Izvestiya on 18-November carried what appears to be an almost complete text of the doctrine. The Kommersant-Daily account contained a few surprises. For one, it said that the doctrine includes among the external threats to Russia the suppression of the rights and legitimate interests of Russian citizens living abroad (presumably in the former Soviet republics), efforts by outside powers to interfere in the internal affairs of Russia, and attacks on Russian military installations located on the territory of foreign states. The first of these provisions in particular is likely to cause concern throughout the former Soviet Union and the West; it had been included in a draft military doctrine published last spring but after provoking criticism was rumored to have been removed from the revised doctrine. Kommersant-Daily suggested that the Defense Ministry had in fact gotten much of what it wanted in the new doctrine; it mentioned specifically clauses on the use of nuclear weapons, on conducting offensive military operations, and on raising the overall manpower levels of the armed forces. -Stephen Foye DOCTRINE ON NATO, NUCLEAR CONTROL. According to the text published in Izvestiya, the doctrine includes in its list of items considered to be potential military threats to Russia a clause including "the widening of military blocs and alliances damaging the security interests of the Russian Federation." A more serious level of threat, that called "direct military threats to Russia," includes any attempts to interfere with support systems for strategic weapons, a clear reference to possible Ukrainian attempts to take over nuclear command and control, and, conceivably, to Latvia's concern over the Skrunda radar station. It also includes the introduction of foreign troops onto the soil of a neighboring country under this heading. -John Lepingwell YELTSIN IN TULA. Accompanied by Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, President Boris Yeltsin on 17 November donned a camouflaged officer's field uniform and braved cold weather for over two hours while observing a military exercise in the Tula region. During his stay, Yeltsin also conducted meetings with local governmental officials and defense industrial managers on issues of defense conversion, arms production, and arms sales. While Rossiiskie vesti reported on 18 November that Yeltsin had made it clear that the era of cheap loans and government subsidies to the military-industrial sector had ended, other Western and Russian reports suggested that the President had promised to increase spending on military research and to permit defense plants to keep a larger share of military export earnings. ITAR-TASS quoted Yeltsin as saying that: "We must think about defense priorities and develop them so as not to fall behind the United States and other countries." -Stephen Foye RUSSIA CONTINUES TO ASK FOR CFE CHANGES. As a deadline passed on 17 November for the scrapping of some 17,000 tanks and other military hardware under the first phase of the CFE Treaty, Russia has apparently continued to press for changes in the treaty's sublimits that restrict Moscow's military deployments in the Caucasus and St. Petersburg regions. Reuters on 16-November quoted Lt. Gen. Vladimir Zhurbenko, first deputy chief of the Russian General Staff, as warning that a failure by the West to allow Russia greater flexibility in these areas could raise tensions within the Russian officer corps and slow the withdrawal to Russia of those former Soviet forces still stationed abroad. On 17 November, AFP quoted Western diplomats as saying that Russia's objections had marred an otherwise successful global disarmament initiative, with one official calling Moscow's efforts "the most intense . . . campaign" since the 1987 Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) agreement; "the campaign is being led above all by the Russian military," he added. According to the same report, Ukraine has also asked for amendments to the CFE Treaty claiming, like Russia, that it faces new military pressures on its borders. -Stephen Foye INDUSTRIALISTS ENTER ELECTION RACE. The Russian Union of Industrialists' and Manufacturers, which constitutes the main part of the Civic Union electoral bloc, held a congress on 16 November to present its program for parliamentary elections, ITAR-TASS reported. Its leader, Arkadii Volsky, said that if the Civic Union comes to power it will strengthen the industrial sector. He called upon the powerful enterprise directors' lobby, which is well organized in the regions, to secure the election of Civic Union supporters in the ballots on the regional level. The co-leader of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, Aleksandr Shokhin, called in his speech to the congress for a coalition between the Civic Union and his party, and said that mass unemployment should be prevented in Russia by all means. -Alexander Rahr ST. PETERSBURG SOVIET DEFIES YELTSIN ORDER. The St. Petersburg city soviet (council) has decided to defy Yeltsin's order that it should disband and is now the last major city council still refusing to dissolve itself, ITAR-TASS reported on 16 November. The council met in special session that day for what had been expected to be its final meeting. The session was convened on the initiative of Mayor Anatolii Sobchak in order to comply with Yeltsin's demand that city soviets should disband. Instead, ITAR-TASS said, 230 of the 292 deputies present voted against the dissolution. (The full soviet consists of 390 deputies.) -Elizabeth Teague CIS THREE MORE STATES TO ABANDON RUBLE. Belarus, Armenia and Moldova will soon leave the ruble zone, according to Interfax on 17 November. The Russian and Belarusian central banks have drafted an "interim agreement" to decouple their monetary systems by formally recognizing the Russian ruble and Belarusian zaichik as the exclusive legal tender in their respective nations. No definite time frame was given for the move. Citing "sources in Yerevan's financial quarters," Interfax reported that the Armenian dram would be introduced on 22 November. In Moldova, the first vice president of the national bank, Dmitry Ursu, confirmed the Moldovan lei would be introduced some time before 29 November. Of the five nations that agreed in September to form a "ruble zone of a new type" with Russia, only Tajikistan seems now to lack concrete plans for abandoning the idea. -Erik Whitlock START-1 WITHOUT LISBON . . . An article in Kievskiye vedomosti of 17 November, apparently based on an interview with Deputy Parliamentary Speaker Vasyl Durdinets, clarifies the confusing Ukrainian parliamentary position on nuclear arms control treaties. One option being considered is to ratify START-1 without the Lisbon protocol. In this case, Ukraine would then consider itself bound to dismantle 36% of its launchers carrying 42% of its total warheads. The SS-24 missiles would be kept indefinitely. This would cost an estimated $2.8 billion, although if all warheads were demounted and transferred to Russia the cost would increase to $4-5 billion. According to the article, only the START-1 treaty, but not the Lisbon protocol, is on the parliamentary agenda. What legal status the treaty would have if ratified without the protocol is unclear, for the very purpose of the protocol was to bind the Soviet successor states to a treaty negotiated before they became independent. -John Lepingwell . . . OR LISBON WITHOUT ARTICLE FIVE? Another option being discussed is the ratification of START-1 together with the Lisbon protocol, but with the protocol amended so as to drop article five, according to Kievskiye vedomosti and AFP. Article five commits Ukraine to adhere to the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) "in the shortest possible time" as a non-nuclear state. This option would at least appear legally to bind Ukraine to the provisions of the START treaty, although it would probably not be sufficient to cause the treaty to enter into force, since both the Russian and US decisions on ratification required that Ukraine join the NPT. While President Kravchuk has called upon the parliament to ratify NPT, it apparently will not be discussed at the current session, and a large number of deputies believe Ukrainian accession to the NPT should be postponed until the treaty is reviewed in 1995. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TAJIKISTAN ROUNDUP. On 17 November UN Secretary-General Boutros Ghali informed the UN Security Council that the military and humanitarian situation in Tajikistan is deteriorating; fighting is intensifying, particularly in the Khatlon and Gorno-Badakhshan regions, according to a correspondent for RFE/RL. Boutros-Ghali urged the Tajik government and opposition groups to begin serious negotiations "without further delay;" he also said he is considering expanding the UN presence in Tajikistan to provide greater political and economic advice and humanitarian assistance. Speaking to Western journalists in Tashkent, Uzbek President Islam Karimov said that "Islamic extremists" from North Africa are supporting anti-government forces in Tajikistan, Reuters reported. Following talks in Dushanbe on 17 November with Tajik parliament chairman Imomali Rakhmonov, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told reporters that Russia "is prepared to help" Tajikistan achieve stability, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller ROCKY START FOR KAZAKH AND UZBEK CURRENCIES. The introduction of the two new Central Asian currencies, the Kazakh tenge and the Uzbek som coupon, is not proceeding without problems. On 15-November, the day of the tenge's launch, it was very difficult to find the currency on the streets of Almaty, Reuters reported. Many shops were closed and panic buying was evident at those that were open. On 16-November, the state still had not officially set a tenge to dollar exchange rate, according to Interfax. An RFE/RL correspondent in Tashkent reported more confusion in the Uzbek capital on 15 November. No som coupons were available on the streets and crowds were trying to exchange higher denomination new ruble notes. Old ruble notes and lower denomination 1993 notes are to circulate along with the som coupon until at least the end of this year. -Erik Whitlock CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE KOZYREV IN UZBEKISTAN. Kozyrev arrived in Uzbekistan on 15 November as part of a tour to Central Asia. In Tashkent on 16-November, Kozyrev met with Uzbek President Islam Karimov and announced that Russian President Boris Yeltsin had ordered the development of a "strategic partnership" between Russia and Uzbekistan. Kozyrev also said that the two countries would try to coordinate their efforts to settle the conflict in Tajikistan. A sore point in the discussions was the issue of ethnic Russians and their status as a minority in Uzbekistan. Karimov denied that their rights were abused and that a mass exodus of Russians is taking place. Kozyrev, on the other hand, complained that some 700 people daily apply for citizenship and seek help at the Russian embassy in Tashkent, Russian and Western agencies reported. -Suzanne Crow TUDJMAN THREATENS TO INTERVENE IN BOSNIA. On 16 November Croatian President Franjo Tudjman, speaking on Croatian TV, stated that Croatian forces may have to enter Bosnia in order to protect the lives of Croat civilians living there. According to Tudjman, Croats face a greater threat in the Muslim Bosnian government's desire to build an Islamic state than in armed Bosnian Serb soldiers. Meanwhile, on 17 November Reuters reports that Turkish foreign minister Hikmet Cetin said, in a proposal forwarded to NATO Secretary General Manfred Woerner, that the international community should consider using armed force to protect relief convoys destined for Muslim and Croat civilians, who the minister described as victims of Serb aggression. Also on 17 November, Western news agencies report that fighting has flared in several localities. On 16 November the central Bosnian town of Gornji Vakuf became the site of heavy fighting between Muslim and Croat forces, as an estimated 4, 000 Croat troops were involved. Reports of heavy fighting taking place in the town of Mostar have circulated, and Sarajevo radio announced on 17 November that the central Bosnian Muslim-controlled town of Olovo has asked the UN for "safe haven" status. -Stan Markotich YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL MEETS. Western media report that on 17 November the UN Tribunal for War Crimes in the Former Yugoslavia met for the first time, in the Hague. On the afternoon of 17 November, eleven tribunal judges were sworn in, and a key UN attorney, Carl-August Fleischhauer, delivered inaugural remarks. Fleischhauer observed that the tribunal's work could encounter some obstructions, and noted that many groups in ex-Yugoslavia have simply refused to offer their cooperation in bringing suspected war criminals to trial. Meanwhile, on 18 November AFP, citing Croatian media sources, reports that leaders of Croatian forces in Bosnia, the HVO, have openly accused one of their own divisions of committing atrocities (including massacres) against Muslim civilians in the town of Stupni Do in late October. Such an allegation by members of Croat forces is reportedly the first of its kind since the Bosnian war began in April 1992. -Stan Markotich SLOVENIAN POLITICIANS LOSING POPULARITY. Recent polls in Slovenia show that the popularity of the country's top politicians has sharply declined. Leading officials currently have the support of less than 20% of those polled and only 15% have not lost their confidence in parliament, according to the Public Opinion Research Center of Ljubljana University. President Milan Kucan's popularity has dropped as much as 30% is some polls. Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek and his three party coalition government also lost significant support. Analysts say the Drnovsek government is seen by many as being responsible for various economic and arms trade scandals, abuse of power and unsuccessful reform policies. Meanwhile, the latest issue of the independent weekly Mladina published a list of the salaries of top officials. -Milan Andrejevich SERBIAN OPPOSITION WILL RUN IN ELECTIONS. Belgrade media reports on 17 November that the coalition Democratic Opposition (DEPOS) will take part in the 19 December parliamentary elections. The five party coalition, which was founded in May 1992, is led by the Serbian Renewal Movement headed by Vuk Draskovic. The Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS), a founding member of DEPOS that had left the coalition during the last summer in a dispute with Draskovic over political strategies, also kicked off its campaign on 17-November. DSS head Vojislav Kostunica said the DSS would most likely run independently but is open to post-election coalition proposals from all parties, with the exception of the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS). Before the Serbian parliament was dissolved on 20 October, the DSS had the second largest group of deputies within DEPOS. -Milan Andrejevich MEKSI IN SOFIA. Having arrived on a three-day visit to Bulgaria, Albanian Prime Minister Alexander Meksi on 17 November renewed warnings that the war in former Yugoslavia could spill over to Kosovo and the Republic of Macedonia, and subsequently involve the majority of Balkan states. Meksi told Bulgarian and Western reporters that he suspects "ethnic cleansing" will be extended from Bosnia to the Serbian province of Kosovo unless Serbian aggression is checked by the world community. He suggested that the stationing of United Nations peacekeeping troops in Kosovo might help to stabilize the situation. Reportedly, the regional implications of the ex-Yugoslav conflicts were also extensively discussed during the meeting between Meksi and Bulgarian Prime Minister Lyuben Berov. A key topic was the idea of setting up a transport corridor between Albania and Bulgaria via Macedonia, a replacement for the normal routes through former Yugoslavia. In addition, both sides agreed to prepare a general trade accord, agreements on double taxation, protection of investments, industrial cooperation, the creation of a joint bank, and scientific and cultural exchange. -Kjell Engelbrekt MACEDONIAN GOVERNMENT WINS ANOTHER CONFIDENCE VOTE. The government of Branko Crnvenkovski won its third confidence vote on 16-November according to AFP. The vote defeated a censure motion sponsored by the nationalist Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity over the government's handling of the investigation concerning the alleged plot by a group of ethnic Albanians called the All Albanian Army to undermine the state. Some 71-deputies supported the prime minister, 36 were against, and 2 abstained. The parliament is made up of 120 seats. -Duncan Perry POLISH GOVERNMENT ON WAGES, PENSIONS AND TAXES. Seeking to demonstrate that the government is not backing out of election campaign promises, Deputy Premier and Finance Minister Marek Borowski announced details of wages and pensions hikes that are to be staggered over 1994. Speaking after a cabinet meeting on 16 November, Borowski said that the 1994 draft budget would make provision for pay raises of 200,000 zloty ($10) in June and a further, as yet undetermined, rise in December, amounting to 2% in real terms, for public sector employees; and raises of 1.5% for production workers. Old-age and disability pensions will be set at 91% of average monthly wages, not rising to 93% (as promised during the election campaign) until December 1994. Minimum pensions will be raised from 35 to 38 % of the national average wage. At the same time, taxes will be increased: middle and high-income groups will be hardest hit, with base rates raised from 30% to 33% and 40% to 45%. The government, although committed to axing the excess wages tax, will probably be forced to keep some form of wage controls, for fear of an explosion of wage hikes in industry. Small entrepreneurs will be subject to stricter tax controls, and tax relief will be limited. The draft budget will assume a gross domestic product of 4.5%, inflation of 20%, and a budgetary deficit of 4-5% of the GDP. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka POLAND: SIGHTS STILL SET ON NATO. At his first press conference since taking office, Defense Minister Piotr Kolodziejczyk said that Poland would not abandon its plans to join NATO but that the pact should be transformed in such a way as to make it a pillar of a European security system. A 17 November PAP report quoted Kolodziejczyk as saying that NATO was too slow in adapting to the new challenges and threats and that it still caused "allergic reactions" in Moscow. The defense minister said that Russia's defense doctrine was only "a cosmetically retouched" version of its Soviet predecessor and subordinated to short-term political expediency. He welcomed the Russian pledge to respect existing borders and not to strike first, but expressed concern at its approach to the belt of neighboring countries "as an area that should come under its control." Jerzy Milewski, head of the National Defense Bureau who is now also a deputy defense minister, in charge of defense policy, said that changes would be made in civil military structures in view of cutting down on some of the bureaucracy. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka CZECH AND SLOVAK PRESIDENTS MEET. Slovak President Michal Kovac met in Prague on 17 November with his Czech counterpart, Vaclav Havel. CTK reports that the two presidents discussed security concerns, the division of former Czechoslovakia's property, the problems of a customs union between the two countries, and the issue of dual citizenship for former citizens of Czechoslovakia. Kovac was reported to have said that Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia-the so-called Visegrad countries-should coordinate their efforts in trying to integrate into Western security structures. Havel was reported to have noted that the Visegrad group still "has a meaning," but there is also "a danger that the West might regard these countries as a community" and not a group of friendly but separate states -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK HEALTH MINISTER OUSTED. The Slovak parliament passed a vote of no confidence against Health Minister Viliam Sobona on 17 November. TASR reports that the vote was 76 to 60 with 138 deputies of the 150 deputies present. This represents a political defeat for Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar, who has resisted efforts of the opposition to recall the minister. Sobona has been repeatedly accused of incompetence by both the opposition and some members of the Slovak National Party, the new coalition partner of Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia. The number of votes cast against Sobona suggests that some SNP and possibly also some MDS deputies joined forces with the opposition in ousting the minister. In another development, the parliament elected Ludovit Cernak, chairman of the Slovak National Party, to the post parliament deputy chairman. -Jiri Pehe VOIVODINA HUNGARIAN LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT SERBIAN ELECTIONS. The Chairman of the Democratic Community of Hungarians in Voivodina (DCHV), Andras Agoston said at a Budapest press conference on 16 November that he expects the DCHV to get about 6-7 seats in parliament during the upcoming 19 December Serbian elections, MTI reports. Agoston said that the DCHV has no coalition partners, because no Serbian political forces support the idea of Hungarian autonomy advocated by his organization. Agoston also told reporters that his group's election chances may be affected by the fact that some 10% of the Hungarian population had been forced to leave Voivodina as a result of the war. -Judith Pataki ROMANIAN PREMIER ADMITS ECONOMIC FAILURES. In an interview with Reuters on 17-November Nicolae Vacaroiu said that the government had failed to curb inflation, adding that plans to privatize communist-era industries and to close unprofitable state enterprises were unsuccessful. He denied that reforms had stalled in Romania, however, and blamed the opposition for making these "false claims." Vacaroiu also said that his team had prepared, with the help of experts from the International Monetary Fund, tough financial and monetary measures aimed at speeding up the reforms. A high-ranking Romanian delegation, including Minister of State Mircea Cosea, Finance Minister Florin Georgescu, and National Bank Governor Mugur Isarescu returned from Washington on 17 November, after having negotiated the terms of a new standby loan agreement with the IMF. Cosea said that the accord should be concluded in December. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN JOURNALISTS PROTEST LIBEL BILL. The Romanian Journalists' Association on 16 November protested a bill that would increase penalties for libel by journalists. In a statement broadcast by Radio Bucharest, the largest journalists' organization in Romania depicted the law as an attempt to intimidate the press, while the mass circulation daily Evenimentul zilei described the law as "one of the most reactionary documents" since the 1989 anti-communist revolution. The bill, which contains amendments to the Penal Code, provides terms of up to two years in jail for journalists who print "insults and calumnies." The country's main opposition alliance, the Democratic Convention of Romania, also said that the law was discriminating against newspaper editors. Libel by a non-journalist would carry a maximum penalty of one year's imprisonment. The bill was approved last week by the Senate and has to be passed by the Chamber of Deputies, the parliament's lower house. -Dan Ionescu EXILED ROMANIAN KING DENIED VISA. A spokesman for the Romanian Foreign Ministry said on 17-November that former King Michael was denied a visa to enter Romania for its national day ceremonies on 1-December. The spokesman, Mircea Geoana, told reporters that the visa was being rejected because Michael applied at the Romanian embassy in Bern with a Greek diplomatic passport bearing the name "His Majesty King Michael of Romania." Geoana said that this contradicted Michael's statement that he wanted to participate in the ceremonies as a simple citizen who is not challenging Romania's constitutional order. Michael, who lives in Swiss exile, had been allowed to visit Romania in 1992 with a Danish passport bearing the same title. -Dan Ionescu BULGARIA, RUSSIA AGREE ON MILITARY COOPERATION. Col. Gen. Mihail Kolesnikov, Russia's Chief of General Staff, signed during his visit to Bulgaria an agreement on military cooperation in 1994. Gen. Lyuben Petrov, Kolesnikov's counterpart, told Bulgarian radio on 16-November that the agreement envisages regular exchange between military experts and defense ministry officials in the fields of military planning, restructuring of armed forces and military tactics. An RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow on 17 November quoted a Russian defense ministry official as saying that Russia is also proposing a barter deal in which Bulgaria would receive T-72 tanks and spare parts for military aircraft and helicopters in exchange for medicine, cigarettes and food. -Kjell Engelbrekt LATVIA-RUSSIA INITIAL 7 MINOR PACTS. On 17-November in Jurmala Latvia and Russia initialed seven interstate pacts, BNS reports. They include a mutual frontier regime, social protection for Russian servicemen and the operation of Russian industrial enterprises in Latvia, as well as outlining transportation contacts. Latvian Foreign Minister Georgs Andrejevs said that Russia's offer to withdraw its troops by September 1994 if allowed to retain its radar station at Skrunda for six more years "deserved special attention." He noted that while Latvia might consider the replacement of the faculty's military personnel by civilians, health concerns for people living within a 30 kilometer radius of the radar had to be settled. -Saulius Girnius RUSSIAN OFFER TO WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM ESTONIA. On 17 November three days of Estonian-Russian negotiations in Lohusalu ended with the initialing of agreements on the protection of cultural treasures and on industrial standards, BNS reports. Lacking authority, the Estonian delegation declined to discuss a Russian offer to withdraw its troops from Estonia by 31-August. Estonian delegation head Juri Luik said that the government would discuss the offer on 18 November. He also noted that Russia is requesting Estonia to pay $23-million for constructing housing for departing servicemen and social guarantees for military retirees. -Saulius Girnius UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES ELECTION LAW. On 17 November Ukraine's Supreme Council Chairman, Ivan Plyushch, had to suspend the debate on a new electoral law after deputies engaged in a "shoving match," Reuters reported. The new law provides for single-member constituencies with the candidate gaining the most votes in each constituency being elected. It is favored by the former communists and their socialist allies who are better organized and have larger memberships than the democratic opposition. One democratic deputy, Anatolii Tkachuk, said that law would kill the multi-party system. The disturbance in parliament erupted when democratic deputies began accusing the communists and their allies of running from seat to seat in the 450 member parliament to vote on behalf of absent deputies. Deputies then spilled out on to the floor and began shoving each other forcing Plyushch to suspend the session. The delay in voting on the electoral bill means the debate on the START treaty may again be delayed. -Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Jan B. de Weydenthal THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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