We are so bound together that no man can labor for himself alone. Each blow he strikes in his own behalf helps to mold the universe. - K. Jerome
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 216, 10 November 1993



Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.



RUSSIA



YELTSIN'S TV ADDRESS ON DRAFT CONSTITUTION. Speaking on Russian
television on 9 November, President Boris Yeltsin said the new
draft constitution would seal Russia's break with the past and
provide a firm legal order, as well as protect the rights, freedoms
and interests of individual citizens. The full text of the draft
was published by ITAR-TASS on 9-November. Yeltsin urged citizens
to vote in favor of the draft at a referendum on 12-December.
Some of the draft's provisions, as announced earlier, have provoked
strong criticism, especially in Russia's republics. The draft
gives citizens new rights, including the right to own land. It
gives the president new powers, including the power to appoint
the prime minister subject to parliament's agreement and to sack
the prime minister as well as the military high command without
asking the state duma. It says that all subjects of the federation
have equal status and none of them is sovereign. Commenting on
the latter provision, Yeltsin said "this constitution is not
for separatists." -Vera Tolz

CHINA, RUSSIA SIGN MILITARY COOPERATION ACCORD. Visiting Russian
Defense Minister Pavel Grachev and his Chinese counterpart, Chi
Haotian, on 9 November signed a five-year military cooperation
agreement. Although details of the accord were not available,
AFP quoted Grachev earlier on 9 November as saying that the accord
would increase by three times the number of military attaches
stationed in the respective capitals and that some seven Chinese
delegations would visit Russia in 1994. Grachev emphasized that
the agreement was not directed against "third countries." According
to ITAR-TASS, Grachev also turned aside questions concerning
Russian arms sales to China, claiming that the issue was not
raised during his visit and that "military-technological cooperation
. . . is a prerogative of the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations"
and not of the Defense Ministry. The same report quoted Chinese
Premier Li Peng as telling Grachev that the two countries would
continue to maintain friendly relations, regardless of Russia's
internal political situation. -Stephen Foye

OFFICIAL AND UNOFFICIAL MILITARY TECHNICAL COOPERATION GROWING?
IN A REPORT PUBLISHED ON 10 NOVEMBER, THE NEW YORK TIMES SPECULATED
THAT THE AGREEMENT SIGNED IN BEIJING WAS NEVERTHELESS EXPECTED
TO BROADEN THE TRANSFER OF RUSSIAN MILITARY TECHNOLOGY TO CHINA.
It also reported that military technical cooperation between
the two countries, which has been a cause of acute concern in
Asia and the US, may be expanding on an informal basis. The newspaper
claimed that representatives of Russian defense industries are
streaming into Beijing, often without the knowledge of the government
in Moscow. Quoting a diplomat in Beijing, the newspaper suggested
that pressure on Moscow had led Russia to refuse to sell "power
projection" weapons systems-like aircraft carriers and long-range
bombers-to China, a development that has displeased the government
in Beijing. It also said that China is now focusing less on the
purchase of major weapons systems from Russia than on acquiring
Russian technological know-how. -Stephen Foye

SOME PARTIES MAY BE DENIED REGISTRATION FOR ELECTIONS. Officials
in the Central Election Commission told Interfax on 9 November
that as many as seven parties out of the 21 that had presented
lists of 100,000 supporters may be denied registration. The officials
warned that a preliminary investigation had found irregularities
in the lists of the right-wing Russian All-People's Union (led
by Sergei Baburin), Constitutional Democratic Party (led by Mikhail
Astafev), and National Republican Party (led by Nikolai Lysenko).
The qualifications of the radical New Russia bloc, headed by
Telman Gdlyan; Petr Filippov's Association of Independent Professionals
(which subsequently withdrew from the elections, urging supporters
to vote for the pro-Yeltsin Russia's Choice bloc); and the centrist
Transformation movement are also being questioned. The final
decision on which parties may be registered will be taken on
12 November. -Wendy Slater

YAVLINSKY CRITICIZES YELTSIN. Economist Grigorii Yavlinsky told
Komsomolskaya pravda on 9 November that he intends to run for
president in future elections. He said that the "present parliamentary
elections are being held by an authoritarian regime in order
to strengthen its positions and are far from democracy." However,
Yavlinsky added that today Yeltsin has no other choice. He criticized
Yeltsin's decision not to hold early presidential elections and
said the president should keep at least some of his promises.
Yavlinsky also criticized the reform policy of the present government
and said he would conduct reforms in a more decentralized manner.
He stated that Western aid was useless unless it was linked to
the creation of a completely new economic infrastructure. -Alexander
Rahr

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE DISSOLVES URAL REPUBLIC. Yeltsin signed a
decree on 9-November dissolving the self-proclaimed Ural republic
set up last month by the Sverdlovsk regional soviet and head
of regional administration, ITAR-TASS reported. The decree came
just hours after the regional soviet had announced that a referendum
on the Ural republic's draft constitution and elections of the
head of administration would be held on 12 December. The regional
soviet had appealed to Moscow for recognition of the new status
of Sverdlovsk region in the Russian constitution. In his decree
Yeltsin ordered a halt to activities of the regional soviet;
he also declared that all decisions taken by the regional government
were now without legal force. Earlier this week, Russian observers
in Moscow and regional leaders had expressed the hope that the
fact that the new draft Russian constitution accords equal status
to Russia's republics and regions would help the Ural republic
to be recognized by Moscow. This has turned out not to be the
case. -Vera Tolz

NORTH OSSETIA TO ELECT PRESIDENT. A session of the North Ossetian
parliament on 9-November decided to introduce the post of president,
ITAR-TASS reported. The relevant laws are to be drawn up by 20-November.
Virtually all the republics that have not had presidents up to
now have decided to institute the post in the wake of the 3-4
October events in order to strengthen their hand vis-a-vis Moscow.
The parliament also decided that the name of the republic should
be changed from the North Ossetian Soviet Socialist Republic
to the Republic of North Ossetia. -Ann Sheehy

RUSSIAN SPACE INDUSTRY FUNDING. According to the Interfax news
agency, the Russian government is preparing a series of measures
to assist the Russian space industry. In a 9-November report,
Interfax stated that a draft resolution has been prepared that
would allocate 320 billion rubles to the industry in 1994 in
order to maintain the infrastructure and pay off 1993 debts.
The industry would also be given, at the beginning of 1994, advance
payments worth up to 40% of the total annual planned appropriations
for the year. The resolution reportedly calls for the shifting
of space industry production into Russia from the other CIS states,
although it also provides for continued contracting amongst the
states. Military space programs are to be given high priority,
and Interfax claims that an additional 10,000 personnel may be
added to defense ministry projects in this area. The move to
support the space industry comes at a time when it is succeeding
in developing new ties to Western space programs, and has won
a major role in the construction of the proposed new US space
station. John Lepingwell

MOSCOW RENTS TO RISE SHARPLY. The Moscow city administration
has approved in principle a sharp rise in rents for state-owned
housing effective 1 January, Interfax reported on 9 November.
Rent for one square meter of living space is expected to rise
from 10 kopeks at present to 24 rubles on 1 January and to 101
rubles by the end of 1994. Substantial increases are also envisaged
in charges for central heating, water, and sewage, but gas charges
will remain unaltered. Subsidies amounting to 3.3 trillion rubles
are to be allocated by the city administration in 1994 partially
to offset the increases. The proposals must be approved by the
new city Duma to be elected on 12 December. -Keith Bush

TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA



ABKHAZ PARLIAMENT WANTS DIALOG WITH GEORGIA. With Georgian troops
massed on the border of Abkhazia, the leadership of the region,
which is seeking to separate from Georgia, declared its willingness
to renew dialog with Georgian authorities under Russian and UN
mediation, Russian sources reported on 9 November. The Abkhaz
Supreme Soviet also admitted the justice of charges that Abkhazia
had violated the Sochi Agreement that was supposed to end fighting
between the region and Georgia; the Abkhaz side would like to
reinstate the agreement. According to Reuter, there were skirmishes
between Georgian and Abkhaz forces along the border river but
no casualties were reported. -Bess Brown

RUSSIA WARNS ABKHAZ, GEORGIANS. The Russian Foreign Ministry
warned in a statement on 9 November that Moscow will impose sanctions
against the Abkhaz if they sent troops or weapons across the
Inguri River. The Ministry likewise warned that Georgian authorities
should not commit aggression against the Abkhaz and added that
Moscow would not remain "indifferent" in such a situation. Currently,
Georgian troops are concentrated on the Abkhaz border, Russian
and Western agencies reported. -Suzanne Crow

KAZAKHSTAN ISSUES NEW CURRENCY REGULATIONS. President Nursultan
Nazarbaev signed a decree on 5 November requiring banks to ready
special accounts for deposits of old rubles (issued between 1961-1992),
various Russian news agencies reported. Few additional details
were provided but apparently the measure is intended to provide
a means of supervising and controlling the inflow of old rubles
from neighboring countries. The Council of Ministers passed a
supplementary resolution on 9 November that states that deposits
of old rubles earned as payment for consumer necessities, fuel,
medicine and some basic services will not be subject to these
banking procedures. -Erik Whitlock

CIS

RUSSIAN, CENTRAL ASIAN SECURITY SERVICES TO COORDINATE. Tajikistan's
official news agency, Khovar-TASS, reported on 9 November that
a conference of leaders of the security services of Russia, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan had agreed to coordinate
in protection of Tajikistan's border with Afghanistan and in
normalizing the situation within Tajikistan. Leaders of the five
countries agreed earlier in the year to participate in defending
the Tajik-Afghan border, but that agreement did not sanction
interference in Tajikistan's internal affairs. Uzbek troops have
been reported to have participated with Tajik government forces
in military actions against the armed Tajik opposition, but the
other Central Asian participants in the border forces have been
reluctant to interfere. -Bess Brown

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE



CROATS DESTROY MOSTAR BRIDGE. The New York Times reports on 10
November that Croatian gunners the previous day demolished the
famous arch over the Neretva that was built between 1557 and
1566 by the Ottomans. The Serbs first shelled the structure in
1991, and it has since been hit by Serb and Croat fire, with
one of the latest Croatian shellings having taken place in July.
Muslims had tried to use tires to protect the bridge, a symbol
not only of Mostar but of all Bosnia-Herzegovina. Patrick Moore


MILOSEVIC FOR PEACE? ON 5 NOVEMBER SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN
MILOSEVIC STRESSED IN AN INTERVIEW IN THE BELGRADE NEWSPAPER
POLITIKA HIS COMMITMENT TO REGIONAL PEACE. Milosevic said current
UN efforts to mediate a Balkan peace based on a "global approach"
are worthy of support, because they could lead to "a path for
the resolution of the Yugoslav crisis in its entirety." He stressed
that the key to a lasting Balkan peace was close Serbian-Croatian
cooperation. Milosevic went on to suggest that most regional
tensions, such as those between the Serbs in the self-proclaimed
Republic of Serbian Krajina, and Zagreb could be traced to Croatia's,
or specifically Croatian President Tudjman's, unwillingness to
commit to peace. On 10 November Borba reports that Milosevic
is willing to recognize Macedonia, provided that Greece normalizes
relations with Skopje first. -Stan Markotich

"PROTESTS OF DEMOCRATIC FORCES AGAINST VIOLENCE" IN SKOPJE. This
is Rilindja's headline on 8 November, marking the first anniversary
of the fatal clashes in Skopje's market district of Bit Pazar,
in which four died and more than thirty were injured, mainly
ethnic Albanians. Under the slogan "now forever against violence,"
several political groups held a meeting in the Albanian theater
of Bit Pazar, including ethnic Albanian members of the Macedonian
parliament and government. The organizers said "the citizens
of Skopje, of the Republic of Macedonia, and all progressive
democratic forces cannot accept the fact that in their own town
the police raised their hands in a primitive way against [their]
own fellow citizens, especially those of another nationality."
Fabian Schmidt

ALBANIAN MILITANTS ARRESTED IN MACEDONIA. Nine ethnic Albanians
were arrested on 9 November for arms smuggling according to Vecer.
Reports indicate that two of those arrested were deputy ministers,
one for health, another for defense. The group has been accused
of forming a paramilitary organization centered in Gostivar,
along the Albanian border, which allegedly plans to recruit and
arm up to 20,000 Albanians. The paramilitary organization is
alleged to be associated with the Party for Democratic Prosperity,
the largest Albanian political party in Macedonia. Muhamed Halili,
the party's leader, denies knowledge of the group and any association
with the PDP according to MILS. -Duncan Perry

POLISH SEJM CONFIRMS NEW GOVERNMENT. For the first time since
1989, a Polish government has received the support of a commanding
parliamentary majority. Following six hours of debate and two
days of commission hearings, on 10 November the Sejm voted 310
to 83 with 24 abstentions to confirm the two-party coalition
government headed by Premier Waldemar Pawlak, PAP reports. In
addition to the two coalition parties-the Democratic Left Alliance
(SLD) and the Polish Peasant Party (PSL)-the new government was
supported by the left-wing Union of Labor (UP). The Democratic
Union (UD) and the Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN)
opposed the confidence vote. President Lech Walesa's Nonparty
Reform Bloc (BBWR) abstained, as did the German minority. -Louisa
Vinton

PAWLAK'S PROGRAM CRITICIZED. During the Sejm debate, the new
government's program was criticized for seemingly contradictory
reasons: both for affirming continuity and for signaling dangerous
deviations in economic policy. The UP, which had opted not to
join the coalition, complained that the new government seems
determined to push on with privatization, while the opposition
UD and BBWR criticized Pawlak for planning excessive deficit
spending and failing to confront the danger of inflation. The
UD also objected to Pawlak's attempt to blame current economic
problems on the four years of Solidarity governments rather than
on forty-five years of communism. In debating Pawlak's pledge
to proceed with the ratification of the concordat with the Vatican,
a potential breach opened between the two coalition partners
over Church-state relations. The PSL, which has been courting
the Church hierarchy, endorsed the concordat as is, while SLD
deputies called for its revision. -Louisa Vinton

KWASNIEWSKI APOLOGIZES FOR COMMUNISM. During the Sejm debate
on 9 November, SLD leader Aleksander Kwasniewski attempted to
close a chapter in Polish history by apologizing for the abuses
of the communist system and, at the same time, encouraging former
party members to "walk with their heads high." "To all those
who experienced abuses and were ill-treated by the authorities
and the system before 1989-we apologize," Kwasniewski said. This
apology was prefaced by a rhetorical rehabilitation of "all those
who felt rejected in the past four years, whose achievements
and honest labor were questioned, [and] whose dignity and satisfaction
with the gains of past decades were denied." The reaction to
Kwasniewski's remarks was mixed. President Lech Walesa and Gazeta
Wyborcza editor Adam Michnik applauded the gesture; other former
oppositionists said the apology was years too late and objected
to Kwasniewski's implicit analogy between Solidarity governments
and communist rule. Also on 9-November, Kwasniewski was elected
chairman of the parliamentary commission charged with drafting
Poland's new constitution. -Louisa Vinton

MECIAR WITHDRAWS CABINET NOMINATIONS, RESUBMITS NEW ONES. On
9-November, Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar withdrew all of his
seven nominations for cabinet posts after President Michal Kovac
rejected Ivan Lexa for the post of privatization minister, thus
refusing to accept the nominations en bloc. In explaining his
decision, Kovac argued that Lexa, whom he had rejected for the
posts of director of the Slovak Information Service and minister
of privatization earlier in 1993, was not qualified for the post.
TASR reported that in a letter sent to Kovac, Meciar said that
he was very sorry that the president, despite personal assurances,
"groundlessly and out of personal motives" rejected Lexa. On
the same day, Meciar submitted a new government list to the president,
which was identical to the earlier one but omitted Lexa's nomination.
Speaking on Slovak television, Meciar said his decision was based
on his talks with Ludovit Cernak, chairman of the Slovak National
Party, the coalition partner of Meciar's Movement for a Democratic
Slovakia. Under the new proposal submitted to Kovac, the government
will have four new deputy prime ministers (Finance Minister Julius
Toth; SNP's Jozef Prokes, who will be responsible for integration
into European structures; SNP's Marian Andel, who will oversee
education; and MDS's Sergej Kozlik, who will preside over the
process of economic transformation). Jaroslav Paska (SNP) will
become the new education minister, and Jan Ducky will replace
Jaroslav Kubecka as economy minister. -Jiri Pehe

HUNGARY RATIFIES TREATIES WITH BALTIC STATES. Parliament on 9
November unanimously ratified the bilateral treaties signed in
August 1992 with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, MTI reports.
Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky says Hungary has had traditionally
good relations with the Baltic states, and the present treaties
will enhance mutual cooperation in such fields as education and
culture, as well as European integration. The treaties contain
a declaration saying that they are not directed against any other
country and also stress the need to guarantee the cultural, linguistic
and religious rights of minorities.--Alfred Reisch

HUNGARIAN LIBERALS HOLD TALKS IN GERMANY. A delegation of the
opposition Alliance of Free Democrats party led by Gabor Kuncze,
its premier-designate in the 1994 general elections, is on a
four-day visit in Germany, MTI and Radio Budapest report. On
9-November Kuncze held talks with German Foreign Minister and
Social Democratic Party chairman Klaus Kinkel, who expressed
caution regarding the Visegrad countries' request for NATO membership
because of the need to take into account Russia's views on the
matter. The AFD delegation will also meet German economic and
financial experts and discuss the schedule of Hungary's entry
into the EC.--Alfred Reisch

ROMANIAN OFFICIAL ALLOWS SALE OF HITLER BOOK. Romania's General
Prosecutor Vasile Manea Dragulin rejected a request by President
Ion Iliescu to ban Adolf Hitler's book Mein Kampf. In a letter
to Iliescu, read on Radio Bucharest on 8 November, Dragulin described
the book's publication as an act aiming at informing the readers
and not at conducting fascist propaganda. Prosecutors in the
city of Sibiu banned the sale of Mein Kampf in March, but Bucharest
authorities reversed the decision in June. Dragulin's letter
also ruled that three far-right political parties, the National
Right Party, the Fatherland's Party, and the Movement for Romania,
are legal. Dan Ionescu

FORMER KING MICHAEL WANTS TO ATTEND NATIONAL DAY CEREMONIES.
King Michael of Romania said in a message broadcast on Radio
Bucharest on 9 November that he intends to participate in the
national day ceremonies at Alba Iulia on 1 December. He stressed
he will not question Romania's present constitutional order and
that he seeks to promote stability. The town council of Timisoara
invited the king to attend the ceremonies and visit the city,
but the Foreign Ministry has not yet received a visa application.
Meanwhile, on 8-November more than 4,000 Romanians demonstrated
outside the former royal palace in Bucharest, denouncing President
Iliescu and demanding that King Michael return home. King Michael,
72, was forced to abdicate in December 1947 and now lives in
Switzerland. -Michael Shafir and Dan Ionescu

BULGARIA "DISAPPOINTED" IN THE EC. In a declaration issued by
the Bulgarian Foreign Ministry and handed over on 9 November
to the Sofia diplomatic missions representing members of the
EC, Bulgaria is described as "greatly disappointed" that the
EC has still not managed to unblock a trade deal signed in March
1993, BTA reports. The document was distributed just hours after
the EC Council of Ministers ended a session in Brussels. The
declaration notes that the temporary trade accord, which following
a ratification process is to be replaced by an association agreement,
was initially intended to be enforced by 1 June 1993. As a result
of the nearly 6-month delay, however, the foreign ministry says
Bulgaria has lost over $200 million in trade revenues. Meanwhile
in Brussels, Belgian Prime Minister Jean-Luc Dehaene told Reuters
he intends to ask EC leaders to speed up implementation of Bulgaria's
interim trade deal. Diplomats quoted Dehaene as saying the repeated
delays are bringing the EC Council of Ministers into discredit.
-Kjell Engelbrekt

UKRAINE DENIES PLANS FOR MASSIVE TROOP CUTS. Reacting to reports
that the Ukrainian military planned an unprecedented troop cut
of 150,000 personnel by the end of 1993, with a reduction to
only 250,000 by the end of 1995, the defense ministry on 4-November
announced that the reports were "disinformation" spread by the
Russian newspaper Izvestiya. The defense ministry reaffirmed
that the final size of the Ukrainian military after reductions
would be 450,000. The repudiation of the report was carried by
the UNIAR press agency on 5 November. -John Lepingwell

UKRAINIAN COLONEL TO HEAD UN FORCES IN SARAJEVO. UN Secretary
General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed Col. Senchenko of the
Ukrainian armed forces as chief of staff of UN troops in Sarajevo,
Ukrainian television reported on 7 November. Ukraine has a battalion
with the UN forces in Sarajevo. - Ustina Markus

KRAVCHUK STEPS UP CENTRAL CONTROL OF ECONOMY. Last week Ukrainian
President Leonid Kravchuk issued decrees significantly increasing
state regulation of the economy. Among the measures adopted were
price controls, profit limits, an expansion of the system of
state orders and restriction on the trade and use of hard currency.
On 9 November the Financial Times reported that all last week
the Ukrainian Interbank Currency Exchange continued to operate
despite a government order to shut down. That same day, however,
according to Interfax, the exchange shut down its trade session
after receiving an order to do so from the Ukrainian National
Bank. The bank has established a fixed karbovanets-dollar rate
of 6,980 to 1, which compares to the last rate established on
the currency exchange of 31,150 to 1. -Erik Whitlock

BELARUSIAN SUPREME SOVIET MEETS. The 13th session of the Belarusian
Supreme Soviet met on 9-November, Radiofakt reported. Deputies
debated a new constitution and the possibilities of holding parliamentary
elections next year. Reuters reported that 500-demonstrators
gathered outside the parliament building and demanded the resignation
of the government. On 8-November Interfax reported that the Belarusian
Trade Unions Federation collected 738,000 signatures calling
for early parliamentary elections. Under law 350,000 are required
to call a national referendum on a particular issue. The government
had warned against holding a demonstration and said it would
use any means available to breakup a rally. Reuters reported
that the demonstrators outside the parliament were surrounded
by police with water cannons, but no violence took place. -Ustina
Markus

CSCE'S MOLDOVA MISSION SHOWS MEAGER RESULTS. Having completed
the six-month term stipulated by its mandate, the CSCE mission
in Moldova has been extended by another six months, the mission's
chief, Canadian Ambassador Timothy Williams, told Moldovan President
Mircea Snegur on 9 November. Williams, who ended his tour of
duty, was assured by Snegur that Chisinau fully agrees with the
mission's suggestions on granting the Transdniester a special
legal status "entailing a high degree of local self-government,"
Basapress reports. The mission, which is staffed with one half
of its twelve planned members, has been prevented from discharging
its mandate of facilitating the withdrawal of Russian troops
and a political settlement of the Dniester conflict. Its requests,
in agreement with Moldova, to observe the Moldovan-Russian troops
talks and to establish an office in Transdniester to monitor
compliance with the ceasefire agreement have been turned down
by the Russian and "Dniester" side. Moldova has insisted on the
mission's extension in hopes that it will become more effective.
-Vladimir Socor

SNEGUR IN TRANSDNIESTER, ON RUSSIAN "REACTION," ROMANIAN "ULTRAPATRIOTS."
Moldovan President Snegur visited on 8 November the small area
on the left bank of the Dniester still under Moldovan control,
Basapress reports. Speaking at the inauguration of a rebuilt
school in the village of Cocieri, which had been partially destroyed
by "Dniester" forces and elements of Russia's 14th Army during
last year's fighting, Snegur vowed that "the Transdniester will
never be given up." He denounced "those who played the game of
Russian reactionary circles and, through the force of the former
Soviet army, created a phantom ["Dniester"] republic here." Referring
to Moldova's Popular Front, the pro-Romanian opposition group,
Snegur also blasted "our ultrapatriots who have all along been
ready to give up the Transdniester in order to achieve their
ambition" of unifying Moldova with Romania. -Vladimir Socor

SHOKHIN ON USE OF ECONOMIC LEVERS AGAINST BALTICS. Russian Deputy
Premier Aleksandr Shokhin told the press on 9 November in Moscow
that his country intends to use more economic levers in its negotiations
with the Baltic States, noting that these options have been poorly
utilized before. Shokhin also implied linkage of Russian troop
withdrawals from Estonia and Latvia to the social security of
the Russian-speaking population and the signing of economic accords
with Lithuania to the transit agreements reached over Russian
access to Kaliningrad, Baltfax reports. -Dzintra Bungs

COL. TURLAIS ON LATVIAN ARMED FORCES. Looking back critically
over the reestablishment of the Latvian armed forces two years
ago, their commander, Col. Dainis Turlais told the press that
there are currently about 7,000 persons (including 157 women)
serving in the armed forces, or 87% of the desired capacity.
Of the 529 officers, ranging in rank from colonel to lieutenant,
only 116-have been supplied with housing. Turlais noted the budgetary
problems for all branches of the armed forces and suggested that
purchasing should be centralized for all branches not only to
save money, but also to maintain better oversight of weapons
intended for the armed forces. Turlais invited journalists to
observe the military training exercises held near Adazi 5-9 November,
Diena and BNS reported on 8 November. -Dzintra Bungs

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ann Sheehy and Sharon Fisher







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