|One word frees us of all the weight and pain of life: that word is love. - Sophocles|
No. 219, 15 November 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA YELTSIN CRITICIZES GRACHEV OVER 4 OCTOBER EVENTS. In an interview broadcast by the German ARD TV Network on 12 November, President Boris Yeltsin criticized Defense Minister Pavel Grachev for what Yeltsin described as hesitancy in calling Russian army troops into action against pro-parliament forces on the night of 3-4 October. Yeltsin, who appeared to corroborate earlier complaints over Grachev's performance by presidential aide Dmitrii Volkogonov, suggested that he himself had been concerned over Grachev's willingness to follow orders and over his failure to take the initiative in dealing with the developing crisis. Yeltsin also suggested that Grachev's hesitancy-described as a "psychological barrier"-might have stemmed at least in part from the Defense Minister's own fear that others in the military leadership would not stand behind him. In the event, according to Yeltsin, the military leadership as a whole proved more reliable than the Defense Minister. Yeltsin, who seemed to suggest that MVD (Interior Ministry) forces had saved the day, also said that it was a lack of coordination between the two ministries that had been responsible for the initial failure of government forces to defend several key facilities. Since 4-October Yeltsin has consistently defended Grachev; his latest remarks were the first evidence of tension between the two men. -Stephen Foye . . . SAYS HE HAD SECRETLY PLANNED TO ABOLISH PARLIAMENT. Yeltsin also told ARD that he had planned secretly to abolish parliament long before the announcement of his 21 September decree. "I wrote this edict with my own hand, with my own pen," Yeltsin said. "I told nobody anything about it and kept the edict in my safe for a whole month . . . It was top secret. The edict lay in my safe and waited for its time to come." Yeltsin also denied rumors that he drinks excessively, spoke highly of Andrei Sakharov and Margaret Thatcher, and dismissed Mikhail Gorbachev as a someone he could not respect either as a man or as a politician. -Stephen Foye THOUSANDS COMMEMORATE VICTIMS OF OCTOBER VIOLENCE. A memorial service was held outside the White House, the former Supreme Soviet building, to commemorate those who died in the violence in Moscow on 3-4 October. Reports in the Russian and Western media put the number of those attending the service at between 3,000 and 10,000. The commemoration service was held on the 40th day after the deaths, according to the traditions of the Russian Orthodox Church. Patriarch Aleksii II of Moscow and All Russia was said to have blessed the undertaking, which was organized by the leaders of the opposition Russian All-People's Union, Constitutional Democratic Party and Christian Democratic Party. -Wendy Slater MINERS STAGE ONE-DAY STRIKE. Coalminers in Vorkuta, in Russia's Far North, staged a 24-hour warning strike on 11 November, Interfax reported the following day. The strike was observed in all the mines in Vorkuta save one-that which supplies coal to Vorkuta itself. Prior to the strike action, 13 leaders of the independent miners' union had been on hunger strike for over a week, ITAR-TASS reported on 9 November. The miners have been Yeltsin's strongest supporters and stood behind him throughout his conflict with parliament, but they are alarmed that the freeing of energy prices will render at least half of Russia's coal mines bankrupt, forcing closures and mass layoffs (Izvestiya, 2 November). The miners are also claiming payment of back wages. They now plan to call a full strike on 1 December and say they will add to their demands a call for the resignation of the Russian government. Miners' leaders called on workers not to vote on 12 December for party lists that include members of the present government. -Elizabeth Teague GAIDAR WARNS INSOLVENT FIRMS. First Deputy Prime Minister Egor Gaidar was quoted by AFP on 13-November as saying that the state must stop subsidizing unprofitable firms, and that those firms which fail to adapt to the market economy will be "shut down forever." In an attempt to mollify two lobbies that are threatening not to vote on 12 December for the Gaidar-led "Russia's Choice" electoral bloc, Gaidar said the government would continue to support miners and farmers. In private, however, members of the Russian government are saying that, in the new year, the Yeltsin leadership will have to follow the example of Thatcherite Britain and face down a challenge from organized labor. They say that the only industries in which independent unions are strong enough to mount a sustained strike are coalmining and defense production and that the government could defeat a strike in either. This is because coal stocks are high following the general fall in production and because a drop in weapons production would not at present be seen as posing a serious threat to Russian security. -Elizabeth Teague GOVERNMENT TIGHTENS CONTROLS OVER EXPORT QUOTAS, CREDIT. The Council of Ministers has issued instructions stating that from 10 November state agencies may issue centralized state credits only after they have been reviewed and approved by the Prime Minister, reported ITAR-TASS on 14 November. The action would effectively subordinate much Central Bank activity to the government. The Council of Ministers also ordered that from 10 November its Commission on Operative Questions would take decisions on the distribution of export quotas. This function in the past has been carried out by the Ministry of External Economic Relations, officials of which have been repeatedly accused of corruption and favoritism. -Erik Whitlock MFA REORGANIZATION DEEPENS POLICY COMMITMENT. ITAR-TASS reported on 12-November that the Foreign Ministry will be "restructured" to upgrade its work with members of the CIS and other neighboring countries in the former Soviet Union and Soviet bloc. The reorganization does not envisage staff cuts; rather, specialists in arms control and international organizations will be added. This MFA reorganization heralds a deepening of Russia's commitment to the policy of reasserting its influence in areas under Moscow's umbrella during the Soviet period-the former republics of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The outlines of this policy have been seen in Russia's opposition to East European membership in NATO and in its attempts to gain regional leadership in peacekeeping operations around the former Soviet Union. -Suzanne Crow NATO TO GET BRIEFING ON MILITARY DOCTRINE. Reuters reported on 14 November that Moscow has offered to send a high-level delegation to NATO headquarters within the next few weeks to brief alliance leaders fully on Russia's recently announced military doctrine, including Russia's new nuclear weapons' policy. The doctrine has not been published, and NATO sources were reported as saying that while it appeared to contain positive elements-including a defensive orientation, a recognition that Russia has no principle enemy, and an expressed willingness to participate in international peacekeeping operations-serious questions about emerging Russian policy in other areas had also been raised. These problem areas were identified as whether Russia might be prepared to use nuclear arms against Ukraine, and the extent to which Moscow considered other former Soviet republics to fall under defense umbrella. -Stephen Foye OPPOSITION CRITICIZES FORTHCOMING ELECTIONS, DRAFT CONSTITUTION. The nationalist All-People's Union issued a statement on 12-November saying that there was no chance of free and fair parliamentary elections being held under the current regime, Interfax reported. The statement said Russia's "ruling regime" had deliberately "excluded the whole non-communist opposition from participation in elections." It said the government was trying to "place a false alternative before citizens: either the present regime or communist ideology." The union was one of the parties and blocs that were denied the right to field candidates in the 12-December elections, according to the Central Election Commission, because the union, led by Sergei Baburin, had infringed the regulations in collecting the signatures needed to register. Also on 12 November Gennadii Zyuganov, the leader of Communist Party of the Russian Federation, which is to be allowed to take part in the elections, said that his party would urge people to reject the draft constitution to be put to referendum on 12 December. Zyuganov was quoted by Reuters as saying the draft was a "Bonapartist constitution" that gave sweeping rights to the President -Vera Tolz FILATOV ON ELECTIONS. Sergei Filatov, the President's chief of staff, speaking to senior security ministry officials on 13 November, said that he believed that between five and seven of the 13 parties and blocs now preparing to contest the elections on 12 December would breach the barrier of 5% popular support in order to gain seats in the State Duma, Interfax reported. According to Filatov's assessment, the pro-Yeltsin "Russia's Choice" bloc, the "Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin" bloc, the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, the Agrarian Union, and the Communist Party stand the best chances of gaining seats in a future parliament. He said that the promulgation of a new constitution at a referendum also on 12-December would stabilize society and guarantee against a repetition of the events of 3-4 October. -Wendy Slater PRESIDENTIAL AIDE ON EARLY ELECTIONS. Viktor Ilyushin, an aide to President Yeltsin told the Moscow correspondent of the inter-Arabian newspaper Ash-Shark-al-Ausad on 12-November that Yeltsin has not yet made a final decision over early presidential elections and may only do so after the formation of Russia's State Duma. Ilyushin said that, to his knowledge, Yeltsin had not abolished his decree on early presidential elections scheduled for 12 June 1994. In a telephone interview with Interfax reported on 12 November, Ilyushin said that he viewed the President's doubts about the need for early presidential elections as "natural." Ilyushin accused media leaders, to whom Yeltsin had made his remarks on 6-November about canceling early presidential elections, of having presenting the President's statement in a sensational manner. -Wendy Slater TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA KAZAKHSTAN INTRODUCES THE TENGE. Kazakhstan was expected to introduce its new national currency, the tenge, on 8:00 am on 15 November, various Russian and Western news agencies reported. President Nursultan Nazarbaev announced the move in a TV address on 12-November. Old ruble notes (issued 1961-92) and lower denomination new ruble notes will remain legal tender up to and including 17 November, and will be exchanged over the next week at banks at the rate of 500 rubles for 1 tenge (Individuals exchanging sums of over 100,000 rubles will have to give evidence of having legally earned these amounts). New ruble notes of denominations above 1,000 are to be withdrawn from circulation on 15 November (holders are to deposit such notes in bank accounts for exchange). The tenge will become Kazakhstan's exclusive national currency on 25 November. -Erik Whitlock UZBEKISTAN INTRODUCES THE SOM COUPON. Uzbek President Islam Karimov on 12-November announced the introduction of a new Uzbek currency, to take place simultaneously with the Kazakh action. The som coupon, in contrast with the tenge, will circulate for the present in parallel with old rubles and new ruble notes of denominations up to and including 1,000 rubles. Non-cash accounts and transactions will continue to be denominated in rubles. New ruble denominations of 5,000 and 10,000 will no longer be legal tender, and holders are to deposit these notes in banks for exchange. No date has been specified as to when the som might become Uzbekistan's exclusive currency. The slower Uzbek approach may be expected to provoke an inflationary inflow of old ruble notes from neighboring states. -Erik Whitlock CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE FIGHTING FLARES IN BOSNIA. On 14 November Sarajevo Radio reported that Croat forces advanced on the central Bosnian town of Fojnica. Meanwhile, Croatian media reported on the same day that Croat forces had repelled attacks by Muslim troops on Fojnica. Western sources on 14 November observed that Serbian and Croatian troops advanced against Fojnica and Bakovici, and added that two hospitals in these towns, housing an estimated 576 bedridden and handicapped patients, have been caught in the fighting. Canadian peacekeepers told reporters that workers have failed to show up for work at both hospitals, and attributed their absence to the fighting. No casualties at either of the hospitals have been reported, and the patients are currently under the care of Canadian and Danish UN doctors and other healthcare professionals. Meanwhile, Vitalii Churkin, Russia's special envoy to former Yugoslavia, held meetings with Bosnian officials on 12 and 13-November. On 12 November Churkin met with Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic in Pale, and on the following day the Russian envoy travelled to Sarajevo for talks that included meetings with representatives of Bosnia's collective presidency. Churkin noted that all parties had enough of the war, and that establishing peace was imperative. He also stressed that as soon as a peace accord was reached for Bosnia, the international community ought to lift sanctions against rump Yugoslavia for its involvement in the Bosnian crisis. -Stan Markotich CHURKIN IN CROATIA. AFP reported that Churkin had arrived in Zagreb and had held talks on 14-November with Croatian government officials, including Croatian President Franjo Tudjman. According to the report, Churkin lent his support to the idea of "safe havens" for Bosnian Croats, a demand that the Croatian government articulated about a month ago. Churkin reiterated his position that the negotiations for a peace settlement of the Bosnian crisis should be tied to the question of lifting sanctions imposed against rump Yugoslavia. He further noted that the matters of peace in Bosnia and a lifting of the sanctions had to be resolved before any of Croatia's concerns could be addressed. At present, rebel Serb forces occupy about one-third of Croatia's territory. While President Tudjman received Churkin in a friendly manner, he told Croatian media that Croatia could not support any demands to have sanctions lifted against rump Yugoslavia until Belgrade recognized Croatia's international borders which include the presently Serb-held territories. -Stan Markotich SERBIA ROUNDUP. Belgrade media continue reporting on war crimes committed by Serbian paramilitary groups, most notably the Chetniks loyal to Serbian Radical Party (SRS) leader Vojislav Seselj. The media also speculate that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic will hand over a group of SRS leaders to the war crimes tribunal that begins its deliberations in the Hague this week. For his part, Seselj told Borba on 13 November that he was not opposed to going to the Hague, provided that Milosevic went as well. He also told the daily that SRS has prepared a transition leadership team in the event that he is arrested. Seselj warned in an interview with the weekly NIN that Milosevic would do "anything" to provoke a civil war in Serbia. In another interview with Radio Pirot he also announced that SRS would no longer support Milosevic. Meanwhile, Politika reported on 12-November that in a preelection poll in Belgrade conducted on 1 November by the MF Agency the ruling Socialist Party won 21.6%, the Serbian Radical Party 12.1%, Serbian Renewal Movement 9.9%, the Democratic Party 8.6%, Democratic Party of Serbia 7.2%, with 3.3% going to the recently founded Party of Serbian Unity headed by the paramilitary leader and alleged war criminal Zeljko Raznjatovic alias Akan. Over 16% remained undecided, while 10.4% said they would not vote. -Milan Andrejevich CONTINUING CONTROVERSY IN MACEDONIA. Accusations and counter accusations, accompanied by new revelations concerning the arrest of Albanians allegedly involved in arms smuggling and plotting against the state continue. The Albanian government vehemently denied any connection with the accused reports ATA on 12 November and a spokesman charged Serbia with manipulating Macedonia. In Macedonia, the National Democratic Party, a predominantly Albanian formation accused the government of trying to influence public opinion against Albanians. The largest Albanian party, the Party for Democratic Prosperity, responded in a measured tone, noting that all arrested should receive a fair trial, according to MIC. -Duncan Perry VISEGRAD GROUP ECONOMIC MINISTERS MEET. The economic ministers of the Visegrad Group met in Budapest on 12 November to discuss the latest meeting of the worldwide free trade negotiations GATT, MTI and Radio Budapest report. They concluded that the successful outcome of the GATT negotiations would contribute to economic growth in their countries. Vladimir Dloughy, the Czech Trade and Industry Minister pointed out that a failure in the GATT talks would create political tensions because of the increasing unemployment. Bela Kadar, Hungarian Minister of International Economic Relations said that according to preliminary estimates, a successful conclusion of the GATT talks would bring a $270 billion profit to its members. This would make possible for the Visegrad Group countries to increase their worldwide trade share. -Judith Pataki "WEIMAR TRIANGLE" MEETS IN WARSAW. At their third annual trilateral meeting, the foreign ministers for Germany, France, and Poland-Klaus Kinkel, Alain Juppe, and Andrzej Olechowski-held talks in Warsaw on 12 November, PAP reports. Olechowski assured his counterparts that continuity will prevail in both Polish foreign policy and domestic reform. Kinkel and Juppe pledged to help Poland gain "associate member" status in the Western European Union at the organization's coming summit on 22 November. They also offered Poland the support of Germany and France in building closer ties with the EC. Meeting with the foreign ministers on 12 November, President Lech Walesa asked that "Europe show greater understanding for Poland's impatience" to join European economic and security structures. Olechowski also urged the EC to present explicit criteria for membership. The next meeting of the "Weimar Triangle" is scheduled for 1994 in Germany. -Louisa Vinton POLISH LIBERALS WANT MERGER WITH DEMOCRATIC UNION. At the close of a three-day conference in Warsaw on 14 November, the leadership of the Liberal Democratic Congress (KLD) resolved to undertake immediate negotiations with the Democratic Union (UD) aimed at building "a strong new force of the political Center capable of opposing the populist promises of the Left and the irresponsibility of the pseudo-Right." The resolution was a response to the UD's offer of a merger following the Liberals' defeat in the recent elections. Most of the KLD delegates favored dissolving both parties and building a completely new force from the bottom up, but the UD is likely to object to this idea. The UD's Henryk Wujec told PAP on 14 November that his party favors a "gradual process" of unification of the two parties. Donald Tusk was reelected KLD chairman, with the support of 159 of 216 delegates. -Louisa Vinton SLOVAK PRESIDENT IN GERMANY. TASR reports that Slovak President Michal Kovac arrived in Germany for a three-day visit on 14 November. He is scheduled to meet with German President Richard von Weizsaecker, Bundestag President Rita Suessmuth, Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel, and members of the Bundestag's foreign relations committee. Bonn officials say that the talks are expected to focus on Slovakia's request for closer ties with the European Union and NATO. In an interview with CTK, Kovac said that he would be pleased if his visit resulted in greater support for Slovakia in the international community. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN PRESIDENT SPEAKS OF SECURITY VACUUM. At a two-day forum in Budapest organized by the Council of Foreign Relations and the Central European University founded by the financier George Soros, Hungarian President Arpad Goncz said that a relative security vacuum exists in the region both in the military and economic sense, creating a threat of social turbulence. Goncz demanded that Central and Eastern Europe become a part of the NATO collective security system to ensure stability. The conference was attended by NATO Secretary General Manfred Woerner. After the conference Woerner met with Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall to discuss security matters. -Judith Pataki THE HUNGARIAN SOCIALISTS PARTY AND THE MEDIA. The Chairman of the Hungarian Socialist Party (HSP) Gyula Horn announced on 12 November that his party will start to collect signatures to force parliament to discuss the problems related to the supervision of the Hungarian Radio and Television, MTI reports. Last week the parliament refused to discuss a proposal submitted by the socialists. In case the HSP collects 50,000 signatures, parliament must take up the issue. Horn feels that the government or other political forces might take control of the news programs at the electronic media which could distort the election results. -Judith Pataki CONTROVERSY OVER PUBLICATION OF MEIN KAMPF CONTINUES IN ROMANIA. Reacting to the ruling of the Prosecutor General not to forbid the dissemination of Hitler's Mein Kampf, as well as to the prosecutor's statement that some of the extreme nationalist parties to whose activities President Ion Iliescu had drawn attention had been lawfully registered, a spokesman for Iliescu said the prosecutor had approached the problem from a "narrow, legalistic point of view." The presidential intervention, the spokesman said, had been determined by the awareness of the danger such manifestations represent for the evolution of Romanian society, taking into consideration "the reality of some neo-fascist movements, as well as that of anti-Semitic and racial manifestations" in some European countries, against the background of Romania's own past. The dangers inherent are already manifest in the attraction provided by "neo-fascist concepts and symbols" of "Iron-Guard inspiration," especially among young people, the spokesman said at a press conference on 12-November, broadcast by Radio Bucharest on the same day. -Michael Shafir HUNGARIAN PARTY PROPOSES NEW LAW ON NATIONAL MINORITIES IN ROMANIA. Following a three day debate in Tirgu Mures, the Council of Representatives of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania agreed on a draft law on the national minorities. The draft is to be submitted to the Council for National Minorities. Among other things, the draft uses the term "autonomous community" interchangeably with that of "national minorities." In an interview with Radio Bucharest on 14 November, HDFR president Bela Marko said this follows the proposed provision according to which those national minorities that wish to express their identity "through specific autonomous institutions" can do so. Marko also said the draft refers to "collective rights" because some individual rights cannot be expressed without guaranteeing collective rights. The draft also grants national minorities the right to use their mother tongue in contacts with local authorities, including the judiciary, in those parts of the country where ethnic minorities are the majority of the local population. -Michael Shafir PAPOULIAS VISITS BUCHAREST, TIRANA. Greek Foreign Minister Karolos Papoulias, who has been travelling around the Balkans since 7 November, spent 12 November in Bucharest. According to Reuters, Papoulias met with Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu to discuss the war in ex-Yugoslavia, as well as Athens' plans to promote regional affairs when holding the EC chairmanship during the first half of 1994. Papoulias said Greece's Balkan priorities will be to bring about a settlement on the conflicts in former Yugoslavia plus substantial improvements in the communications infrastructure of the region. On 13 November Papoulias was received by his counterpart Alfred Sereqi in Albania, a country with which Greece has experienced increasingly strained relations over the past few months. On the following day a spokesman of the Albanian foreign ministry announced that the two parties had agreed to set up a joint commission which will study ways of legalizing the status of (an estimated 200,000) illegal Albanian immigrants in Greece, a major cause for recent differences. On 14 November Papoulias, who in the early 1980s was instrumental in reducing bilateral tensions between the two states, was quoted by AFP as speaking of "a new chapter" in Greek-Albanian relations. The Greek visitor is scheduled to meet President Sali Berisha and Prime Minister Alexander Meksi on 15-November. -Kjell Engelbrekt BEROV PROMISES CABINET RESHUFFLE. Bulgarian Prime Minister Lyuben Berov has said he is planning to make changes in his cabinet following a vote of no confidence scheduled for 16 November. Berov told Reuters on 14 November that he is considering the appointment of new trade and labor ministers in order to remove part of the workload from his two deputy premiers currently performing those functions, but also the creation of a separate privatization ministry. He denied that the reshuffle was linked to growing criticism against his administration over the past few weeks. Berov's government, which throughout 1993 has enjoyed the support of three of the four parliamentary factions, has lately been accused of mismanaging the Bulgarian economy. On 10 November the Union of Democratic Forces filed a no confidence motion charging the cabinet with "incompetence and anti-social policies." However, on 13 and 14 November leaders of the Bulgarian Socialist Party and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms-which together hold a parliamentary majority-indicated they would continue to back the present government. -Kjell Engelbrekt ESTONIAN POPULAR FRONT ENDS ACTIVITIES. On 13 November the 5th Congress of the Estonian Popular Front in Tallinn with 7 votes against and 2 abstentions from about 230-participants decided formally to liquidate the organization, declaring that it had successfully fulfilled almost all of the objectives of its program, BNS reports. The congress gave the Popular Front leadership the powers of a liquidation commission and established a working group to study the history of the movement. -Saulius Girnius LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT CONCLUDES VISIT TO CHINA. On 15 November Algirdas Brazauskas held a press conference, broadcast live by Radio Lithuania, on his recently completed week-long visit to China. He held talks in Beijing with President Jiang Zemin on 8-November and with Prime Minister Li Peng on 9-November. The talks primarily focused on economic questions, especially Chinese trade to Europe through the Lithuanian port of Klaipeda. Li Peng also discussed Chinese reforms in agriculture and its efforts to gain foreign investments and inquired about Brazauskas's views on the future of the CIS. Lithuanian Transportation Minister Jonas Birziskis and the Chinese railroad minister signed an agreement regulating mutual settlements for cargo and passenger transportation by rail. On 10-11 November he held talks with officials and businessmen on the island of Hainan and visited various establishments in its free economic zone. -Saulius Girnius BELARUSIAN PARLIAMENT CONTINUES SESSION. The Belarusian parliament resumed its session on 12-November with economic issues as the main topic of discussion, Reuters reports. Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, accused the Prime Minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, of obstructing economic reform, while Kebich claimed his cautious approach had prevented the collapse of the economy and outbreaks of social unrest. Shushkevich called for privatizing two thirds of the state economy but also maintaining a joint financial system with Russia. The Chairman of the National Bank, Stanislau Bohdankievich, emphasized the need for rapid introduction of national currency to attract foreign loans and investment. On 11 November Interfax reported that Vice-Prime Minister Mikhail Myasnikovich had called for the introduction of national currency as the sole legal tender in the republic. He was reported to have suggested that it would be allowed to float against the Russian ruble to establish its market value and to stabilize the internal currency market. He said the measure would help the country move towards the creation of a monetary union with Russia. -Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Jan B. de Weydenthal THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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