|The worst sin towards our fellow creatures is not to hate them, but to be indifferent to them; that's the essence of inhumanity. - George Bernard Shaw|
No. 220, 16 November 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA YELTSIN DENIES HAVING CANCELED EARLY PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. In an interview appearing in the 15 November issue of Izvestiya, Russsian President Boris Yeltsin says that his decree calling presidential elections two years ahead of schedule is still valid. He claims that his remarks to media representatives on 6-November expressing unwillingness to honor the decree were a "personal view," not an official decision, and that he "wanted to hear the views" of the future Federal Assembly on the issue of early presidential elections. Yeltsin admitted, however, that he was not favorably inclined towards early elections, and claimed that the forthcoming constitutional referendum would be "the second in the course of this year in which directly or indirectly confidence in the President would be expressed." Publication of the new draft constitution has effectively made speculation about early presidential elections irrelevant, however, since the draft states that, on promulgation of the constitution, the President serves out the full term of office for which he was elected, but assumes the new powers granted him by the new constitution. -Wendy Slater PARTIES JOIN FORCES TO FORMULATE NEW LEGISLATURE'S RULES. Representatives of 9 parties and election blocs of the 13 that will compete for seats in the State Duma have decided to combine forces to formulate the mechanics of the working of the future Federal Assembly, Interfax reported on 15 November. The pro-Yeltsin "Russia's Choice" bloc initiated the proposal; a presidential committee will shortly hold open meetings, to be attended by political parties, on procedural issues of the future parliament. The meeting was attended by the Communist Party of Russia, the Women of Russia movement, Russia's Future-New Names association, Cedar ecological movement, the Agrarian Party, the Liberal Democratic Party, the Dignity and Charity association, and the Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms. The Democratic Party of Russia, Civic Union, the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, and the "Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin" bloc failed to take part in the meeting, although the Democratic Party of Russia nominated its representatives to the initiative. -Wendy Slater CHECHNYA PROTESTS REFERENCE TO IT IN RUSSIAN CONSTITUTION. The government of Chechnya has described as "a provocation" the fact that the republic is listed as a constituent member of the Russian Federation in the draft Russian constitution to be put to referendum on 12 December, Interfax reported on 15-November. Chechnya announced independence from Russia in 1991 but the Moscow leadership has not recognized this move. The Chechen government said last week that the republic would not hold elections to the new Russian parliament nor would it conduct a referendum on the new Russian constitution. -Vera Tolz REGISTRATION OF CANDIDATES FOR NON-PARTY SEATS HAS BEGUN. The Chairman of the Central Electoral Commission, Nikolai Ryabov, has reported on the progress of registering the remaining candidates for the seats in the future parliament, Interfax reported on 15-November. 1,505 candidates have been nominated for the half of the 450 seats in the State Duma (the lower house) to be contested in single-candidate constituencies. (The remainder are to be contested by political parties on a system of proportional representation.) 493-candidates have been nominated for the 178 seats in the Council of the Federation (the upper house, to which two candidates from each constituent part of the Russian Federation are to be elected). Registration of the candidates depends on their having collected a certain number of signatures in support. Some opposition parties which failed to qualify for the elections are fielding candidates as individuals in the single-mandate constituencies. -Wendy Slater PARTICIPANTS IN OCTOBER DISTURBANCES SEEK ELECTION . . . Supporters of Ilya Konstantinov, a leader of the banned National Salvation Front who is in prison awaiting trial for his role in October's parliamentary rebellion, are reported to have collected enough signatures to qualify Konstantinov as a candidate for the 12-December elections, Reuters reported on 15 November. The same day, Ekho Moskvy reported that supporters of former parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov were also collecting signatures to register Khasbulatov as an election candidates in the Makhachkala (Northern Caucasus) electoral district. On 19 October, however, Yeltsin signed a decree stripping those people who had been formally charged with organizing the 3-4 October disturbances of the right to run for seats in the new parliament. Ekho Moskvy reported that Russia's Procurator General had recently sent the list of names of 21-such people, who include Konstantinov and Khasbulatov, to the Central Electoral Commission. -Vera Tolz . . . AS DO DEFENDANTS IN COUP TRIAL. At least two of the men currently on trial for treason in the stalled case on the August 1991 attempted coup are planning to stand for election on 12 December. Vasilii Starodubtsev, formerly the chairman of the USSR Peasants' Union, occupies a low position on the list of candidates of the Agrarian Party; Anatolii Lukyanov, former Chairman of the USSR Supreme Soviet, is registered as a candidate for the State Duma in the Smolensk district, AFP and an RFE/RL Moscow correspondent reported on 15 November. They may stand for election since they have not yet been convicted of any crime. -Wendy Slater RUSSIA TO DEMAND ADVANCE PAYMENT FOR OIL TO FSU? A SPOKESMAN FOR THE RUSSIAN MINISTRY OF FUEL AND ENERGY HAS SAID THAT THE NATIONS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION MAY BE REQUIRED TO ELIMINATE OLD DEBTS FOR OIL AND PAY IN ADVANCE FOR NEW SHIPMENTS IN ORDER TO RECEIVE SUPPLIES FOR THE REST OF THE YEAR, INTERFAX REPORTED ON 15-NOVEMBER. The date by which such conditions might be enforced were not specified. As of last month, nations of the former Soviet Union owed Russia 386-billion rubles for oil supplies, according the Committee for Economic Cooperation with CIS countries. Interfax also reported that the Russian government intends to investigate the reexport of Russian oil and other raw materials from these nations and, if it is confirmed, will "take [this reexporting] into account" at future negotiations over debt repayment and fuel supply. -Erik Whitlock MINISTRY OF SECURITY MUST BE REFORMED TO MEET NEW CHALLENGES. First Deputy Minister of Security Sergei Stepashin made this statement to Rossiiskaya gazeta of 13-November. Stepashin revealed that at the meeting between Security Minister Nikolai Golushko and Boris Yeltsin on 5 November, the Russian President approved Golushko's proposals for the re-organization of his agency. The proposals include creating the post of national security assistant to the Russian President and forming a new subdivision of the agency for "the prevention of anti-constitutional activity." Stepashin announced that his service will reassert control over a "powerful combat detachment" (presumably the former KGB anti-terrorist group "Alfa" which was separated from the KGB in 1991). He noted that his agency will focus on economic and ecological security aspects, as well as on the protection of commercial secrets and computer networks. Finally, Stepashin stressed the importance of intelligence contacts between the Russian security agencies and the secret services of the United States, major European powers, Israel, and South Africa, claiming that such contacts facilitated joint operations against international drug traffickers. -Victor Yasmann AIRBORNE FORCES IN THE NEWS. Interfax reported on 15 November that President Yeltsin is scheduled to visit the Tula Airborne Forces division on 17-November, where he will observe a military exercise and meet with officers and soldiers. Units from the Tula Division were among those that took part in the 4 October assault on the White House. On 1 September it was announced that Yeltsin had promised to spend one day each month meeting with military personnel, and he has paid special attention to the elite forces that are stationed in the Moscow region. Meanwhile, on 12-13 November the staff of the Ryazan Airborne Forces Command Academy celebrated its 75th anniversary, ITAR-TASS reported. Among those present was Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, himself a 1969 graduate and a former commander of the Soviet Airborne Forces. In a 13-November address Grachev emphasized that the Airborne Forces remain at the center of Russia's military reform efforts and that their role in Russia's military planning will continue to grow. -Stephen Foye RUSSIA-ASIA UPDATE. Interfax and Radio Rossii, quoting the 15 November issue of Rossiiskaya gazeta, report that a North Korean diplomat has been expelled from Russia for trying to recruit Russian missile specialists. According to Russian First Deputy Minister of Security Sergei Stepashin, the diplomat had succeeded in smuggling a large group of Russian military specialists to the North Korean capital of Pyongyang. Meanwhile, Interfax reported on 15 November that a Russian-Japanese group of experts meeting in Moscow a week earlier had agreed in principle to conduct joint research on the effects of dumping radioactive waste in the Sea of Japan. According to a communique released by the group, research is to be conducted by specialists from Japan, Russia, and South Korea, as well as from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The first research operations are scheduled to begin in mid-January of 1994. Japan and Russia clashed over the dumping of radioactive waste by Russia in mid-October. -Stephen Foye CIS IS START-1 ON OR OFF IN UKRAINE? DESPITE EARLIER WESTERN REPORTS THAT THE START-1 TREATY HAD BEEN REMOVED FROM THE UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT'S AGENDA, UKRAINIAN PRESS AGENCIES ARE INDICATING THAT THE TREATY WILL BE CONSIDERED. UNIAR on 16 November reported that the joint parliamentary commission examining the issue of ratification had informally approved a government program for the dismantling of nuclear weapons after START-1 ratification. The commission heard reports on the treaty from the defense minister, foreign minister, and Deputy Prime Minister Valerii Shmarov. The program reportedly relaxes the requirement that $2.8-billion be paid to finance the dismantling, and provides for dismantling to proceed even before all financing is secured. According to the UNIAN agency on 16 November, the treaty could be discussed in closed session as early as 18 November, although there are a number of other items on the agenda before it. There has been no indication whether the non-proliferation treaty, which is also on the parliament's agenda, will be discussed as well. -John Lepingwell and Bohdan Nahaylo UKRAINIAN SERVICEMEN WITHDRAWN FROM POTI. Interfax reported on 13 and 15-November that two ships of the Black Sea Fleet stationed off Poti are returning to Crimea with some 41 Ukrainian servicemen on board. The reports follow a visit by the Ukrainian Deputy Defense Minister Anatolii Lopata to Sevastopol to discuss Ukrainian participation with the fleet's command. On 15 November, UNIAN reported that the servicemen would arrive in Sevastopol on 17 November, and that the decision was prompted by questions raised in the Ukrainian parliament concerning Ukrainian participation. Krasnaya zvezda of 10 November had noted that the landing of troops in Poti was based on a Russian-Georgian agreement, apparently without any Ukrainian approval. At present the fleet is under the joint control of the Ukrainian and Russian presidents, with both their permission required before it can participate in military operations. The decision by Ukraine to withdraw from the operation underlines the differing interests of Ukraine and Russia, and the difficulty of maintaining a joint fleet. -John Lepingwell CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIA UPDATE. On 15 November Reuters reported that Bosnian Croatian troops had launched a new attack against Muslim forces near the central Bosnian town of Gornji Vakuf. Croatian media, however, reject such reports, and insist that Muslim forces initiated the fighting. Meanwhile, Western agencies report on 15-November that Muslim government forces once again took the central Bosnian town of Fojnica after Croat troops failed to occupy it. UN representatives report that fighting between Serb and Croat troops is continuing near the town of Vares and that UN forces have been shelled, perhaps by Serb artillery, near the town of Olovo, to the east of Sarajevo. In other news, the political and military leaders of the Muslim, Serb, and Croat groups have been invited to attend a UN-backed meeting on 18-November to discuss questions related to aid operations during the winter. Thus far, only Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic and his supporters have expressed interest in the meeting. Meanwhile, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, on 15 November reportedly said that peace was not in the cards for Bosnia-Hercegovina. According to Radio Sarajevo reports, Izetbegovic stated that he is committed to fighting the war in Bosnia, and that Bosnia no longer has any future as a multi-ethnic state. -Stan Markotich DIPLOMATIC TENSION BETWEEN ITALY AND CROATIA? ACCORDING TO REPORTS CARRIED IN THE CROATIAN MEDIA, RANKING GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS IN ITALY, AND NOTABLY ITALY'S FOREIGN MINISTER BENIAMINO ANDREATTA, HAVE MADE REMARKS WHICH MAKE IT APPEAR THAT ITALY MAY WISH TO ADVOCATE SANCTIONS AGAINST CROATIA AND TO RE-DRAW CROATIA'S BORDERS. According to a Vecernji list report of 16 November, sources in the Italian foreign ministry have suggested that a possible peace strategy for ex-Yugoslavia might involve redrawing borders. In short, the Vecernji list report suggests that a Muslim state in Bosnia could be made viable by incorporating territories presently held by Bosnian Serbs, but that the Serbs could "have their compensation in Croatia". Such remarks have been interpreted by Croatian media to mean that Italy may be willing to hand over all or part of Serb-held Krajina, a region seen by the Croatian government as an integral part of Croatia, to Serbia. Italian officials deny that any such remarks reflect official Italian government policy. -Stan Markotich DETAILS CONCERNING THE PLOT IN MACEDONIA. In its 12 November issue, the weekly Puls, said that ethnic Albanians recently arrested in connection with the plot against the state were part of the leadership of a secret "All-Albanian Army" which had been founded in 1991, just before the promulgation of the republic's constitution. According to Puls, the authorities discovered a computer data base with more than 21,000 names of potential recruits. Puls claimed that the AAA planned to collect some 600,000 DM to fund its operations and possessed secret military information that would enable it to defeat the republican army. Puls also alleged that the AAA had contact with officials in the Albanian government and political figures in the Party for Democratic Prosperity, the largest ethnic Albanian party in Macedonia. -Duncan Perry GREEK RELATIONS WITH ALBANIA, MACEDONIA. After two days of talks between Greek Foreign Minister Karolos Papoulias and Albanian leaders on 14 and 15-November, both sides agreed that Papoulias' visit could mean the end to several months of bilateral tension. In particular, progress was reported on questions related to the situation of the Greek minority in Albania, as well as that of thousands of Albanian citizens working illegally in Greece. Papoulias said Tirana had displayed "the will and the spirit" to understand the problems of the Greek minority, while Athens would try to find a solution to Albanian immigration "acceptable to both sides." Meanwhile in the Greek capital, Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou stated that Greece's refusal to recognize the Republic of Macedonia under its current name must not necessarily determine the character of bilateral contacts. Papandreou told Reuters that ties between Athens and Skopje could range "from friendly to hostile," but that Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov "has to prove that he wants good relations." On the same day a Greek government spokesman strongly criticized Italy's plans to establish normal diplomatic ties with Skopje, saying EC states should help keep the Balkans stable and "not encourage provocative and historically unfounded claims." -Kjell Engelbrekt POLISH PUBLIC TV GETS NEW DIRECTOR. The Polish National Broadcasting Council on 15 November appointed Wieslaw Walendziak to head Poland's public television system, which is to be reorganized as a corporation as of 1 January 1994. Walendziak, 31, is a journalist, former author of the "Without Anesthesia" political discussion program, and director of the private PolSat television station. President Lech Walesa called Walendziak's appointment "a big mistake," Polish TV reports. Prior to the appointment, there were press reports that Walendziak intends to take off the air "Straight from Belweder," a program devoted to the president's activities that has often been criticized as fawning. A presidential spokesman nonetheless announced that Walesa recognizes the broadcasting council's legal independence. -Louisa Vinton SLOVAK PRESIDENT MEETS GERMAN OFFICIALS. Speaking at a press conference in Bonn on 15 November, Slovak President Michal Kovac said he was satisfied with the results of his talks with German officials. Kovac met President Richard von Weizsaecker, Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel, and members of Bundestag. He told reporters that he received assurances that Slovakia will receive the same kind of support and security guarantees as the Czech Republic, Poland, and Hungary. The RFE/RL correspondent in Bonn reports that Weizsaecker told Kovac that Bonn wants to help Slovakia in its bid to join the European Community but warned that the road to full integration will not be easy. Kinkel assured Kovac that Germany will help Slovakia gain entry to "the European and Atlantic institutions. -Jiri Pehe ECONOMIC NEWS FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC. Czech Economy Minister Karel Dyba told journalists in Prague on 15 November that, following three years of decline, the Czech Republic's gross domestic product will grow by 0.5 to 1% in 1993. Dyba said that the share of exports in the creation of the gross domestic product is almost 50%; the country's exports are expected to grow by 13% in comparison with 1992. In the first 9-months of 1993, the receipts from tourism were more than $1 billion, which represents a 36% increase in comparison with the same period of 1992. Czech Finance Minister Ivan Kocarnik, speaking at a meeting with bankers in Znojmo, said that the share of the private sector in the economy has reached 44%. Finally, CTK reports that more than 2.5 million people have bought vouchers enabling them to participate in the second wave of voucher privatization, during which some 700 enterprises are slated for privatization. The sale of vouchers will continue until the end of November. More than 5 million Czechs bought vouchers during the first wave of voucher privatization, which ended earlier this year. -Jiri Pehe ROMANIAN VESSELS AGAIN DETAINED IN SERBIA. A Romanian shipping company spokesman said on 15-November two of its convoys had been detained by Serbian nationalist organizations in Belgrade, an RFE/RL correspondent and Radio Bucharest reported on the same day. Last month two other ships were detained by the same organizations, but eventually managed to escape, taking advantage of the fog. The spokesman said the two organizations, White Rose and New Byzantium, demanded the release of a Serbian convoy detained in the Romanian port of Braila on suspicion of infringing on the UN embargo against Serbia and Montenegro. -Michael Shafir FORMER ROMANIAN POLITICAL PRISONERS URGE BOYCOTT OF NATIONAL DAY. Romania's Association of Former Political Prisoners called on 15 November on the opposition to boycott the national day ceremonies in Alba Iulia, on 1 December, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on the same day. The statement called the festivities planned by the authorities a "diversion show" in which the opposition should not participate, especially because former King Michael will probably be prevented from visiting Romania for the occasion. The National Peasant Party Christian Democratic threatened to boycott the celebrations if the former monarch is not allowed to attend; and several trade unions have also condemned the government for creating barriers to his request to participate in the celebrations, Radio Bucharest and Western agencies reported on 15 November. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN MEDIA WARNS OF ILIESCU'S PLANS. President Ion Iliescu was accused of trying to concentrate more power in his hands, following an announcement that he intended to set up an economic oversight body to oversee the reform, Reuters reported on 15-November. The daily Evenimentul zilei said the move would transform Romania into a "presidential republic" governed by a duplicate government from the presidential palace. The daily Tineretul liber said the intended move was just another "strategy" of the "parliamentary Left." -Michael Shafir ZHIVKOV TO BE TRIED FOR ETHNIC ASSIMILATION POLICY. The former head of state and communist party leader, Todor Zhivkov, is facing a trial for his part in organizing a massive assimilation campaign against ethnic Turks in the second half of the 1980s, Western agencies reported on 15 November. Together with ex-premier Georgi Atanasov and former interior minister Dimitar Stoyanov, who also stand charged, the 82-year-old Zhivkov will go on trial early next year, on 8 February, accused of having exceeded his authority in planning and executing the scheme. Because of their resistance to the assimilation policy, Bulgaria's ethnic Turks were the subject of harsh repressions during the last years of Zhivkov's rule, which in the summer of 1989 prompted the exodus of over 300,000 Turks. Zhivkov, who in September 1992 was sentenced to 7-years imprisonment for embezzlement-a ruling still pending appeal-could receive 8 years under the new charges. Criminal investigations into Zhivkov's personal role in running inhuman labor camps and diverting funds to communist organizations in the third world are also underway. -Kjell Engelbrekt NO-CONFIDENCE AGAINST ESTONIAN GOVERNMENT FAILS. On 15 November the Estonian parliament rejected a no-confidence motion against Prime Minister Mart Laar by a vote of 21 to 45 with 10-abstentions, BNS reports. It needed 51 votes to pass. Eleven deputies who were present did not take part in the vote. 24 deputies from the Rural Union Association, the Assembly Party, the Centrist faction, the Royalist Party, and the former Estonian Citizen faction presented the motion to the parliament on 11 November, but six of them did not vote for it. While the government is not popular, no viable replacement for it was proposed. -Saulius Girnius LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN RELATIONS. In an interview on Radio Lithuania on 15 November Lithuanian Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius said that nine agreements should be signed during the visit to Vilnius on 18-November of his Russian counterpart Viktor Chernomyrdyn. They include a most favored nation trade agreement, agreements on air and motor transport, on sea and river navigation, on military and general pensions, on cooperation between interior ministries, and on military transit from Germany through Lithuania. An agreement on military transit from Kaliningrad is still being discussed. Slezevicius noted that Lithuania owed Russia about 196 million litai ($50 million) while Russia owed 219 million litai, but was repaying it faster. -Saulius Girnius TALKS ON RUSSIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM BALTICS RESUME. On 15 November Latvian and Russian delegations resumed negotiations in Jurmala on the pullout of some 17,000 Russian soldiers from Latvia. Russian delegation head Sergei Zotov was said to have proposed that the troops could depart by 31-August 1994 if Latvia allowed Russia to maintain the anti-missile radar system in Skrunda for six years, Diena reported on 15 November. Heretofore, Latvia has wanted all troops out by the end of this year, while Russia has maintained that the earliest possible troop departure date could be the end of 1994 and that it needed to maintain control over the Skrunda radar system, naval harbor in Liepaja, and a satellite monitoring station near Ventspils. It is not clear what Russia's latest position is on the last two sites. Meanwhile, Estonian-Russian negotiations on the pullout of about 3,000 Russian soldiers from Estonia and on other topics also resumed on 15 November in Lohusalu, Estonia. Like the Latvians, the Estonians were more cautious than their Russian counterparts about predicting a positive outcome of the talks, BNS reported on 15 November. -Dzintra Bungs UN RESOLUTION ON RUSSIAN TROOPS IN BALTIC STATES. On 15 November the UN General Assembly passed a consensus resolution calling for the "early, orderly, and complete withdrawal" of Russian troops from Latvia and Estonia, an RFE/RL correspondent in New York reports. The resolution, co-sponsored by Estonia and Lithuania, was introduced by Latvian Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs who noted that Latvia could not accept Russian demands to maintain three "strategic facilities" into the next century and was willing to extend the deadline for their relocation only under international guarantees with a reasonably tight internationally controlled schedule. Russian Ambassador Yuri Vorontsov said that Russia had no intention to protract the withdrawal or to tie it with the protection of the rights of the Russian-speaking population in these countries. -Saulius Girnius LATVIAN SAEIMA PASSES TIGHTER RULES FOR ORGANIZATIONS. On 11 November the Latvian parliament amended a law on public organizations, Diena reports. According to Deputy Janis Lagzdins, Latvia will recognize only those public organizations that comply with its constitution, observe its laws and the international conventions that it has signed. Furthermore, the Latvian authorities may refuse to register an organization that uses communist, Nazi, or former Soviet symbols, or whose name coincides with or resembles names of outlawed organizations. The amendments could affect the future of existing pro-communist and pro-soviet organizations. -Dzintra Bungs KUCHMA CRITICIZES KRAVCHUK DECREES. On 12-November the Ukrainian parliament vetoed President Kravchuk's decree on state commodity bonds which envisaged issuing $10-billion worth of bonds against the pledge of state property and land. On 15-November Interfax reported that former Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma criticized the decree saying the country could not repay the interest on such bonds. He was also critical of the decision to suspend the Ukrainian currency exchange and introduce an official exchange rate for the karbovanets which would make it four times as valuable in relation to the dollar and ruble than it is today on the market. In contrast, First Vice-Prime Minister Yukhim Zvyahilski believes public control should be established over prices, hard-currency spending and foreign trade. He also believes the value of the karbovanets established at the currency exchange is unrealistic and has spurred inflation. -Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Jan B. de Weydenthal THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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