One word frees us of all the weight and pain of life: that word is love. - Sophocles
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 219, 15 November 1993



Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.



RUSSIA



YELTSIN CRITICIZES GRACHEV OVER 4 OCTOBER EVENTS. In an interview
broadcast by the German ARD TV Network on 12 November, President
Boris Yeltsin criticized Defense Minister Pavel Grachev for what
Yeltsin described as hesitancy in calling Russian army troops
into action against pro-parliament forces on the night of 3-4
October. Yeltsin, who appeared to corroborate earlier complaints
over Grachev's performance by presidential aide Dmitrii Volkogonov,
suggested that he himself had been concerned over Grachev's willingness
to follow orders and over his failure to take the initiative
in dealing with the developing crisis. Yeltsin also suggested
that Grachev's hesitancy-described as a "psychological barrier"-might
have stemmed at least in part from the Defense Minister's own
fear that others in the military leadership would not stand behind
him. In the event, according to Yeltsin, the military leadership
as a whole proved more reliable than the Defense Minister. Yeltsin,
who seemed to suggest that MVD (Interior Ministry) forces had
saved the day, also said that it was a lack of coordination between
the two ministries that had been responsible for the initial
failure of government forces to defend several key facilities.
Since 4-October Yeltsin has consistently defended Grachev; his
latest remarks were the first evidence of tension between the
two men. -Stephen Foye

. . . SAYS HE HAD SECRETLY PLANNED TO ABOLISH PARLIAMENT. Yeltsin
also told ARD that he had planned secretly to abolish parliament
long before the announcement of his 21 September decree. "I wrote
this edict with my own hand, with my own pen," Yeltsin said.
"I told nobody anything about it and kept the edict in my safe
for a whole month . . . It was top secret. The edict lay in my
safe and waited for its time to come." Yeltsin also denied rumors
that he drinks excessively, spoke highly of Andrei Sakharov and
Margaret Thatcher, and dismissed Mikhail Gorbachev as a someone
he could not respect either as a man or as a politician. -Stephen
Foye

THOUSANDS COMMEMORATE VICTIMS OF OCTOBER VIOLENCE. A memorial
service was held outside the White House, the former Supreme
Soviet building, to commemorate those who died in the violence
in Moscow on 3-4 October. Reports in the Russian and Western
media put the number of those attending the service at between
3,000 and 10,000. The commemoration service was held on the 40th
day after the deaths, according to the traditions of the Russian
Orthodox Church. Patriarch Aleksii II of Moscow and All Russia
was said to have blessed the undertaking, which was organized
by the leaders of the opposition Russian All-People's Union,
Constitutional Democratic Party and Christian Democratic Party.
-Wendy Slater

MINERS STAGE ONE-DAY STRIKE. Coalminers in Vorkuta, in Russia's
Far North, staged a 24-hour warning strike on 11 November, Interfax
reported the following day. The strike was observed in all the
mines in Vorkuta save one-that which supplies coal to Vorkuta
itself. Prior to the strike action, 13 leaders of the independent
miners' union had been on hunger strike for over a week, ITAR-TASS
reported on 9 November. The miners have been Yeltsin's strongest
supporters and stood behind him throughout his conflict with
parliament, but they are alarmed that the freeing of energy prices
will render at least half of Russia's coal mines bankrupt, forcing
closures and mass layoffs (Izvestiya, 2 November). The miners
are also claiming payment of back wages. They now plan to call
a full strike on 1 December and say they will add to their demands
a call for the resignation of the Russian government. Miners'
leaders called on workers not to vote on 12 December for party
lists that include members of the present government. -Elizabeth
Teague

GAIDAR WARNS INSOLVENT FIRMS. First Deputy Prime Minister Egor
Gaidar was quoted by AFP on 13-November as saying that the state
must stop subsidizing unprofitable firms, and that those firms
which fail to adapt to the market economy will be "shut down
forever." In an attempt to mollify two lobbies that are threatening
not to vote on 12 December for the Gaidar-led "Russia's Choice"
electoral bloc, Gaidar said the government would continue to
support miners and farmers. In private, however, members of the
Russian government are saying that, in the new year, the Yeltsin
leadership will have to follow the example of Thatcherite Britain
and face down a challenge from organized labor. They say that
the only industries in which independent unions are strong enough
to mount a sustained strike are coalmining and defense production
and that the government could defeat a strike in either. This
is because coal stocks are high following the general fall in
production and because a drop in weapons production would not
at present be seen as posing a serious threat to Russian security.
-Elizabeth Teague

GOVERNMENT TIGHTENS CONTROLS OVER EXPORT QUOTAS, CREDIT. The
Council of Ministers has issued instructions stating that from
10 November state agencies may issue centralized state credits
only after they have been reviewed and approved by the Prime
Minister, reported ITAR-TASS on 14 November. The action would
effectively subordinate much Central Bank activity to the government.
The Council of Ministers also ordered that from 10 November its
Commission on Operative Questions would take decisions on the
distribution of export quotas. This function in the past has
been carried out by the Ministry of External Economic Relations,
officials of which have been repeatedly accused of corruption
and favoritism. -Erik Whitlock

MFA REORGANIZATION DEEPENS POLICY COMMITMENT. ITAR-TASS reported
on 12-November that the Foreign Ministry will be "restructured"
to upgrade its work with members of the CIS and other neighboring
countries in the former Soviet Union and Soviet bloc. The reorganization
does not envisage staff cuts; rather, specialists in arms control
and international organizations will be added. This MFA reorganization
heralds a deepening of Russia's commitment to the policy of reasserting
its influence in areas under Moscow's umbrella during the Soviet
period-the former republics of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
The outlines of this policy have been seen in Russia's opposition
to East European membership in NATO and in its attempts to gain
regional leadership in peacekeeping operations around the former
Soviet Union. -Suzanne Crow

NATO TO GET BRIEFING ON MILITARY DOCTRINE. Reuters reported on
14 November that Moscow has offered to send a high-level delegation
to NATO headquarters within the next few weeks to brief alliance
leaders fully on Russia's recently announced military doctrine,
including Russia's new nuclear weapons' policy. The doctrine
has not been published, and NATO sources were reported as saying
that while it appeared to contain positive elements-including
a defensive orientation, a recognition that Russia has no principle
enemy, and an expressed willingness to participate in international
peacekeeping operations-serious questions about emerging Russian
policy in other areas had also been raised. These problem areas
were identified as whether Russia might be prepared to use nuclear
arms against Ukraine, and the extent to which Moscow considered
other former Soviet republics to fall under defense umbrella.
-Stephen Foye

OPPOSITION CRITICIZES FORTHCOMING ELECTIONS, DRAFT CONSTITUTION.
The nationalist All-People's Union issued a statement on 12-November
saying that there was no chance of free and fair parliamentary
elections being held under the current regime, Interfax reported.
The statement said Russia's "ruling regime" had deliberately
"excluded the whole non-communist opposition from participation
in elections." It said the government was trying to "place a
false alternative before citizens: either the present regime
or communist ideology." The union was one of the parties and
blocs that were denied the right to field candidates in the 12-December
elections, according to the Central Election Commission, because
the union, led by Sergei Baburin, had infringed the regulations
in collecting the signatures needed to register. Also on 12 November
Gennadii Zyuganov, the leader of Communist Party of the Russian
Federation, which is to be allowed to take part in the elections,
said that his party would urge people to reject the draft constitution
to be put to referendum on 12 December. Zyuganov was quoted by
Reuters as saying the draft was a "Bonapartist constitution"
that gave sweeping rights to the President -Vera Tolz

FILATOV ON ELECTIONS. Sergei Filatov, the President's chief of
staff, speaking to senior security ministry officials on 13 November,
said that he believed that between five and seven of the 13 parties
and blocs now preparing to contest the elections on 12 December
would breach the barrier of 5% popular support in order to gain
seats in the State Duma, Interfax reported. According to Filatov's
assessment, the pro-Yeltsin "Russia's Choice" bloc, the "Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin"
bloc, the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, the Agrarian Union,
and the Communist Party stand the best chances of gaining seats
in a future parliament. He said that the promulgation of a new
constitution at a referendum also on 12-December would stabilize
society and guarantee against a repetition of the events of 3-4
October. -Wendy Slater

PRESIDENTIAL AIDE ON EARLY ELECTIONS. Viktor Ilyushin, an aide
to President Yeltsin told the Moscow correspondent of the inter-Arabian
newspaper Ash-Shark-al-Ausad on 12-November that Yeltsin has
not yet made a final decision over early presidential elections
and may only do so after the formation of Russia's State Duma.
Ilyushin said that, to his knowledge, Yeltsin had not abolished
his decree on early presidential elections scheduled for 12 June
1994. In a telephone interview with Interfax reported on 12 November,
Ilyushin said that he viewed the President's doubts about the
need for early presidential elections as "natural." Ilyushin
accused media leaders, to whom Yeltsin had made his remarks on
6-November about canceling early presidential elections, of having
presenting the President's statement in a sensational manner.
-Wendy Slater

TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA



KAZAKHSTAN INTRODUCES THE TENGE. Kazakhstan was expected to introduce
its new national currency, the tenge, on 8:00 am on 15 November,
various Russian and Western news agencies reported. President
Nursultan Nazarbaev announced the move in a TV address on 12-November.
Old ruble notes (issued 1961-92) and lower denomination new ruble
notes will remain legal tender up to and including 17 November,
and will be exchanged over the next week at banks at the rate
of 500 rubles for 1 tenge (Individuals exchanging sums of over
100,000 rubles will have to give evidence of having legally earned
these amounts). New ruble notes of denominations above 1,000
are to be withdrawn from circulation on 15 November (holders
are to deposit such notes in bank accounts for exchange). The
tenge will become Kazakhstan's exclusive national currency on
25 November. -Erik Whitlock

UZBEKISTAN INTRODUCES THE SOM COUPON. Uzbek President Islam Karimov
on 12-November announced the introduction of a new Uzbek currency,
to take place simultaneously with the Kazakh action. The som
coupon, in contrast with the tenge, will circulate for the present
in parallel with old rubles and new ruble notes of denominations
up to and including 1,000 rubles. Non-cash accounts and transactions
will continue to be denominated in rubles. New ruble denominations
of 5,000 and 10,000 will no longer be legal tender, and holders
are to deposit these notes in banks for exchange. No date has
been specified as to when the som might become Uzbekistan's exclusive
currency. The slower Uzbek approach may be expected to provoke
an inflationary inflow of old ruble notes from neighboring states.
-Erik Whitlock

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE



FIGHTING FLARES IN BOSNIA. On 14 November Sarajevo Radio reported
that Croat forces advanced on the central Bosnian town of Fojnica.
Meanwhile, Croatian media reported on the same day that Croat
forces had repelled attacks by Muslim troops on Fojnica. Western
sources on 14 November observed that Serbian and Croatian troops
advanced against Fojnica and Bakovici, and added that two hospitals
in these towns, housing an estimated 576 bedridden and handicapped
patients, have been caught in the fighting. Canadian peacekeepers
told reporters that workers have failed to show up for work at
both hospitals, and attributed their absence to the fighting.
No casualties at either of the hospitals have been reported,
and the patients are currently under the care of Canadian and
Danish UN doctors and other healthcare professionals. Meanwhile,
Vitalii Churkin, Russia's special envoy to former Yugoslavia,
held meetings with Bosnian officials on 12 and 13-November. On
12 November Churkin met with Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic
in Pale, and on the following day the Russian envoy travelled
to Sarajevo for talks that included meetings with representatives
of Bosnia's collective presidency. Churkin noted that all parties
had enough of the war, and that establishing peace was imperative.
He also stressed that as soon as a peace accord was reached for
Bosnia, the international community ought to lift sanctions against
rump Yugoslavia for its involvement in the Bosnian crisis. -Stan
Markotich

CHURKIN IN CROATIA. AFP reported that Churkin had arrived in
Zagreb and had held talks on 14-November with Croatian government
officials, including Croatian President Franjo Tudjman. According
to the report, Churkin lent his support to the idea of "safe
havens" for Bosnian Croats, a demand that the Croatian government
articulated about a month ago. Churkin reiterated his position
that the negotiations for a peace settlement of the Bosnian crisis
should be tied to the question of lifting sanctions imposed against
rump Yugoslavia. He further noted that the matters of peace in
Bosnia and a lifting of the sanctions had to be resolved before
any of Croatia's concerns could be addressed. At present, rebel
Serb forces occupy about one-third of Croatia's territory. While
President Tudjman received Churkin in a friendly manner, he told
Croatian media that Croatia could not support any demands to
have sanctions lifted against rump Yugoslavia until Belgrade
recognized Croatia's international borders which include the
presently Serb-held territories. -Stan Markotich

SERBIA ROUNDUP. Belgrade media continue reporting on war crimes
committed by Serbian paramilitary groups, most notably the Chetniks
loyal to Serbian Radical Party (SRS) leader Vojislav Seselj.
The media also speculate that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic
will hand over a group of SRS leaders to the war crimes tribunal
that begins its deliberations in the Hague this week. For his
part, Seselj told Borba on 13 November that he was not opposed
to going to the Hague, provided that Milosevic went as well.
He also told the daily that SRS has prepared a transition leadership
team in the event that he is arrested. Seselj warned in an interview
with the weekly NIN that Milosevic would do "anything" to provoke
a civil war in Serbia. In another interview with Radio Pirot
he also announced that SRS would no longer support Milosevic.
Meanwhile, Politika reported on 12-November that in a preelection
poll in Belgrade conducted on 1 November by the MF Agency the
ruling Socialist Party won 21.6%, the Serbian Radical Party 12.1%,
Serbian Renewal Movement 9.9%, the Democratic Party 8.6%, Democratic
Party of Serbia 7.2%, with 3.3% going to the recently founded
Party of Serbian Unity headed by the paramilitary leader and
alleged war criminal Zeljko Raznjatovic alias Akan. Over 16%
remained undecided, while 10.4% said they would not vote. -Milan
Andrejevich

CONTINUING CONTROVERSY IN MACEDONIA. Accusations and counter
accusations, accompanied by new revelations concerning the arrest
of Albanians allegedly involved in arms smuggling and plotting
against the state continue. The Albanian government vehemently
denied any connection with the accused reports ATA on 12 November
and a spokesman charged Serbia with manipulating Macedonia. In
Macedonia, the National Democratic Party, a predominantly Albanian
formation accused the government of trying to influence public
opinion against Albanians. The largest Albanian party, the Party
for Democratic Prosperity, responded in a measured tone, noting
that all arrested should receive a fair trial, according to MIC.
-Duncan Perry

VISEGRAD GROUP ECONOMIC MINISTERS MEET. The economic ministers
of the Visegrad Group met in Budapest on 12 November to discuss
the latest meeting of the worldwide free trade negotiations GATT,
MTI and Radio Budapest report. They concluded that the successful
outcome of the GATT negotiations would contribute to economic
growth in their countries. Vladimir Dloughy, the Czech Trade
and Industry Minister pointed out that a failure in the GATT
talks would create political tensions because of the increasing
unemployment. Bela Kadar, Hungarian Minister of International
Economic Relations said that according to preliminary estimates,
a successful conclusion of the GATT talks would bring a $270
billion profit to its members. This would make possible for the
Visegrad Group countries to increase their worldwide trade share.
-Judith Pataki

"WEIMAR TRIANGLE" MEETS IN WARSAW. At their third annual trilateral
meeting, the foreign ministers for Germany, France, and Poland-Klaus
Kinkel, Alain Juppe, and Andrzej Olechowski-held talks in Warsaw
on 12 November, PAP reports. Olechowski assured his counterparts
that continuity will prevail in both Polish foreign policy and
domestic reform. Kinkel and Juppe pledged to help Poland gain
"associate member" status in the Western European Union at the
organization's coming summit on 22 November. They also offered
Poland the support of Germany and France in building closer ties
with the EC. Meeting with the foreign ministers on 12 November,
President Lech Walesa asked that "Europe show greater understanding
for Poland's impatience" to join European economic and security
structures. Olechowski also urged the EC to present explicit
criteria for membership. The next meeting of the "Weimar Triangle"
is scheduled for 1994 in Germany. -Louisa Vinton

POLISH LIBERALS WANT MERGER WITH DEMOCRATIC UNION. At the close
of a three-day conference in Warsaw on 14 November, the leadership
of the Liberal Democratic Congress (KLD) resolved to undertake
immediate negotiations with the Democratic Union (UD) aimed at
building "a strong new force of the political Center capable
of opposing the populist promises of the Left and the irresponsibility
of the pseudo-Right." The resolution was a response to the UD's
offer of a merger following the Liberals' defeat in the recent
elections. Most of the KLD delegates favored dissolving both
parties and building a completely new force from the bottom up,
but the UD is likely to object to this idea. The UD's Henryk
Wujec told PAP on 14 November that his party favors a "gradual
process" of unification of the two parties. Donald Tusk was reelected
KLD chairman, with the support of 159 of 216 delegates. -Louisa
Vinton

SLOVAK PRESIDENT IN GERMANY. TASR reports that Slovak President
Michal Kovac arrived in Germany for a three-day visit on 14 November.
He is scheduled to meet with German President Richard von Weizsaecker,
Bundestag President Rita Suessmuth, Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel,
and members of the Bundestag's foreign relations committee. Bonn
officials say that the talks are expected to focus on Slovakia's
request for closer ties with the European Union and NATO. In
an interview with CTK, Kovac said that he would be pleased if
his visit resulted in greater support for Slovakia in the international
community. -Jiri Pehe

HUNGARIAN PRESIDENT SPEAKS OF SECURITY VACUUM. At a two-day forum
in Budapest organized by the Council of Foreign Relations and
the Central European University founded by the financier George
Soros, Hungarian President Arpad Goncz said that a relative security
vacuum exists in the region both in the military and economic
sense, creating a threat of social turbulence. Goncz demanded
that Central and Eastern Europe become a part of the NATO collective
security system to ensure stability. The conference was attended
by NATO Secretary General Manfred Woerner. After the conference
Woerner met with Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall to discuss
security matters. -Judith Pataki

THE HUNGARIAN SOCIALISTS PARTY AND THE MEDIA. The Chairman of
the Hungarian Socialist Party (HSP) Gyula Horn announced on 12
November that his party will start to collect signatures to force
parliament to discuss the problems related to the supervision
of the Hungarian Radio and Television, MTI reports. Last week
the parliament refused to discuss a proposal submitted by the
socialists. In case the HSP collects 50,000 signatures, parliament
must take up the issue. Horn feels that the government or other
political forces might take control of the news programs at the
electronic media which could distort the election results. -Judith
Pataki

CONTROVERSY OVER PUBLICATION OF MEIN KAMPF CONTINUES IN ROMANIA.
Reacting to the ruling of the Prosecutor General not to forbid
the dissemination of Hitler's Mein Kampf, as well as to the prosecutor's
statement that some of the extreme nationalist parties to whose
activities President Ion Iliescu had drawn attention had been
lawfully registered, a spokesman for Iliescu said the prosecutor
had approached the problem from a "narrow, legalistic point of
view." The presidential intervention, the spokesman said, had
been determined by the awareness of the danger such manifestations
represent for the evolution of Romanian society, taking into
consideration "the reality of some neo-fascist movements, as
well as that of anti-Semitic and racial manifestations" in some
European countries, against the background of Romania's own past.
The dangers inherent are already manifest in the attraction provided
by "neo-fascist concepts and symbols" of "Iron-Guard inspiration,"
especially among young people, the spokesman said at a press
conference on 12-November, broadcast by Radio Bucharest on the
same day. -Michael Shafir

HUNGARIAN PARTY PROPOSES NEW LAW ON NATIONAL MINORITIES IN ROMANIA.
Following a three day debate in Tirgu Mures, the Council of Representatives
of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania agreed on a
draft law on the national minorities. The draft is to be submitted
to the Council for National Minorities. Among other things, the
draft uses the term "autonomous community" interchangeably with
that of "national minorities." In an interview with Radio Bucharest
on 14 November, HDFR president Bela Marko said this follows the
proposed provision according to which those national minorities
that wish to express their identity "through specific autonomous
institutions" can do so. Marko also said the draft refers to
"collective rights" because some individual rights cannot be
expressed without guaranteeing collective rights. The draft also
grants national minorities the right to use their mother tongue
in contacts with local authorities, including the judiciary,
in those parts of the country where ethnic minorities are the
majority of the local population. -Michael Shafir

PAPOULIAS VISITS BUCHAREST, TIRANA. Greek Foreign Minister Karolos
Papoulias, who has been travelling around the Balkans since 7
November, spent 12 November in Bucharest. According to Reuters,
Papoulias met with Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu to discuss
the war in ex-Yugoslavia, as well as Athens' plans to promote
regional affairs when holding the EC chairmanship during the
first half of 1994. Papoulias said Greece's Balkan priorities
will be to bring about a settlement on the conflicts in former
Yugoslavia plus substantial improvements in the communications
infrastructure of the region. On 13 November Papoulias was received
by his counterpart Alfred Sereqi in Albania, a country with which
Greece has experienced increasingly strained relations over the
past few months. On the following day a spokesman of the Albanian
foreign ministry announced that the two parties had agreed to
set up a joint commission which will study ways of legalizing
the status of (an estimated 200,000) illegal Albanian immigrants
in Greece, a major cause for recent differences. On 14 November
Papoulias, who in the early 1980s was instrumental in reducing
bilateral tensions between the two states, was quoted by AFP
as speaking of "a new chapter" in Greek-Albanian relations. The
Greek visitor is scheduled to meet President Sali Berisha and
Prime Minister Alexander Meksi on 15-November. -Kjell Engelbrekt


BEROV PROMISES CABINET RESHUFFLE. Bulgarian Prime Minister Lyuben
Berov has said he is planning to make changes in his cabinet
following a vote of no confidence scheduled for 16 November.
Berov told Reuters on 14 November that he is considering the
appointment of new trade and labor ministers in order to remove
part of the workload from his two deputy premiers currently performing
those functions, but also the creation of a separate privatization
ministry. He denied that the reshuffle was linked to growing
criticism against his administration over the past few weeks.
Berov's government, which throughout 1993 has enjoyed the support
of three of the four parliamentary factions, has lately been
accused of mismanaging the Bulgarian economy. On 10 November
the Union of Democratic Forces filed a no confidence motion charging
the cabinet with "incompetence and anti-social policies." However,
on 13 and 14 November leaders of the Bulgarian Socialist Party
and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms-which together hold
a parliamentary majority-indicated they would continue to back
the present government. -Kjell Engelbrekt

ESTONIAN POPULAR FRONT ENDS ACTIVITIES. On 13 November the 5th
Congress of the Estonian Popular Front in Tallinn with 7 votes
against and 2 abstentions from about 230-participants decided
formally to liquidate the organization, declaring that it had
successfully fulfilled almost all of the objectives of its program,
BNS reports. The congress gave the Popular Front leadership the
powers of a liquidation commission and established a working
group to study the history of the movement. -Saulius Girnius


LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT CONCLUDES VISIT TO CHINA. On 15 November
Algirdas Brazauskas held a press conference, broadcast live by
Radio Lithuania, on his recently completed week-long visit to
China. He held talks in Beijing with President Jiang Zemin on
8-November and with Prime Minister Li Peng on 9-November. The
talks primarily focused on economic questions, especially Chinese
trade to Europe through the Lithuanian port of Klaipeda. Li Peng
also discussed Chinese reforms in agriculture and its efforts
to gain foreign investments and inquired about Brazauskas's views
on the future of the CIS. Lithuanian Transportation Minister
Jonas Birziskis and the Chinese railroad minister signed an agreement
regulating mutual settlements for cargo and passenger transportation
by rail. On 10-11 November he held talks with officials and businessmen
on the island of Hainan and visited various establishments in
its free economic zone. -Saulius Girnius

BELARUSIAN PARLIAMENT CONTINUES SESSION. The Belarusian parliament
resumed its session on 12-November with economic issues as the
main topic of discussion, Reuters reports. Chairman of the Supreme
Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, accused the Prime Minister, Vyacheslau
Kebich, of obstructing economic reform, while Kebich claimed
his cautious approach had prevented the collapse of the economy
and outbreaks of social unrest. Shushkevich called for privatizing
two thirds of the state economy but also maintaining a joint
financial system with Russia. The Chairman of the National Bank,
Stanislau Bohdankievich, emphasized the need for rapid introduction
of national currency to attract foreign loans and investment.
On 11 November Interfax reported that Vice-Prime Minister Mikhail
Myasnikovich had called for the introduction of national currency
as the sole legal tender in the republic. He was reported to
have suggested that it would be allowed to float against the
Russian ruble to establish its market value and to stabilize
the internal currency market. He said the measure would help
the country move towards the creation of a monetary union with
Russia. -Ustina Markus

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Wendy Slater and Jan B. de Weydenthal









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