|Pridet den', kogda my ubedimsya, chto v naibolee lichnom zaklyucheno samoe obschee... - R. Emerson|
No. 218, 12 November 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA GRACHEV CONCLUDES CHINA VISIT. Speaking at the end of his official visit to China, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev said on 11 November that the two countries hoped to restore the close ties that had once united the Soviet Union and China, but that they did not envisage forging a military alliance. On 9-November the two defense ministers had signed a five-year military cooperation agreement. According to ITAR-TASS, Grachev said that the two sides believed that regional security in Asia would be strengthened by an improvement in Sino-Russian relations; Reuter reported that Grachev had expressed the hope that a visit to Moscow next year by Chinese Defense Minister Chi Haotian would lead to another bilateral accord aimed at preventing incidents along the long border between the two countries. Both sides went out of their way to emphasize that arms sales had not been on their agenda, but Grachev said that that issue would be discussed during a visit to China by Deputy Premier Aleksandr Shokhin, scheduled to take place in the near future. -Stephen Foye RUSSIA SOFTENS POSITION ON CFE. According to a Reuters report from Brussels of 11-November, the Russian government has dropped its threat to unilaterally exceed the provisions of the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty if it is not modified. Russia has been pressing for an increase in the limits on flank deployment which constrain its arms buildup in the Caucasus, but NATO and East European states oppose any renegotiation of the treaty. That the Russian government will decide to drop the issue and abide by the CFE flank limits appears unlikely, however, given that the new military doctrine would seem to endorse just such a buildup. Pressure for changes to the agreement is therefore likely to continue. -John Lepingwell PARTIES AGAINST FORMING ALLIANCES. The leaders of two of the major pro-reform parties have spoken out against forming pre-election alliances, Reuters and Interfax reported on 11 November. Sergei Shakhrai and Aleksandr Shokhin, both deputy prime ministers, said at a news conference of the Russian Party of Unity and Concord which they lead that they rejected the idea of joining forces with like-minded parties before the elections. Their remarks were construed as a response to the call for a political alliance from leaders of the pro-Yeltsin Russia's Choice bloc on 10 November. Separately, Nikolai Travkin, leader of the Democratic Party of Russia also said on 11 November that his party did not intend to join any pre-election coalitions, ITAR-TASS reported. Both Shakhrai's and Travkin's parties support reform, but at a more gradual pace than is proposed by the radical Russia's Choice. -Wendy Slater BABURIN FIGHTS FOR HIS BLOC'S READMISSION TO ELECTIONS. The Chairman of the Electoral Commission, Nikolai Ryabov, was quoted by Reuters on 11-November as saying that authorities could allow the nationalist Russian National Union bloc to take part in the elections to the State Duma after all if prosecutors back the claim of the Union's head Sergei Baburin that 22,000 signatures needed to make up the total for eligibility were stolen from the Union's headquarters. Baburin told Pravda on 11 November that he would fight the matter in court. If Baburin's bloc is not reinstated, his supporters will probably vote for the Communist Party which did collect enough signatures to participate in the elections. -Alexander Rahr SOBCHAK VERSUS YAVLINSKY. St. Petersburg Mayor Anatolii Sobchak told Nezavisimaya gazeta on 10-November that the pre-election split in the ranks of the democrats occurred because of the position taken by economist Grigorii Yavlinsky. Sobchak said he initially favored the creation of only two blocs-one led by reformist government officials and another designed as a democratic opposition, but that Yavlinsky insisted on setting up his own rival bloc. Sobchak asserted that, because of the disarray among democrats, many votes may go to hard-liners. Sobchak said that, unlike the three Russian Dumas that existed in the beginning of this century, the new Duma will have the benefit of the professional parliamentary experience of many of the former USSR and Russian deputies. -Alexander Rahr CHERNOMYRDIN LIMITS POWERS OF CABINET MEMBERS. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin has deprived his cabinet members of their previous rights to issue licenses for export quotas and government credits, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 11 November. Chernomyrdin decreed that only he has these rights. Chernomyrdin apparently took this step in order to rule out the possibility of some leading government members, such as Egor Gaidar, Boris Fedorov, Vladimir Shumeiko, Aleksandr Shokhin and others, who are campaigning for seats in the new parliament, using their positions in the government to win the support of financial circles in the elections. -Alexander Rahr COMMENTS ON THE NEW DRAFT CONSTITUTION. Representatives of the conservative and centrist Russian parties criticized the new draft constitution for giving the president vast powers, an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow reported on 11 November. A spokesman for the nationalist Russian People's Union told RFE/RL that the draft was "a constitution of an almost unrestricted monarchy." Sergei Rogov of the centrist Civic Union criticized the draft for making the procedure of impeaching a president too complicated. At the same time, the President of the Republic of Sakha, Mikhail Nikolaev, said he "unreservedly supports" the new draft constitution. He told RFE/RL that, in his view, the draft did not infringe upon the sovereignty of Russia's republics. Nikolaev's position differs from that of the majority of leaders of other republics, who have protested the fact that the draft fails to define republics as "sovereign states." -Vera Tolz THE CONSTITUTION AND THE MILITARY. The proposed new Russian constitution contains a number of provisions pertaining to the military, many of which give the president substantial powers over security policy and personnel. The president is considered the "supreme commander in chief" of the armed forces and may appoint and remove the "high command" of the military, apparently without even consulting the Federal Assembly. He is also entitled to form and head the Security Council, in accordance with existing laws, and is given the authority to approve Russia's military doctrine. The Federation Council has to confirm the use of Russian military forces outside Russia, while both houses of the parliament must consider treaties and issues of "war and peace." The document does not, however, appear to specify whether a simple or qualified majority is required to ratify international treaties. -John Lepingwell URAL LEADER CALLS NEW JOB "A PROTEST." Eduard Rossel, formerly governor of Sverdlovsk Oblast, has been elected president of the Association for Economic Cooperation in the Urals Region, Interfax reported on 11 November. In October, Sverdlovsk Oblast declared itself a republic within the Russian Federation. On 9-November, President Boris Yeltsin retaliated by dissolving the republic; the following day, he dismissed Rossel from his post. Rossel called his new appointment a form of protest against Yeltsin's actions; he told Interfax on 11 November that the idea of a Urals Republic dated back to 1918 and that Russia's regions had won the right to a level of independence that was not recognized in the draft Russian constitution. -Elizabeth Teague HIGHER BUDGET DEFICIT FORESEEN. At the cabinet meeting on 11 November, Finance Minister Boris Fedorov announced that the budget deficit for 1993 could rise to 22.2 trillion rubles, or 14% of GDP, ITAR-TASS reported. This is appreciably above the latest target, published last week, of 17 trillion rubles or 10% of GDP. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin ordered all ministries to reassess their planned revenues and expenditures by 15 November. -Keith Bush NEW TAX BRACKETS PROPOSED. The Russian Finance Ministry is proposing changes in the income tax system for 1993 and 1994, Interfax reported on 10 and 11 November. At the moment the lowest tax rate is 12% on the first million rubles of income, and the highest is 30% for sums over two million rubles. Among the Finance Ministry's proposals is to push up the brackets, but increase the top rate. For example, the lowest rate of 12% would apply to incomes of two million rubles or less, and the highest income category, 10 million rubles and above, would be subject to a flat 2.34 million rubles plus 40% of income in excess of 10-million rubles. It is not clear whether Chernomyrdin's call for revisions in the 1993 budget will affect the Finance Ministry's proposals. -Erik Whitlock TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA RUSSIA ON KARABAKH CONFLICT. Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Mikhail Demurin said on 11 November that President Yeltsin had sent a personal envoy to Baku, Erevan, and Stepanakert to discuss settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. He said that Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev had recently been pushing for efforts toward settlement to be increased, aiming at a "complete end" to hostilities "as soon as possible." The Russian Foreign Ministry also called for the cessation of all military operations in the region and the withdrawal of Karabakh forces to positions they held on 21 October when the truce was broken, ITAR-TASS and Radio Rossii reported. -Suzanne Crow CIS TAJIKISTAN TO STAY IN RUBLE ZONE. The chairman of Tajikistan's national bank, Kayum Kavmetdinov, was quoted on Radio Rossii on 11 November as saying that Tajikistan intends to remain in the ruble zone, though the country may introduce its own currency. He said that discussions are underway between Tajik and Russian officials on Tajik participation in a new type of ruble zone. Tajikistan's economy remains very weak as a result of Soviet-era poverty and the 1992 civil war. Both Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan intended to participate in a new ruble zone, but have decided to introduce their own currencies in the face of what the two countries regard as unreasonable conditions placed on their participation by the Russian Federation. Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan have already withdrawn from the ruble zone. -Bess Brown KOZYREV ON IMMIGRATION, PEACEKEEPING. In an interview broadcast by Radio Mayak on 11 November, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev said that Russia needs to examine the question of immigration from the other former Soviet republics. He cited the conflicts in the former Soviet Union as a primary factor driving ethnic Russians and Russophones to Russia, and he stressed that Russia's use of peacekeeping forces to stifle these conflicts would reduce the numbers of immigrants into Russia. Kozyrev expressed dissatisfaction with the reaction among the other former republics to Russia's proposals on dual citizenship and said that he favors linkage of the acceptance of Russian proposals with economic aid and financial links to these states. -Suzanne Crow CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIA UPDATE. According to a HINA report, fighting in Sarajevo eased up on 11 November after nearly two days of heavy shelling by Serb forces which claimed the lives of at least 17-people and injured about 100 more. HINA also reported that on 12 November Croatia's foreign minister, Mate Granic, will arrive in Sarajevo in order to try to bring local Croat and Muslim leaders together for peace talks. Granic will be joined by Turkey's foreign minister, Hikmet Cetin, who is scheduled to mediate the talks. Meanwhile, on 12 November Tanjug reports that Russia's special envoy to the former Yugoslavia, Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin, arrived in Serbia for talks with President Slobodan Milosevic. The talks are aimed at finding ways of resuming the stalled peace process in Bosnia, and Churkin reportedly observed that a peace agreement for Bosnia should make it possible for the international community to lift the sanctions imposed against rump Yugoslavia for its involvement in fomenting the war in Bosnia. -Stan Markotich MORE RADICALS ARRESTED, SERB ATROCITIES DETAILED. Belgrade media on 11 and 12 November report that police have rounded up more members of the extremist Serbian Chetnik Movement militia. For the first time since war broke out in the former Yugoslavia in June 1991, the daily Borba and other Belgrade papers published detailed eyewitness accounts of atrocities committed by Serb paramilitary groups in Croatia and Bosnia. The largest and most notorious group is the Chetnik Movement, the armed wing of Vojislav Seselj's Radical Party (SRS). Borba reports that the number of arrests of Chetniks and other extreme nationalists has risen to about 40. The charges include murder, rape, kidnapping and illegal arms possession. These developments appear linked to a campaign by President Milosevic to discredit Seselj, his toughest rival, prior to the upcoming elections.--Milan Andrejevich "MILOSEVIC IS THE HEAD MAFIOSI IN SERBIA." This is how Seselj responded to the latest attacks against him and the SRS. At a press conference in Belgrade on 11 November, Seselj asserted that Serb prisons "are not big enough to house all SRS members" and alleged that an attempt on his life was made by Serbian police on 17-September. He charged that the Milosevic government "consists of criminals, profiteers and the financial Mafia [private bankers]" and said that "crime on such a high level could not have taken place without Milosevic's knowledge and agreement." Politika indicated Milosevic must have known about the atrocities Serb paramilitary groups have committed since those troops were officially placed under the Yugoslav Army command in December 1991. Seselj also said his party will back down from its earlier decision to call for a vote of no confidence in the federal government. He explained that such a move now would allow Milosevic to dissolve it and call for new federal elections or impose a military dictatorship." -Milan Andrejevich WALESA WINS CONTROL OF DEFENSE MINISTRY? IN A MOVE SUGGESTING THAT THE NEW GOVERNMENT HAS OPTED TO CEDE CONTROL OVER DEFENSE POLICY TO PRESIDENT LECH WALESA, A HIGH-RANKING PRESIDENTIAL STAFF MEMBER HAS BEEN APPOINTED DEPUTY DEFENSE MINISTER. Premier Waldemar Pawlak appointed the chief of the president's National Security Office, Jerzy Milewski, to the post on 11 November. While serving in the defense ministry, Milewski will also retain his position in the president's office, PAP reports. Defense is one of the three "presidential" ministries, over which Walesa has the constitutional right of supervision; the others are foreign and internal affairs. The new government agreed to accept candidates for these three posts chosen by the president. -Louisa Vinton POLISH RIGHT BUILDS COALITIONS. The leaders of the three largest right-wing parties in Poland-the Christian National Union, the Center Alliance, and the Peasant Alliance-signed a coalition agreement in Warsaw on 10 November, Polish TV reports. None of the three is represented in the Sejm, although the parties together received over 13% of the vote. The coalition partners agreed to run a joint campaign in the 1994 local government elections. Arguing that the parliament is not representative enough to adopt a new constitution, they called for a national referendum on the subject. The coalition said it hopes to win the cooperation of the Solidarity trade union. Leadership of the coalition will rotate every month. A second right-wing coalition was formed on 11 November by four smaller parties, which also have no seats in the Sejm: the Conservative Party, the Party of Christian Democrats, the Peasant Christian Alliance, and the Real Politics Union. The second coalition says it will focus on the economy rather than the "ideological" questions such as lustration and decommunization that preoccupy the first. Gazeta Wyborcza commented on 12 November that "there may not be enough voters for two right wings." -Louisa Vinton CERNAK ON CONFLICT BETWEEN SLOVAK PRESIDENT AND PREMIER. Speaking at a press conference in Bratislava on 11 November, Ludovit Cernak, chairman of the Slovak National Party, a new coalition partner of Premier Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, said his party will not be drawn into a war against the president. On 10-November Meciar attacked President Michal Kovac for refusing to accept one of his new government nominees, Ivan Lexa. Lexa himself issued a statement on 11 November harshly critical of the president and accusing him of a variety of past failures. Cernak said that he felt sorry "about statements made by MDS representatives, including Lexa." In commenting on Meciar's attack on Kovac, Cernak said that "an adult politician, a person older than 18 years, is responsible for his own deeds." Cernak indicated that he will accept the position of the Slovak parliament's vice-chairman if the position is offered to him. Two of these positions are now vacant after Jozef Prokes and Marian Andel, both members of Cernak's party, were named deputy prime ministers in Meciar's government. -Jiri Pehe COUNTERFEIT PLOT IN SLOVAKIA. On 11 November TASR quoted Interior Minister Jozef Tuchyna as saying that there was a conspiracy to put counterfeit 1000-koruny notes (old Czechoslovak notes marked with special identification stickers) into circulation in Slovakia and that state officials were involved. Tuchyna said the investigation continues, and the names of the plotters cannot yet be revealed. The minister further said that Slovak police learned about the conspiracy in August and started watching the suspects. The police learned the counterfeit notes would be circulated last week. National Bank Governor Vladimir Masar told TASR that the information he received from Tuchyna led him to order the circulation of new Slovak 1000koruny notes at the beginning of November. Originally, Czechoslovak banknotes were not to be replaced until December. -Jiri Pehe HAVEL, KUCAN CALL FOR END OF BOSNIAN WAR. On 12 November, at the end of Czech President Vaclav Havel's visit to Slovenia, Havel and his Slovene counterpart, Milan Kucan, issued a joint declaration calling for an end to the fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The declaration said that previous peace plans for Bosnia have accepted the principle of ethnic states and that such ethnic states contradict the idea of the European Union. The two presidents argue that the concept of civil society is being destroyed right outside the borders of some EU member states. They also say that the war in Bosnia is a war in Europe and about Europe. Havel and Kucan call on all warring parties and their political and military leaders to consider the seriousness of the Bosnian situation in light of the coming winter, CTK reports. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN AND SLOVENE DEFENSE MINISTERS MEET. On 10 November Slovene Defense Minister Janez Jansa paid an official visit to Hungary at the invitation of his Hungarian counterpart Lajos Fur, Pesti Hirlap of 11 November reports. The two ministers agreed that their countries were threatened by the war on the territory of former Yugoslavia and endorsed the extension of the mandate of UN peace keeping forces in Croatia and Bosnia. Jansa recalled at a press conference that Hungary was the first country to conclude a military cooperation agreement with Slovenia. He said that the Slovene government has officially applied for NATO membership and would like to cooperate with the Visegrad countries in gaining admittance to the organization. -Edith Oltay EXTREME NATIONALIST PARTY GAINS STRENGTH THROUGH ALLIANCE. At an extraordinary congress of his party, the leader of the Democratic Agrarian Party, Victor Surdu, announced that his group intends to set up an alliance with Gheorghe Funar's extreme nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity, Radio Bucharest reports on 11 November. On 12 November the congress is to approve the alliance, to be called the National Unity Block. The DAP is represented in the Senate by five Senators, but gained no representation in the Chamber of Deputies in the elections held in 1992. In a related development, a spokesman for the PRNU said discussions are continuing with the Party of Social Democracy in Romania for the purpose of joining the ruling coalition. The PRNU is not represented in the government but supports Vacaroiu's PSDR in the parliament. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN CHIEF RABBI DEMANDS STEPS AGAINST ANTI-SEMITISM. Chief Rabbi Moses Rosen says he cannot understand why legal action is not taken against anti-Semitism in his country. In an interview with RFE/RL on 11 November, Rosen criticized the refusal of the Prosecutor General to ban publication of Hitler's book Mein Kampf, as well as anti-Semitic publications and political formations. Rosen said the Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania would ask again the Prosecutor General and President Ion Iliescu to investigate ultranationalist magazines. One day earlier, Radio Bucharest said that in a letter addressed to the Council of National Minorities, the federation said the government should initiate legislation prohibiting incitement to racial hatred. -Michael Shafir PAPOULIAS IN SOFIA. After visiting Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia and Slovenia within the framework of a six-day Balkan tour, Greek Foreign Minister Karolos Papoulias arrived in Bulgaria. On 11 November Papoulias held meetings with President Zhelyu Zhelev, Prime Minister Lyuben Berov, as well as with members of the four parliamentary factions. He told BTA that the prospects for development of bilateral relations remain "excellent" after the recent change of government in Athens. Answering questions about the war in ex-Yugoslavia and its possible implications, Berov told reporters that Sofia supports the unity of the Republic of Macedonia and would react negatively to the establishment of a Greater Albania. Papoulias agreed that a division of Macedonia cannot bring peace to the Balkans. Papoulias also raised the idea that Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine should jointly seek compensation from the EC for the economic losses incurred by United Nations sanctions against Serbia and Montenegro.--Kjell Engelbrekt ALBANIAN FINANCE MINISTER RESIGNS AMID CORRUPTION CHARGES. Albanian Finance and Economy Minister Genc Ruli has resigned from office amid allegations of corruption, which he denies, Reuters reports on 10 November. President Sali Berisha named two new ministers that same day, splitting Ruli's old portfolio, and confirmed another appointee at the head of the restructured energy ministry. Berisha promoted economist Pirro Dishnica from the Institute of Statistics to the finance ministry and appointed Selih Belortaja, who headed the National Center for Foreign Investments, as minister for industry and trade. Abdyl Xhaja was called in to head the energy and mineral sources ministry. Reuters quotes government sources as saying that Ruli now is supposed to head parliament's finance and economy commission. Fabian Schmidt CHANGES IN UKRAINIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY. The controversial "Social-Psychological Service" within Ukraine's Ministry of Defense, which was concerned with patriotic education, has been reorganized, Ukrainian media reported on 10 November. It is now to be known as the "Main Administration for Educational and Social-Psychological Work," and Gen. Colonel Anatolii Kobzar has been appointed to head it. The former head of the "Social-Psychological Service", Gen. Colonel Volodymyr Mulyava, has been made an assistant to the minister of defense with responsibility for liasing with organizations, parties and movements. -Ustina Markus and Bohdan Nahaylo UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT DELAYS START DEBATE . . . The Ukrainian parliament has stricken the debate for the ratification of the START-1 agreement from this month's agenda, AFP reports on 11 November. The debate has been listed on every agenda since February, but no decision has been made since Ukraine claims the agreement cannot be ratified without sufficient security guarantees from other nuclear powers or adequate compensation for dismantling its nuclear weapons and a share of the proceeds from the sale of their nuclear materials. The move contrasts with assertions made last month by US Secretary of State Warren Christopher during his visit to Ukraine. Christopher said he was confident Ukraine would ratify START before the end of the year. -Ustina Markus . . . AND BANS PARAMILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. The Ukrainian parliament adopted a law banning paramilitary organizations, especially those which send fighters into conflict areas of the former Soviet Union, UNIAN reports on 11 November. Under the law's terms, the penalty for belonging to such groups is up to eight years in prison for members, and up to ten for leaders. Taking part in or organizing armed actions with such groups is punishable by up to fifteen years imprisonment. The law is aimed at the radical nationalist Ukrainian National Self-Defense Organization (UNSO), which has sent fighters to Abkhazia and Moldova and has staged a number of demonstrations in Ukraine in recent months. -Ustina Markus LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN TRANSPORT TALKS. On 11-November, after two days of talks, Lithuanian Deputy Communications Minister Arvydas Lescinskas and Russian Deputy Transportation Minister Andrei Shevshuk initialed a protocol on motorcar transport of passengers and goods between the two states, Radio Lithuania reports. Transport of goods to and from Kaliningrad and Russia proper through Lithuania will be regulated by permits whose number will be decided by the respective transportation ministries. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin is scheduled to visit Vilnius on 16 November to sign a package of economic, trade, and transportation agreements. -Saulius Girnius NEW MAYORS IN ESTONIA. On 11 November the council of Tartu, Estonia's second largest city, elected Vaino Kull as mayor, BNS reports. Kull, who ran on the "Tartu" list of candidates in the October municipal elections, defeated Estonian National Independence Party candidate Viktor Korrovits by a vote to 26 to 12. Mayoral elections in the Russian populated city of Narva were less successful. None of the 5 candidates received the necessary majority of the city council's votes in two rounds of voting on 10 November; another round of voting will be held on 17 November. -Saulius Girnius VETERAN LATVIAN DIPLOMAT IN US DIES. On 9-November the Latvian Embassy in Washington announced the death of Dr. Anatols Dinbergs. From 1941 until 1992 Dinbergs served in the US, first as his country's vice consul in New York, and subsequently in various senior diplomatic positions in Latvia's embassy in Washington. Shortly after Latvia regained its independence in August 1991, Dinbergs was appointed Latvian Ambassador to the US, a position he held until his retirement on 31 December 1992. -Dzintra Bungs KELLOGG OPENS CEREAL PLANT IN LATVIA. A correspondent of the RFE/RL Latvian Service reported on 10 November that the US-based Kellogg company has opened a plant to produce breakfast cereals in Adazi, a community near Riga. Kellogg's East European director Phillip Stewart said that the plant would start out by producing corn flakes and broaden the production when the demand increases. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ann Sheehy and Sharon Fisher THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
©1996 "Druz'ya i Partnery"
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.