|There is always one moment in childhood when the door opens and lets the future in. - Graham Greene|
No. 215, 09 November 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA YELTSIN SIGNS DRAFT CONSTITUTION. Russian President Boris Yeltsin has signed the text of the new draft Russian constitution, Western and Russian agencies reported on 8-November. "A few alterations" have been made to the text which Yeltsin discussed with regional leaders on 3 November, ITAR-TASS reported; but a presidential aide said the only major change was the abolition of republican citizenship so that people would be citizens of the Russian Federation only. The draft will be published on 9 November and is due to be put to a nationwide referendum on 12 December. It reportedly gives the President considerable powers over the legislature, and apparently includes a provision that the first parliament (to be elected in December) will serve for only two years whilst the President will serve his full term until 1996, thereby cancelling a plan to hold early presidential elections in 1994. -Wendy Slater GRACHEV IN CHINA. Capping off a busy week that began with the adoption of a long-awaited military doctrine, Russia's increasingly high-profile Defense Minister, Pavel Grachev, arrived in China on 8 November to begin four days of talks with military and political leaders. Reuters and AFP reported discussions are to focus on military cooperation, including exchanges of military personnel, and are expected to culminate in the signing of a cooperation agreement between the two defense ministries. Arms sales will reportedly not be on the agenda, a surprising development given the volume of such trade between the two countries (Russian arms sales to China in 1992 have been estimated at $1.2-billion) and the priority that arms sales have been accorded in past meetings. Indeed, according to AFP, a Japanese newspaper has reported that the two sides will, in fact, sign a bilateral deal providing for the joint development of a new Chinese jet fighter. Grachev will reportedly also outline the contents of Russia's new military doctrine to his Chinese hosts and will, in turn, be briefed by them on recent talks between Chinese and American defense officials. -Stephen Foye CHERNOMYRDIN: MOSCOW WILL NOT OPPOSE EASTERN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION WITH NATO OR EC. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, on an official visit to Vienna, was quoted by AFP on 8-November as saying that Russia would not prevent former Warsaw Pact nations from joining NATO or the EC. "This is a sovereign issue for each of these countries," Chernomyrdin said during a joint press conference with Austrian Chancellor Franz Vranitzky. Chernomyrdin's comments appear to mark one more rhetorical shift in Moscow's uneven and often contradictory efforts to deal diplomatically with the intention of former Warsaw Pact states to win closer economic and military integration with Western Europe. Chernomyrdin also said that Russia hoped to become a "major economic partner" of the European Community. Two bilateral economic agreements, on trade and civil aviation, were signed with Austria during the visit. -Stephen Foye RUSSIA BACKTRACKS ON LIBYA SANCTIONS. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev clarified Russia's position on the question of tightening United Nations Security Council sanctions against Libya according to Ostankino television on 8 November. Kozyrev was quoted as saying "we will even use the veto if we have to in order to block this resolution, not because we are protecting terrorists, but because this resolution must take into consideration Russia's economic interests." Western and Russian press reports of the previous few days had reported that Russia and the other members of the UNSC had agreed to stiffen sanctions. The latest word from Kozyrev, however, is that the Russian Federation insists on additional wording in the resolution affirming that Libya is expected to repay its debts to Russia. -Suzanne Crow RUSSIAN MILITARY CONDUCTS STAFF EXERCISE. Krasnaya zvezda reported on 9-November that the Russian military has completed a country-wide command and staff exercise. According to accounts on Russian TV on 5 November and in Krasnaya zvezda on 6-November, the exercise was held over the period of 1-5 November, and was led by Defense Minister Grachev. The exercise appears to have played out a large war scenario in which Russian forces were mobilized, a defensive battle was fought, and then counter-offensive and offensive operations were conducted. Security Ministry and Interior Ministry staffs also participated. While the exercise apparently involved all of the conventional branches of the military, the reports indicate that only staffs were involved and that no forces were moved or engaged in the exercise. According to Grachev, the exercise reflected the new doctrine recently approved by the Russian Security Council. -John Lepingwell COCOM TO BE REPLACED. According to The Financial Times and Reuters of 8 November, the members of the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Control (Cocom) decided, at their 3 November meeting in Oslo, to replace Cocom with a new body by the end of 1993. The new organization is expected to include Russia, with the possible proviso that it first establishes an effective export control system. Cocom was established in 1951 to monitor and restrict exports of high-technology goods of potential military or strategic value to the former "Communist bloc" nations. The new organization is expected to focus on controlling exports to nations that sponsor or tolerate terrorism, and to those countries which may illicitly be developing weapons of mass destruction. -Keith Bush BOOST FOR DEFENSE INDUSTRY. On 6 November, President Yeltsin signed a decree "On the Stabilization of the Economic Situation of Enterprises and Organizations of the Defense Industry and on Measures for Securing State Defense Orders," ITAR-TASS reported on 8-November. The decree provides for, inter alia, a review by 1 December of state credits for conversion; the provision of advance payments for defense items with long production cycles; the establishment of adequate profitability norms; the setting of wage rates for defense workers of up to 8 or 9 times the minimum wage; apparent tax breaks for the defense industry; and the drawing up by the end of the year of a long-term armaments program through the year 2000. -Keith Bush PRICE OF PRIVATIZATION VOUCHERS SOARS. The price of privatization vouchers rose to 24,000 rubles on the Moscow and St. Petersburg exchanges on 5-November, Reuters reported. This was roughly double the price quoted on 30 October. The price had risen by 30% in October-the first month in which the price of vouchers had risen faster than the overall monthly rate of inflation. In real terms, however, the value of vouchers that had a face value of 10,000 rubles on 1-October 1992 has fallen appreciably in the face of inflation since then that is approaching 1000%. -Keith Bush GAIDAR ON PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN 1996. First Deputy Prime Minister Egor Gaidar said that Yeltsin's decision to cancel early presidential elections next June was logical but may cost his supporters "some votes" in the elections to the Federal Assembly, Radio Rossii and "Novosti" reported on 8 November. Gaidar did not exclude that he would put forward his candidacy at the next presidential elections in June 1996 but said that he would not seriously consider such a step before 1995. In an interview with Moskovskii komsomolets on 6 November, Gaidar noted that at present he regards the creation of a normal legal basis for reform as his major task. He asserted that since 1990 Russia had suffered from dual power and that the country now needs a single center of power. -Alexander Rahr MAYOR ISSUES DECREE REGULATING RESIDENCE PERMIT IN MOSCOW. Moscow mayor Yurii Luzhkov issued a decree regulating the temporary residence of non-Russian citizens in Moscow. An RFE/RL correspondent in the Russian capital said that the decree goes into effect on 15 November. The decree says citizens of former Soviet republics, except Russia, must register at their place of temporary residence in Moscow and for each day of their stay pay a fee equal to 10 % of Russia's minimum monthly wage. The decree also says that those who violate these regulations will pay a fine and be deported from Moscow. These provisions were included in a broader draft decree on citizens' movement within Russia, prepared in October by Luzhkov together with the ministries of security and internal affairs. President Yeltsin refused to sign this decree, however, after various human rights organizations and politicians condemned the draft as violating human rights. -Vera Tolz BASHKORTOSTAN PARLIAMENT REMAINS DEFIANT. A session of the Bashkortostan parliament on 5-November decided to hold elections to the new post of president of the republic on 12 December, the Russian media reported. At the same time the parliament adopted a statement addressed to Yeltsin on Bashkortostan's relations with the Russian Federation, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 6 November. The lengthy statement sharply criticized the decision to try and deprive the republics of their sovereign status and protested strongly against the desire to preserve the Russian Federation as a unitary state. The parliament is scheduled to give final approval to the new Bashkortostan constitution before the 12 December federal elections. The draft, given its first reading on 4-October, describes Bashkortostan as a sovereign republic with the right of secession from the Russian Federation. -Ann Sheehy THREE REPUBLICS TO DROP "SOVIET" AND "SOCIALIST" FROM THEIR TITLES. Among the topics on the agenda of the North Ossetian parliament which meets on 9 November is that the words "soviet" and "socialist" be dropped from the republic's title, ITAR-TASS reported. The chief of the presidential administration Sergei Filatov told Interfax on 6-November that the only other two republics that are still "soviet" and "socialist," namely Mordovia and Dagestan, will also drop these designations shortly. It had been suggested at a session of the commission on reworking the draft constitution on 18 October that contact be made with these republics and that they be asked to remove the offending words immediately, "otherwise we will simply look stupid" (stenographic report of the session carried by Nezavisimaya gazeta on 6 November). Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TAJIKISTAN UPDATE. Ostankino TV reported on 8-November that in the last few days several groups of armed Afghan citizens have crossed the Afghan-Tajik border into Tajikistan and were stopped and disarmed by Russian and Tajik border guards. The most recent of these groups was reported to have included three generals. The incursions into Tajikistan were attributed to fighting between opposing Afghan groups rather than further attempts by Afghans to help the Tajik opposition attack Tajik government forces. -Bess Brown CIS BLACK SEA FLEET INTERVENES IN GEORGIA. 750-marines of the Black Sea Fleet and 40-armored vehicles have been landed in the Georgian coastal town of Poti, ITAR-TASS reported on 8 November. The marines took control of transport centers, railways, highways and bridges. A representative of the military command of the Black Sea Fleet described the action as "humanitarian" in nature and told ITAR-TASS that there had been no resistance, despite rumors that the marines had suffered casualties. On the other hand, UNIAN reported on 8 November that the headquarters of the Black Sea Fleet command in Sevastopol had "confirmed its previous announcement" that several marines had been wounded. -Bess Brown and Bohdan Nahaylo CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE PAWLAK PROPOSES "PRAGMATIC CORRECTION." In a workmanlike address carried live by Polish TV, Premier Waldemar Pawlak presented his government's program to the Sejm on 8 November. Attempting to straddle the divide between postcommunist and Solidarity forces, he opened by saying, "The history of Poland began neither four nor fifty years ago." Pawlak pledged to continue the economic reforms begun by his predecessors, but said the methods will be more humane and the costs distributed more equitably. Rather than present a general vision of Poland's economic transformation, he merely catalogued the areas requiring more funding, stressing education, culture, ecology and health. Blaming his predecessors' "dogmatism" for the budget crisis and excessive "social costs," Pawlak pledged to make a "pragmatic correction" in economic policy. Fighting unemployment is the new government's first priority; the "destruction" of jobs will be penalized. Agriculture will be protected at a level on par with Western market economies. Privatization will continue but "without dogmatism." Pawlak scaled back some election pledges, but nonetheless vowed to increase pensions and budget-sector wages. Better tax enforcement and a crack-down on the "gray sphere" will provide new revenues. Poland's foreign policy aims, including entry into NATO and the EC, remain constant, but local government reform may be halted. In keeping with constitutional requirements, the Sejm is to vote to confirm Pawlak and his cabinet on 10-November. -Louisa Vinton POLISH JUSTICE MINISTER ON JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE. Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz, the new justice minister and deputy prime minister for social questions, considers a legal clause permitting the removal of judges who have "violated the principle of independence" to be unconstitutional, a ministry spokesman announced on 6 November. In a letter to the Constitutional Tribunal, Cimoszewicz wrote that in a state based on the rule of law, judges appointed for life can only be removed for "objective" reasons preventing the performance of their job, such as health or age, or if they are convicted of a crime by a court of law. The law in question was designed to permit the removal of judges who had yielded to political pressure and issued unjust rulings under communism. Although supported by Cimoszewicz's predecessors, it has stirred controversy in Polish legal circles and prompted a protest from the Civil Rights Spokesman. Cimoszewicz was a communist party member from 1971-90. -Louisa Vinton SLOVAK PRESIDENT REJECTS PROPOSED MINISTER. On 8 November Michal Kovac appointed six of the seven ministers proposed by the new governing coalition but rejected the nomination of Ivan Lexa as privatization minister, TASR reports. Although Premier Vladimir Meciar demanded that the seven candidates be approved en bloc, the president said that according to the Constitution he could not accept this demand. Kovac, who already this year has rejected Lexa for the post of director of the Slovak Information Service as well as that of privatization minister, stated that he has "fundamental objections" to Lexa, who "does not meet the requirements for this post." Kovac said he hopes Meciar will submit a new proposal shortly. The six ministers approved include Jozef Prokes and Marian Andel of the National Party and Sergej Kozlik and Julius Toth of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia for the four new posts of deputy premier, as well as Jaroslav Paska for education and science minister and Jan Ducky for economy minister. Social Democratic Party Deputy Chairman Pavol Mutafov said the president's act was expected since Lexa is the son of former deputy chairman of the Slovak communist cabinet, Vladimir Lexa, who now works for the Harvard Privatization Fund in Slovakia. Mutafov noted "it is an obvious conflict of interest. The son cannot control privatization and the father work for the strongest privatization fund . . . Democratic countries cannot accept these things." -Sharon Fisher MECIAR REPORTEDLY MEETS RUSSIAN PREMIER. Slovak Radio, with a reference to TASR, reported on 8-November that Meciar met with his Russian counterpart Viktor Chernomyrdin in Austria earlier on that day. TASR reportedly obtained the information from "well-informed sources." Slovak Radio says the meeting was apparently unscheduled and that the two prime ministers exchanged information about "the most topical problems" affecting both countries. -Jiri Pehe IS A BALKAN CONFERENCE IN THE OFFING? INTERNATIONAL MEDIA REPORT ON 9 NOVEMBER THAT MEDIATOR THORVALD STOLTENBERG RETURNS TO BOSNIA TO TALK WITH MUSLIM AND CROAT LEADERS THERE. Negotiators have suggested that a Balkan regional conference aimed at a "global solution" to the Yugoslav crisis might be an option following the Muslims' rejection of the Geneva peace plan but have added that they are looking at this option simply because they have run out of others. Croatian President Franjo Tudjman has ruled out any such gathering that does not begin by recognizing Tito-era republican borders, but Croatia in general, like Slovenia, has argued that it is not a Balkan country and hence has no business at a Balkan conference. Skepticism prevails in Macedonia as well, where President Kiro Gligorov believes his country has no territorial problems and hence has no need for such a conference, Borba reports on 9 November. Skopje's Vecer quotes Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, however, as saying he sees no future for Macedonia outside a Yugoslav confederation. Albanian President Sali Berisha told Bulgarian TV on 6 November that a regional meeting may have merit, but it would have to be extremely well prepared. -Patrick Moore BOSNIAN FIGHTING UPDATE. The New York Times on 9 November says that Serb gunmen the previous day forcibly took two aides to Sarajevo's Roman Catholic archbishop from UN armored cars, claiming the men are "war criminals." Stoltenberg is reportedly personally seeking the two men's release. Borba adds that, as part of the mainly Muslim Bosnian army's current crackdown on the Croatian militia in Sarajevo, the Croat military leadership there has been arrested along with members of the King Tvrtko Brigade. Finally, Reuters notes on 8-November that Bosnian army loyalists and rebels following Bihac leader Fikret Abdic have fought each other to a standstill and are too poorly armed to continue any major fighting. -Patrick Moore PAPOULIAS IN BELGRADE. On the first leg of a tour to all Balkan countries except Macedonia and Turkey, Greek Foreign Minister Karolos Papoulias spent 7 and 8-November in Belgrade. Before his departure, he told international media that he and Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic have "very concerted stands" on all vital issues and that "with joint efforts we can contribute to peace in Bosnia and entire region." Milosevic told Serbian TV that the talks had covered the UN sanctions against rump Yugoslavia and that he anticipated Greece "will do everything it can to help accomplish lifting them." Papoulias, who also met with Yugoslav Premier Radoje Kontic, said Athens has not yet decided how to "intervene" on Serbia's behalf after Greece assumes chairmanship of the European Community on 1 January. Reuters quoted diplomats in Belgrade as saying that Papoulias's stop in Belgrade confirmed that the socialist administration led by Andreas Papandreou has adopted an even more openly pro-Serbian position than Greece's defeated conservative government. -Kjell Engelbrekt SERBIAN MEDIA RULES NOT SIGNED BY MAJOR OPPOSITION PARTIES. Serbia's ruling Socialist government and 30 opposition parties signed a document on the rules of conduct of the media in the campaign for parliamentary elections to be held on 19 December, Radio Serbia reports on 8 November. All major opposition parties, however, refused to sign the agreement, which calls for equal representation of parties on every Serbian radio and television station. Socialist spokesman Ivica Dacic described the agreement as a positive development, but Democratic Party of Serbia representative Drasko Petrovic assessed it as slightly worse than the agreement preceding the 1992 parliamentary and presidential elections. The new agreement does not include the main opposition parties' demand that political programs from two independent TV stations be carried by the second channel of state-controlled Serbian TV. -Milan Andrejevich ARE THE SLOVAKS NEXT ON ARKAN'S LIST? BORBA SAYS ON 9 NOVEMBER THAT POSTERS FOR THE PARTY OF THE INTERNATIONALLY-WANTED WAR CRIMINAL AND SERB ULTRA-NATIONALIST ZELJKO RAZNATOVIC "ARKAN" HAVE BEEN PLASTERED ON A SLOVAK CHURCH IN STARA PAZOVA IN VOJVODINA. Arkan committed crimes in Croatia, Bosnia, and the Sandzak, and more recently has set up headquarters in Kosovo. One of his specialties is using nationalist symbols and intimidation as a prelude to killings and ethnic cleansing. Ethnic relations in the highly mixed Vojvodina with its legacy of tolerance have been disturbed largely only by outsiders, such as street gangs loyal to Milosevic or by Arkan himself, while local Serbs traditionally regard themselves as culturally superior to the "Balkan Serbs" of Serbia proper. The Serbian military since 1991 has driven some Croats, Ukrainians, Hungarians, and others out of Vojvodina and resettled Serbs from Croatia and Bosnia in their place. - Patrick Moore ANTALL'S REPLY ON HUNGARIAN RADIO AND TV. In a response dated 6 November to President Arpad Goncz's letter of 1 November, Premier Jozsef Antall expressed his disagreement with Goncz's view that Hungarian radio and television had become unable to perform their basic tasks and provide an opportunity for Hungarian voters to freely express their opinions. After deploring the rejection by parliament of the government's law on the media, Antall said he supports freedom of the press but was against the "internal terror of certain political circles and journalists' cliques" which sharply attack those with whom they disagree. The premier will study the present situation of Hungarian radio and television before taking the necessary steps, including filling the now vacant presidencies of both media, MTI reports.--Alfred Reisch MORE RESIGNATIONS FROM HUNGARIAN OPPOSITION PARTY. Peter Molnar, a 29-year old lawyer and founding member of the Alliance of Young Democrats, gave up his party vice chairman post and parliamentary mandate on 5 November, quitting the AYD. Like party vice chairman Gabor Fodor, who left last week, Molnar said the AYD is turning from an open, liberal centrist party into a conservative rightist one that uncritically speaks of a "danger from the left" and no longer criticizes the government. On 8 November MTI announced that Klara Ungar, a 35-year old economist and head of the Budapest AYD faction, gave up her parliamentary mandate and called the work of the party's parliamentary faction and presidium ineffective. Parliamentary faction leader Laszlo Kover says the resignations have strengthened rather than weakened the unity of the AYD leadership and indicated that Ungar should leave the party as well.--Alfred Reisch CZECH PREMIER IN BUCHAREST. On 8 November Czech Premier Vaclav Klaus held talks in Bucharest with his Romanian counterpart Nicolae Vacaroiu. Radio Bucharest said that the two exchanged information on economic reforms and broadening bilateral economic relations. In a statement after the meeting, Vacaroiu praised the progress of restructuring and privatization in the Czech economy. Klaus told the press that his visit was brief but full of results. The two sides signed agreements on the protection of investments and the prevention of double taxation, as well as a protocol on preparing the ground for future trade liberalization. Romania promised to reimburse the Czech Republic for debts left over from the communist era. Klaus also met President Ion Iliescu, Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu and Chamber of Deputies Chairman Adrian Nastase. -Dan Ionescu BULGARIA'S BALLOONING BUDGET DEFICIT. New economic statistics disclosed on 8-November suggest that the stabilization policies of the Bulgarian government are failing. Following a meeting of the cabinet, Deputy Finance Minister Dimitar Kostov told BTA that the present budget is suffering from a 26% cash deficit and that "decisive measures" will be needed to ensure the collection of state revenues. While Kostov estimated that the annual inflation rate will remain within the projected 65-68%, Finance Minister Stoyan Aleksandrov warned that the economy could tip toward hyperinflation if the situation is not promptly stabilized. On the same day the National Bank for the second time in 10 days raised the prime interest rate in order to decrease inflationary expectations. The BNB is hoping that the current level, 52%, will be enough to halt the depreciation of the lev, which has dropped by 24% against the US dollar since the beginning of 1993. -Kjell Engelbrekt CRIMEAN TATAR LEADER MURDERED. Radio Ukraine reported on 8 November that Yurii Osmanov, leader of the National Movement of Crimean Tatars, was found murdered on a street in Simferopol. Authorities suspect that Osmanov may have been the victim of a robbery, although political motives are also being considered. Osmanov was the leader of a politically moderate Crimean Tatar organization that worked together with the local authorities. Mustafa Dzhemilev, head of the Mejlis, said despite political differences between them, Osmanov's death is a major loss for the Crimean national movement. -Roman Solchanyk SHUSHKEVICH ON RUBLE ZONE. In an 8 November press conference Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus, Stanislau Shushkevich, said Belarus's relations with Russia are one of the most important issues for the country, on par with adopting a new constitution, Belinform reported. Shushkevich emphasized that it is important for Belarus to remain in the ruble zone with Russia and to have a customs union to help prevent higher duties which would raise the price of goods exported to Russia. The government recommended that parliament ratify the agreement on forming a monetary union with Russia. The same day Premier Vyacheslau Kebich asked Henadz Karpenka to take the post of vice-premier dealing with economic reforms. -Ustina Markus LITHUANIA SETS VISA PRICES. Baltic agencies announced that as of 1 November the price of an ordinary visa for a CIS visitor to Lithuania is $5 and for a transit visa $3, while a Lithuanian visa costs $20 in the West. CIS citizens visiting a sick relative or attending a funeral will not have to pay for a visa. BNS reported on 3-November that the introduction of visas for CIS visitors had already caused congestion at the Lithuanian-Belarusian border. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT IN KAZAKHSTAN AND CHINA. On 7 November Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas met with his Kazakh counterpart Nursultan Nazarbaev in Alma-Ata to discuss improving bilateral relations, particularly concerning the economy. Nazarbaev expressed interest in using the Lithuanian port of Klaipeda for trading purposes, and the two leaders signed a treaty of mutual understanding and cooperation. On 8 November Brazauskas arrived in Beijing, where he met Chinese President Jiang Zemin to discuss economic cooperation. Brazauskas is to stay in China one week, Xinhua reports on 8-November. -Dzintra Bungs RUSSIAN, LITHUANIAN LEADERS DISCUSS KALININGRAD, TROOPS. Meeting in Nida on 6 November, Russian Deputy Premier Vladimir Shumeiko, Lithuanian Premier Adolfas Slezevicius, and head of the Kalningrad administration Yuri Matochkin discussed documents expected to be signed on 15 and 16 November when Chernomyrdin visits Vilnius. Interfax and BNS reported on 7 and 8 November that restrictions on the passage of Russian citizens to Kaliningrad via Lithuania are expected to be lifted and that freight could be transported without customs inspections. Shumeiko said the pullout of Russian troops from the Baltics is inevitable. Lithuanian Air Force Commander Col. Zenonas Vegelevicius told Baltfax and BNS on 8 November that Russian military pilots continue to violate Lithuanian airspace and that this problem must be resolved at the government level or via the Lithuanian and Russian delegations. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIA, LATVIA TO RESUME TALKS WITH RUSSIA. Baltic media reported on 8-November that the next round of Latvian-Russian negotiations primarily over the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia are scheduled for 15-17 November in Jurmala, Latvia. Estonian and Russian delegations are also scheduled to meet on 15-17 November to discuss military, border, humanitarian, and economic issues. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ann Sheehy and Sharon Fisher THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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